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then a fountain known as the “cold before long. The officers of this expedispring," on the coast between Tiberias tion while examining the coasts of the Sea and Magdala, or else a hillside a little to of Galilee, kept a boat,* having blankets the west of this spring, and towards Hat- and a tent on board, moving about with tin, is the spot.
orders to meet them at night at certain The tempests on that sea are sudden, fixed points; and in this way, notwithterrible, and short-lived. They would ap- standing the little help afforded them by pear to have been very dangerous to such the Turkish authorities, they managed to boats as were in use in the days of the get pleasantly over their work. The Arab apostles ; for we find the followers of our dwellers in tents they found for the most Lord, fishermen as they were, greatly part friendly and hospitable ; yet some of alarmed on these occasions. When their them appear to have been greatly startled Master was asleep on board, and when at seeing two Franks in their midst withthey saw the figure walking on the water, out warning. Lieutenant Anderson, howthey thought their lives in danger. Cap- ever, once experienced treatment of a tain Wilson witnessed one of these treach- rather hostile character. It was on the erous tempests and has given a descrip- occasion of the storm, a description of tion of it, which perhaps we do well to which we quoted above. He had for a quote :
time left Captain Wilson, and was engaged
at a village on the heights, where, when Sudden storms, such as those mentioned in
the storm broke, he was fain to seek shelthe New Testament, are by no means uncommon: and I had a good opportunity of watch ter among the fellahin. These treated him ing one of them from the ruins of Gamala, on well enough while he remained ; but on the eastern hills. The morning was delightful; his departure they followed him, and ata gentle easterly breeze, and not a cloud in the tempted to throw him down and rob him. sky to give warning of what was coming. Sud- Lieutenant Anderson managed to free deniy, about mid-day, there was a sound of himself for an instant, and to draw his redistant thunder, and a small cloud, “no bigger volver, the sight of which staggered his than a man's hand,” was seen rising over the lassailants : and he used the opportunity heights of Lubieh to the west. In a few mo
of their brief astonishment to get over the ments the cloud appeared to spread; and heavy
crest of a height, and so gain a start of black masses came rolling down the hills to. wards the lake. completely obscuring Tabor (them, which he maintained till he reached and Hattin. At this moment the breeze died the sea. There were plenty of advenaway, there were a few minutes of perfect calm, tures, both on horseback and on foot ; during which the sun shone out with intense but the officers seem to have completely power, and the surface of the lake was smooth effected their object, evidently with satisand even as a mirror. Tiberias, Mejdel, and faction to themselves, and certainly with other buildings stood out in sharp relief from benefit to us. We are not aware that it the gloom behind; but they were soon lost
was any part of their duty to give us their sight of as the thunder-gust swept past them,
impressions concerning controverted and rapidly advancing across the lake, lifted
points, to make clear the narrative of the the placid water into a bright sheet of foam : points, to make clear the narrative of the in another moment it reached the ruins, driv. Gospels, or to attempt to reconcile coning myself and companion to take refuge in a ficting passages. We are, however, glad astern, where, for nearly an hour, we were that they thought proper to perform these confined, listening to the rattling peals of thun- services : their discussions are always der, and torrents of rain. The effect of half shrewd and unbiassed ; they show that the lake in perfect rest, whilst the other half the subject had been well studied in #23 in wild confusion, was extremely grand.
books as well as on the ground ; and their It would have fared badly with any light craft
tone is such as every devout reader must caught in mid-lake by the storm; and we could
approve. not help thinking of that memorable occasion on which the storm is so graphically described as “coming down” upon the lake.
