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not his ability, provided the refo- best adapted to the peculiar circumlutions were not brought in by fur- ftances of its application, and in the prise, to convince every member of way least liable to objection of any the House, that the charge was so ex- kind; and he could not help, thereceedingly trivial, as not to deserve the fore, suggesting what struck him as smallest consideration.-General Smith deserving notice. replied, that he should have brought Mr. Secretary Fox said, he was forward the resolutions before, had he ashamed to repeat what he had so often not been placed at the head of an elec- troubled the House with on the subject tion committee, and that he intended of the present bill, but as the objecthey should be presented after the re- tions now started were to be answered cefs.--The Commodore said, that, un- by former declarations, he could not lefs he named a day, he was at as much help making them. The prefent bill lofs as ever.- The General answered, was a mere temporary matter, adapted that he would certainly give the ho- to a most urgent occation, the absolute nourable Commodore three or four days necesity of opening an immediate inprevious notice, but that it was impos. tercourse with America. The object fible for him to name the day.
of the bill was rather to remove obstaNext day (April 23) Mr. Fox moved cles than to provide regulations, and, that the order of the day should be therefore, particular care had been read, for the House's resolving itself in- taken to couch the bill in as general to a committee on the American ma- terms as it would admit: and this by nifeft and intercourse bill. It was read avoiding every sort of allusion to the accordingly, and the Speaker having legal situation of America and Greatleft the chair, Mr. St. Andrew St. John Britain, and to leave it partly to the took his feat at the table.
negociation now going on, and partly Sir Robert Herries stated two ol- to the confideration of parliament, who jections which struck him as militating were to digett another bill then pendagainst the bill in its present state. In ing; they were to determine what rules the first place, he conceived it was not the nature of the case rendered most the design of the party who brought in necessary, and to give those rules their the bill, to place American snips on full force and authority. Had the late better terms than British ships, but that ministry been so good, in their adjuftthe benefits, advantages, and accom- ment of the provisional treaty, as to inodations derived from the operation have inserted some one or more artiof the bill, if it passed into a law, cles concerning a commercial treaty should be reciprocal. At present, as with America, they would have not the clauses of the bill were worded, he only done their country a very essential conceived American vessels would be service, but have faved the present goallowed a variety of advantages, which vernment, and both Houses of Parliawere not to extend to British tips. ment, an infinite deal of trouble, and Another matter which appeared to him relieve them from a difficulty of the to require some alteration was this: greatest magnitude. Ilad they, for Suppose a plague should break out in instance, not only by their treaty any of the thirteen provinces of Ame- agreed, that a ceffation of hoftilities rica, according to the wording of the fouid take place, in the strict and bill, the government of Great-Britain common sense of the words, viz. by the would have 110 authority to oblige armies of the two countries no longer American Tips, coming under such continuing to fight, or make war on circumsances, to perform quarantine, each other, but in a more general ac. or proctice bills of health. Sir Robert ceptation of the term, and a more exdeclared, that he did not mention these tenfive sense of it, namely, that, from matters with any view of opposing the and after the ratification of the proviwill; the bill was a necessary measure, fional treaty, all hoftilities should cease, and he was confident his Majesty's mi. and that the prohibitory laws that imnillers intended to pass it in a thaje peded the commerce should no longer have effect on either side, in that cafe Fox faid, that if gentlemen opposite to there would undoubtedly be little oc- him would undertake to say, that the casion for the present bill. As this bill would be received with equal canwas not the case, however, it became dour in the other House, and meet the duty of ministers to apply the best with as little obstruction there, he and most speedy remedy that the na- would limit its operations to a month, ture of the case would adnit; and as but as that was a matter upon which he he did not doubt but that every gen- could not depend, he muit propose fix tleman saw the necessity of immediate- weeks. His motion was put and agreed ly opening an interview with America, to, and the bill passed the committee. they would join with him in thinking, Lord Newhaven said, that an order that if they were to look to every pofli- had been made foine days ago for a coble case that might arise, instead of py of the ininutes of the examination of embracing the object of the bill with the two officers of the Pay Office, Meft. out delay, they would scarcely ever be Powel and Bembridge, before the Lords able to obtain it, and if the other of the Treasury, to be laid before the clauses of the bill were thought ex
Houfe. But the Speaker informing his ceptionable, it would, he hoped, be Lordship that, although the matter had allowed to pass without any material been mentioned, no motion had been alteration.