We take our leave now of the Holy
Land, to follow the track of another resoThe new map gives great assistance to (lute and intelligent explorer, to whom the all who would clearly comprehend the world is largely indebted. After thirty events and their order, in the New Testa- years of indifference to the subject, Eument, and it should be in the hands of rope is again waking up to the importance every Bible student. It, like the other maps of forming a highway into British India of Palestine by the same hands, was not by the Euphrates valley and the shore of made without much toil, exposure, and risk; notwithstanding which, we trust that there are now, it seems, but three boats on the other maps in continuation may appear lake.
the Persian Gulf: An iron road travers- fused to accept this ignorance as irreme. ing the dominions which once belonged diable until some effort sliould have been to Sennacherib and Nebuchadnezzar is, made to dispel it. Half a century since, notwithstanding the inroads which science a gentleman named Rich, who was travhas been making on India and Egypt, and elling for his health, having visited Kur. other lands which were famous when the distan, made the journey from Mosul to world was young, still a startling idea. Baghdad. His suspicion that the numer. Till very lately, it might have been said of ous heaps would repay the expense and Babylonia and Mesopotamia and Assyria, labour of examination was strengthened that they had lost every link that could by an account received from the Arabs of connect their present with their past. a sculpture representing men and animals Egypt and India, obscure though their his- which had been dug out of one of them. tories were and are in many places, yet had, Like good Mussulmans and utter barbaand have, noble monuments to witness rians, they had completely destroyed these that they must have rejoiced in a grand figures, which their doctors decided to be past; but, of the countries through which idols of the infidels ; but the tale encourthe Tigris and Euphrates flow, it seemed aged Mr. Rich to examine some of the as if the few notices which occur in sacred largest mounds. He found remains of and profane accounts were the only buildings in places where the soil had vouchers that existed, or ever would ex- been washed away by the rains, and he ist, of the shadowy greatness of these got out of the rubbish fragments of pot. realms. So completely had barbarism tery, and some bricks bearing cuneiform been re-established there by the Arabs — characters. The little that he collected so shockingly desolate is the whole re- was placed in the British Museum ; but gion — that we might have gone to meas- so small was it, that a case three feet ure it for its iron bands in profound ig- square enclosed all that we could boast of norance of what manner of men they as the remains of Nineveh and Babylon; were who had aggrandized and adorned and it does not seem that other museums it, who had peopled it like bees, and who in Europe were richer, either in relics or were a terror to their neighbours, having information, than our own. Of Assyrian carried away captive men in nations. arts we knew literally nothing ; of AssyrMight, we say ; for it was ordained that, ian history we had but a few scraps, tellin the thirty years' interval between the ing of events to which, in some instances, former examination of the Euphrates val- we could not assign dates more precisely ley and the practical design which seems than within the limits of a thousand years now to be ripening towards fulfilment, or so, and concerning which, in other inthe nineteenth century should become a stances, we had no certainty that they little better acquainted with Semiramis had ever happened at all. and Sennacherib, and Esar-Haddon and Twenty years after Mr. Rich's rather Sardanapalus, and the people over whom unproductive explorations, Mr. Austin they ruled, than preceding ages had been. Layard, another Englishman, happened A ransacking of heaps and mounds has to travel, or, as he calls it, to wander, in brought to light unhoped-for treasures - company with a friend, through Asia undoubted remains of the cities thought Minor and Syria. He could not resist for many ages to be entirely obliterated, an impulse which prompted him to cross and the sites of which no man could with into the desolate and dangerous region certainty point out. We had some idea beyond the Euphrates, and to enter the of where Babylon had stood ; but as for shadow which hangs over Assyria, BabyNineveh, it was a name, and nothing lonia, and Chaldæa. He journeyed eastmore. Opposite to, and below, the Turk- ward from Aleppo by Bir and Oría, ish town of Mosul, the banks of the Ti-skirted the Kurdish hills on the route to gris were studded with huge mounds, Nisibin, and from Nisibin made his way supposed to be formed of only earth and to the Turkish town of Mosul on the Tirubbish; and some of these were be-gris. The place last named was thought lieved to occupy the site of Asshur's cap- to be the descendant of ancient Nineveh. ital. But this was only a vague idea — On the bank of the river opposite to it an idea, too, which to all appearance it were great