made, he agreed to postpone the busiWhen the clause was read, which ness. Next day he made a motion for gives power to his Majesty in council this purpose, which was agreed to withto issue such orders as to their wisdom out opposition. fhould seem most proper, during the Friday, April 25. In a conversaoperation of the bill, with respect to tion concerning the loan, Sir Edward the mode of entry of American vessels, Astley objected to a lottery, on account as far as regarded a dispensation with of the mischievous effects which it nethe duties, an allowance on the draw- ver failed to produce among the lower backs, bounties, &c. Mr. Arden said, claffes of people. that, although he was a friend to the Lord John Cavendish agreed that a bill in all its parts, he could not help lottery was a bad thing, but that at thinking that it would be more ad- present we could not possibly do withviseable to define, expressly, the full out the profits accruing from one. And, extent of the powers intended to be if we were to have no lotteries in Engvested in his Majesty and council, than land, an Irish, Dutch, or French lotto leave to conjecture. It was tery would have just the same operation. doubtedly neceffary, in the particular Mr. Robert Smith complained that case in question, to give very extensive the name of his house in the city had powers to the crown; but it appeared been in the list, and that the Chancelto him to be by far the wiseft way to lor of the Exchequer has struck it out express in the bill the full extent of again.- Lord John assured him that it the powers so veited in the crown, in was done by mistake. Having seen order that gentlemen might not at a Sinith and Co. twice, he presumed it future day atfirm, that, when they voted was the same name, and struck out for the bill, they were not aware that one, under that idea.-Mr. Smith rose they gave, and that they never meant again, and read a letter fent to Lord to give powers to such an extent. He John Cavendish by the four gentlemen would, therefore, that the words “ du- who managed the loan last year. It ties, drawbacks, or otherwise," should contained a variety of hints on the subbe inserted in the clause under confi- ject of loans. He averred that the prinderation, which, after some converfà- cipal cause of the rise of stocks last year tion, was agreed to.
immediately after the loan, was, It was
next a question with the the country had the happiness co be reHouse, what the time of the operation lieved from the administration of the of the bill should be. Some would noble Lord in the blue ribbon.” have fix weeks, fome a month, Mr. Mr. Wilberforce thanked Mr. Smith
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for reminding him of this fact, and moved exactly in the same manner as faid that the reason why stocks did not the latt, viz. by the House having desink now, when the noble Lord was clared their sense that the administrareitored to his place, might be because tion ought not to continue any longer his lordship had not now, in the time in office. of peace, the opportunities to do mif- The debate was about to end, when chief, which he had had in time of war. Lord New haven begged to know of
Lord North said, he thought well Lord John Cavendish to what amount of the loan, because they who opposed of money he had received offers. Lord it had recourse to their old trick of at- John replied, to the amount of tacking him; they had no folid argu- 60,000,000l. but that of the persons ment to advance, “ and yet, willing to offering there were some who offered say four.ething, added his lordship, tunc millions, although he would not have itur ad me.” The stocks rose last year given a guinea for their millions. The because one adminiftration had been bill pafled in this reading without any removed, and they had risen now be- amendment. cause another administration had been On Monday, April 28, Mr. T. removed. This was putting the matter Rous brought up the report of the leupon a fair issue, and both fides might lect Committee concerning the Indir Make hands upon it. He was ready to indemnity and dividend; the amendgive the gentleman over the way credit ments being read a firft time, the question for the rise of stocks upon their was put, that they be read a second having cfected the downfall of his time. administration, and he thought that in Sir Cecil Wray objected to the mecandour they ought to give him credit tion; it was paradoxical, he thought, for the removal of their administration. that the Company should profefs to be Each of them had served their country, distressed, as a ground to be enabled to and cach the same way; so far, there- borrow money, and at the same time fore, their accounts were cqual.- As to desire permiflion to divide four per to the loan, lis lorship faid, that cent. for the last half year. He should
hile he was doing mischief, he tried therefore, move that the words fear a 5 per cent. but found the money, per cent. be altered to three per cent. lenders always averse to it, and most Mr. Burke said it was necessary that unrcalonable in their demands. With the bill should pass as speedily as poft. regard to a double loan, it was a very bie. He then read extracts from an bad mode of railing money, for the intended report of the Select Commitexpectation of the second loan would tee, relating to Bengal. He complainoperate to keep the stecks low; but if ed loudly of the ravages and boodied two loans were thought of for this committed by the Company's servants, year, it was extraordinary that the declaring that robbery and rapine formfirit was delayed ļo long.