mounds known as Kouyunjik was too late to examine with a view to and Nebbi Yunus, said to be the ruins of strengthening or extinguishing it; and the mighty city; and up and down the so the world resigned itself to an inevita- river, at Khorsabad, Nimroud, and Kalah ble ignorance. But fortunately there Shergat, were similar mounds. Buried in were one or two inquiring minds that re- their own rubbish, and covered by the mould of ages, the different ruins slept al unjik, he wrote to that gentleman encour. sleep which gave no promise of a waking. aging him to persevere. M. Botta's enThe plough cut the soil above them ; | terprise does not, however, appear to burying-grounds of the true believers have been quite sufficient for such a task. were established in the superincumbent | He worked at the heaps of Kouyunjik,
earth ; Arab villages straggled over the but he failed to broach the casket which ruins, no soul of their inhabitants know-contained so much hid treasure ; and but ing or heeding of the famous people who | for an accident, his operations would had trod the courts below, and whose only probably have been fruitless to himself, records were enclosed in the mounds. I and have discouraged others. He was The conviction was strong in the mind of not, however, destined to labour in vain. the traveller that these leng-neglected A peasant from Khorsabad happening to heaps had secrets of inestimable value to visit the excavations, told him that such disclose to that adventurous soul who things as he appeared to be seeking were should be worthy to penetrate their mys frequently turned up in digging foundateries. Desire to essay the task at a more tions or other trenches in the village to convenient season grew apace as in the which he belonged. After being for a clear air of the solitude his eye ranged while unconvinced of the profitableness through a vast expanse from mound to of seeking another field, M. Botta at mound; and his respect for the sealed-up length conceived better hope of the projruins, if it could not be increased, at least ect, and commenced digging at Khorsawas quickened by the immediate recog- bad. The peasant's advice proved fortunition of Nimroud with its pyramidical nate. A shaft sunk in the mound soon mound, as that Larissa which Xenophon reached a wall; the wall proved to be had described, and near to which the ten lined with sculptured slabs of gypsum ; it thousand Greeks had encamped twenty-formed the side of a chamber which led two centuries before. It was even then into many other chambers, all being set an ancient city; and in what undisturbed about with sculptured slabs representing obscurity must it have lain to make it battles, sieges, and similar events. “His possible for the Englishman of the nine- wonder may be easily imagined. A new teenth century to identify it at sight with history had been suddenly opened to that which was seen and written of by him; the records of an unknown people the old Greek! “These huge mounds of were before him. ... The style of art of Assyria," says Mr. Layard, “made as the sculptures, the dresses of the figures, deeper impression upon me, gave rise to the mythic forms on the walls, were all more serious thoughts and more earnest new to him, and afforded no clue to the reflection, than the temples of Balbec epoch of the erection of the edifice, or to and the theatres of lonia." His mind was the people who were its founders. Nufixed to examine thoroughly, whenever it merous inscriptions, accompanying the might be in his power, these interesting bas-reliefs, evidently contained the exremains.
planation of the events thus recorded in The secret of Mr. Layard's future suc- sculpture; and being in the cuneiform or cess lay in that word “thoroughly,”arrow-headed character, proved that the which was evidently not a mere figure of buildings belonged to an age preceding speech with him. He might have ram- the conquests of Alexander. . . . M. Botbled about and scratched at the mounds ta had discovered an Assyian edifice, the as others had done before him, without first, probably, which had been exposed adding much to our knowledge or our to the view of man since the fall of the collections; but what he undertook to do Assyrian empire." * he would 'do thoroughly — nil actum The prize was not, however, what it reputans si quid superesset agendum ; first appeared. The building which M. and the scientific world has reason to re-Botta discovered had been destroyed by joice that he was a man of this mettle. I fire, and the calcined slabs, on being exHe was unable for a year or two to carry | posed to the air, began immediately to out his cherished design, but he endeav | fall to pieces. There was time to copy oured to impress upon others the import- the inscriptions and figures before the ance of making the explorations, and the gypsum was disintegrated, but that was good hope there was of their being re- all. The venerable monument had been warded ; and when he heard that M. Bot- uncovered only to be dissolved. Like the ta, who had been appointed by the French Government Consul at Mosul, ! Layard's “Nineveh and its Remains” (abridgwas excavating in the mounds of Kouy- ment), p. 8.