ed their establithed system. The MahMr. Piet said that the last ministry rattas had refuled to be robbed, and had been threatened, and the House war was made against them. The fa. advised to watch thein, and to suffer mine at Madrais was owing to the no loan nor mutiny bill to pass, be- English government in India. 'The cause a coalition had been formed to princes and princesses of India had been feize upon the government.--Mr. Fox barbaroudly treated and despoiled. He instantly got up, and reprobated the frequently alluded to Mr. Hattings, incecency of the expreffion. Häd it hinting that a report of the Select Combeen applied to the opposition of last mittee, not yet published, would bring year, had they been said to feize upon to light many infances of criminality the gedornment, when they cffected the in which that gentieman was concerned. removal of the then administration, the He said that the private loan made in right honourable gentleman would have Bengal of 800,ccol. was a plain proof readily expreffed his indignation; and that the Company no longer exiled; yet that adminiitration had been re- and that their commerce was only used
as a means of accumulating private for- At another time he had heard of dread- tunes for individuals, whilli the Com- ful cruelties exercised under General
pany was in a state of bankruptcy at Grey, but he himself was in America home.
at the time, and had heard nothing of Commodore Johnstone replied to Mr. those cruelties. The Commodore adBurke. The bill, he said, was a bill ded, that he had no partiality for Mr. founded in reason, necessity, and juf- Hastings; on the contrary, there were tice; it was brought in on a compro- causes of quarrel between his relations mise with the Lords of the Treasury. and Mr. Hattings's; but the cause of Mr. Burke's humanity ran away with his standing up his advocate, was his him ; in the career of his eloquence he wonderful exertions to preserve our was accustomed to infiame while he was poffeßions in India, under uncommon describing; a great deal of what he dificulties. The right honourable genhad said was mere declamation. In re- tleman was always talking of the regard to Mr. Hastings having borrowed formation that was to come, like a for the Company 800,000l. in Bengal. dwarf who terrifies folks by announcing Was the right honourable gentleman the approach of a mighty giant; if the apprized of the extent and population right honourable gentleman was the of Calcutta? Did he know that it con- dwarf on the battlements of the giant's tained above 500,000 souls? 800,000l. castle, he wished he would step in and was a small sum to be raised in Cal- prevail on him to come forth. cutta alone, much less in the whole Mr. Burke faid, that if he held unBengal government. The famine at
The famine at parliamentary language, he might be Madrass was owing to the manner in called to account in a parliamentary which the enemy made war; they spread way; if called to account out of desolation wherever they went. He the House, he would answer in a way did not believe there had been any mur- becoming a gentleman; but no bullyder for above a century, except in one ing, nor threats, nor danger, should lingle infiance. He quoted Lord Mac- ever prevent him from doing his duty; artney's letter, to ihew that the French and he pledged himself to the House, and Heider Ali felt the famine much that he would bring to justice, as far more severely. The harsh language as in him lay, the greatest delinquent with regard to Mr. Haflings ought not India ever faw. He was justified by to have been held during his absence. the forty-five resolutions of the Secret Were Mr. Hastings prefent he was con- Committee, in holding this language fident he would hear no more of it, in regard to Mr. Hastings, whom the and that for two reasons; he was per- Houfe had already so far cenfured, as fuaded Mr. Hastings would give a to resolve that he should be brought ready answer to every accusation, and home to stand his trial. he was sure he would not bear to be Commodore Johnfone denied that talked to in such gross and harsh terms. he meant to threaten Mr. Burke, but Loose accusation, accompanied with repeated, that it was ungenerous to illiberal abuse, was particularly unjusti- attack Mr. Hastings, in his absence, fiable in the absence of the party ac- with so much afperity. Mr. Burke cused. The right honourable gentle- replied again, that he wished Mr. man ought to have produced his tre- Haitings present, but that the honouramendous report. Until he did so, all ble Commodore was one of those who general accusation would pass with occafioned his absence, The amendevery candid man, both within and ments were then read a second time, without doors, for mere declamation. when Sir Cecil Wray's motion was 'I he right honourable gentleman had a negatived. way of colouring things very high; he On Wednesday, April 30, the had once seen the captive lovälists of House of Commons resolved itself into Lord Cornwallis's army hanging on the a Coinmittee on “ 'The bill for punithtrees along the coast of Virginia, and ment of idle and disorderly persons, yet not one of them was put to death. taken with this implements for house