lamp in Rosicrucius' sepulchre,* it would pursuit, and agreed to share with Mr. have endured for an indefinite time con- Layard the expense of a venture. The cealed and unprofitable ; but as soon as ardent explorer left Constantinople in it seemed likely to serve a useful purpose, the middle of October, and such dilior to gratify curiosity, it was shivered in gence did he use that he reached Mosul pieces! Yet though this was the fate of in twelve days. the monument -- though it perished for The suspicions and expected opposiever as soon as seen – it nevertheless, as tion of the Turkish officials were obviMr. Layard reminds us, answered to a ated by Mr. Layard's prudence, and by the great extent the purpose of its builder. use of the credentials with which he was It was preserved underground until men provided. In his previous excursions he had learned the art of rapidly transfer- had learned how to manage the Arabs, ring, and of repeating at will, its forms and to make them labour for him. He and its legends. An educated mind conciliated a Sheikh, procured through his caught and stored up its import while it means a small gang of workmen, and, bewas in the article of dissolution ; its sto-fore the Pasha was aware of his design, ry was rescued by art from the limbo of had made such discoveries in the mounds secret things ; its material has become of Nimroud as convinced him that his powder, but the ideas of its builder be- further labour would be well rewarded. long to us and to our children for ever! So he now took the Pasha into his confiThat builder was over-sanguine in fancy- dence, asked to have an agent of Governing that his work would endure for all ment appointed to secure any treasure time, but his mind must have come far that might be found (the idea that hidden short of conceiving the dissemination riches were the object of the search being which his thoughts are like to have in fixed in the Turkish mind), and received spite of the destruction of the marble in a tacit sanction to his proceedings. The which he put his trust.
work advanced, and in a very little while Encouraged by this success, M. Botta sculptured slabs were uncovered, in many applied for and obtained from his Gov- respects resembling those found by M. ernment the means of pursuing his inves- Botta at Khorsabad — a pair of gigantic tigations; but he did not examine other winged bulls, a crouching lion rudely mounds beside those of Khorsabad, all carved, two smaller winged lions, and a the walls of which had unfortunately, like bas-relief nine feet high. Again the slabs those first discovered, been destroyed by had been exposed to fire, but the sculp. fire. He did, however, secure some tures were copied. Each slab contained specimens of Assyrian sculpture, and two bas-reliefs divided by an inscription copies of very many inscriptions, and re-l in the cuneiform character. The scenes turned home the most successful explor represented were : ist, A battle or purer that had yet busied himself with exca- suit, in which two chariots containing vations on the banks of the Tigris. warriors were being driven past or over
The first fruits had thus been snatched enemies, some resisting, others prostrate. from Mr. Layard, through no fault of his. 2d, A siege of a castle or walled city. 3d, Many a man' seeing the wind thus taken Two warriors - one on horseback, the out of his sails, would have resigned him- other in a chariot. 4th, The towers and self to having missed his destiny, and battlements of a castle, with a stream and looked for a fresh field for his endeav- a man fishing. These were clearly hisours. Not so Mr. Layard. He rejoiced torical pieces. The dresses and arms of and triumphed in M. Botta's good for the figures were very distinct, according tune with the soul of a true follower of to the side on which they were fighting, science; he saw in what had been and showed that the war was between naachieved the justification of his belief, tions of diverse fashions. It was assumed and the earnest of a fuller harvest; his that those who were getting the better of appetite for a “ thorough ” exploration the contests were in every case Assyrians, was only whetted. In the autumn of the and these were represented in coats of same year f which had witnessed the mail, wearing helmets with lappets to protermination of M. Botta's labours, he was tect the neck, like the early Normans. able to carry out his cherished wish. Sir | They carry bows and arrows, or swords Stratford Canning, then our Minister at and shields, and their horses are richly Constantinople, interested himself in the caparisoned, and their chariots much
ornamented. The enemies are dressed • Vide No. 379 of the “Spectator."
in short tunics descending to the knees, 1 1845.