breaking breaking in their poffeffion.” Mr. ingly material. The last clause stated, Selwyn moved to omit the clause, that the act, as to the exercise of the which requires that persons taken with powers and authorities thereby given inftruments of the kind described shall to his Majesty, was to continue to be be such persons only as come within in force for the space of fix weeks, and the description of the act of the 17th no longer. Was he to understand from Geo. II. commonly called the Vagrant this, that the orders issued by his MaAct; and he added, that he found that jeity in council were to continue in the bill, as it at present food, had force no longer than fix weeks, or not? given alarms, which he thought anne- or, in other words, was he to underceffary. Mr. Fox faid, the bill was stand that the powers vested in the crudely and insufficiently worded, and crown by the bill were to exist for six objected to the clause which offers re- weeks only, and that the acts done unwards, comparing the whole of that der the authority, and by virtue of those system of thief-takers by profession, to powers were to continue in force, and the fituation of sportsmen, who al- to be binding upon the subject for ways increase and preserve the game ever? He should hope not; but he within their range and circle.
wished to have that ascertained. His Mr. Sawbridge also opposed the bill, lordship repeated his question, and and said that although it meant to de- looking at Lord Bathurit, said, does fcribe suspicious persons, it was very: the noble lord tell me that they are not? plain that no man with half a crown in Lord Bathurst declared he knew nohis pocket to give to the constable thing of the matter, but stated his reawould be deemed a suspicious person.- fons for thinking there must be some Mr. Pitt said that some such bill was amendment made in the committee. neceffary. Many other members spoke, The Duke of Portland declared, that but all against it. The motion being he was obliged to the noble and learned made that the chairman leave the chair, lords for their candour in having taken the numbers were Ayes 22-Noes 29. the opportunity of suggesting the obThe House reported a progress. servations upon the bill that the House
On Thursday, May 1, in the House had heard. He owned he did not see of Lords, the order of the day being much force in many of their objections read for the second reading of the East- to the bill; but as none of them went India Company's indemnity bill, Lord to its principle, it would be time Walingham objected to the bill. Lord enough for him to go into a discussion Fitzwilliam spoke in favour of it, and of them when the bill was in a comthe queftion being put, it was com- mittee; for the present, he presumed mitted for to-morrow.
their lordships would not object to his Friday, May 2. The order of the moving that the bill be committed, day being red for the second reading This was agreed to. of the American manifest and inter- Friday, May 2. In the House of course bill, Lord Thurlow rose to make Commons, Lord Newhaven moved, forne objections; it appeared to him to That the order for the copy of the mirequire rome alterations. What the nute of the examination of Mesy. Pow. nccessity for these alterations was, heel and Lembridge, cathier and accounwould in fairness state to them, in or- tant of the Pay-Office, before the Lords der that the House might be apprized of the Treasury, on Thursday the 24th of them in fufficient time, so that the ult. be discharged. His lordhip said, nobie Lords would be enabled to think he understood fome profecutions at law on them before the bill came into the were going on againit those gentlemen, committee, which would be the proper on account of their conduct in office; moment furdifoulion, adopting, or re- betore, therefore, he moved to have jecting them. And first he detired their the orde: he had moved on a foriner lorulhips attention to the lalt clause of day dischiarged, he wished to hear the bill, upon which he had a question from furne person in authority, if the to propose that appeared to him exceed- fact was not fo.