| their heads bare, and the hair cononed
by a simple fillet. In the siege are por- ties were enough to break the spirit of an trayed all the ancient methods of attack ordinary man, and yet these were not all and defence : flights of missiles, escalade, the difficulties that Mr. Layard had to demolition of walls, destruction by fire, contend with. He was in the desert, dropping of heavy weights and precipita- surrounded by Arab tribes who were at tion of assailants from the walls, attempts war with each other, continually executing to burn the assailants'engines, and so on ; raids, and who might at any time come while the appearance within the walls of down upon his party and make short work a female figure with dishevelled hair, and of himself and his discoveries. To guard in an attitude of supplication, raises a against this he had to make alliances sentiment, and indicates how the victory from time to time with different tribes, so is inclining. The large bas-relief repre- as to secure protection; and this he apsented a human figure raising the right pears to have done with a skill which hand, and carrying a flower in the left.formed no inconsiderable part of his The lion was of black basalt. The heads qualification for the task which he had and wings of the bulls had been de- undertaken. He studied and learned the stroyed; but on the backs of the slabs | peculiarities of the Arab nature; could out of which they had been wrought were adapt himself to the wild simple habits inscriptions. The small winged lions are of the children of the desert; dared to described as being only remains ! The rely on their nobler qualities ; bore with knowledge of form, of grouping, and of and turned to good account their infirmicomposition exhibited in the bas-reliefs, ties; and was immensely popular with all showed them to have been produced in a the tribes among whom he sojourned. nation much advanced in art. There Many a traveller has managed to lose his were disproportions in the objects ; arbi- property or his life before penetrating trary methods of representing the beards a tenth of Mr. Layard's incursion into and hair of men, and the wings and cov- the wastes of Mesopotamia and Assyria, erings of animals, were used; and there or achieving anything worthy of record ; was the presentation of all the figures in while he, venturing everywhere, shrinkprofile, as in the Egyptian bas-reliefs ; ing from no attempt which promised to notwithstanding which a considerable gratify his thirst for information, travpower could be traced, and a knowledge ersed the wilderness, tore out its secrets, of the requirements of art which as yet and returned to Europe unharmed. He the sculptors' hands could not satisfy. had, however, sometimes to shift his berth
It took but a short examination to con- rather suddenly; and a flitting of this vince the quick perception of Mr. Layard kind took place during the first examinathat the slabs had not originally stood in tion of the mounds of Nimroud, which the place where he found them. The we have just described.. On account of edges had been cut away, to the injury of the many depredations of numerous and both figures and inscriptions; and one powerful tribes in the neighbourhood of slab was reversed. Thus far there was Naisa, a village near to Nimroud, he renothing to indicate the character of the moved to Selamiyeh, higher up the river, building of which these relics had been where he took up his quarters in the the ornaments.
house of the chief of the village, living in Here Mr. Layard was compelled to a degree of comfort of which the followpause, as the Turks were seized with an ing extract will give some idea : obstructive fit; but he was so far satis
The premises, which were speedily comfied with the results of his labours that
pleted, consisted of four hovels, surrounded by he wrote to Sir Stratford Canning to pro
a mud wall, and roofed with reeds and boughs cire for him a definite authority to pro of trees. I occupied half of the larger habitacred with them. One excuse made by tion, the other half being appropriated for the Pasha for interrupting the work was, beasts of the plough and various domestic anithat some graves of the faithful had been mals. We were separated by a wall, in which, disturbed by the excavation. A little however, numerous apertures served as a means while after, it was confessed by a subordi- of communication. These I studiously ennate officer that he had been ordered to deavoured for some time to block up. A secmake graves which the diggers might ap
lond hut was devoted to the wives, children,
and poultry of my host; a third served as pear to have disturbed ; also that in mak
il kitchen and servants' hall; the fourth was coning the sham graves he had disturbed
am graves he had disturbed (verted into a stall for my horses. In the enseveral real ones, although the excavators closure formed by the buildings and outer wall, had not. The ignorant suspicions, du- the few sheep and goats which had escaped plicity, and lying of the Turkish authori- the rapacity of the Pasha congregated during