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LANDMARKS IN THE HISTORY OF THE
ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

1. The Beowulf, an old English epic, "written on the mainland" 2. Christianity introduced by St Augustine (and with it many Latin and a few Greek words)

3. Caedmon--' Paraphrase of the Scriptures,'-first English poem 4. Baeda "The Venerable Bede "-translated into English part of St John's Gospel .

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5. King Alfred translated several Latin works into English, among others, Bede's 'Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation'.

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6. Aelfric, Archbishop of York, turned into English most of the historical books of the Old Testament

7. The Norman Conquest, which introduced Norman French words

8. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, said to have been begun by King Alfred, and brought to a close in

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9. Orm or Orrmin's Ormulum, a poem written in the East Mid-
land dialect, about
10. Normandy lost under King John. Norman-English now have
their only home in England, and use our English speech

more and more

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(851) 901

A.D.

450

11. Layamon translates the 'Brut' from the French of Robert Wace. This is the first English book (written in Southern English) after the stoppage of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle . 12. The Ancren Riwle ("Rules for Anchorites ") written in the Dorsetshire dialect. "It is the forerunner of a wondrous change in our speech." "It swarms with French words"

13. First Royal Proclamation in English, issued by Henry III. . 14. Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle (swarms with foreign terms)

597

670

735

1000

1066

1160

1200

1204

1205

1220

1258

1300

15. Robert Manning, “Robert of Brunn," compiles the 'Handlyng Synne.' "It contains a most copious proportion of French words "

16. Ayenbite of Inwit (="Remorse of Conscience")

17. The Great Plague. After this it becomes less and less the fashion to speak French

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18. Sir John Mandeville, first writer of the newer English Prosein his 'Travels,' which contained a large admixture of French words. "His English is the speech spoken at Court in the latter days of King Edward III.”

19. English becomes the language of the Law Courts

20. Wickliffe's Bible

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21. Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great English poet, author of the ‘Canterbury Tales'; born in 1340, died

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22. William Caxton, the first English printer, brings out (in the Low Countries) the first English book ever printed, the

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Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye,'-"not written with pen and ink, as other books are, to the end that every man may have them at once"

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23. First English Book printed in England (by Caxton) the 'Game and Playe of the Chesse'

24. Lord Berners' translation of Froissart's Chronicles

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1303

1340

27. Our English Bible, based chiefly on Tyndale's translation. "Those who revised the English Bible in 1611 were bidden to keep as near as they could to the old versions, such as Tyndale's".

1349

1356

1362

1380

66

29. John Milton, "the most learned of English poets,” publishes his' Paradise Lost,' a poem in which Latin words are introduced with great skill "

1400

"fixed our

25. William Tyndale, by his translation of the Bible tongue once for all." "His New Testament has become the standard of our tongue: the first ten verses of the Fourth Gospel are a good sample of his manly Teutonic pith” 1526-30

1471

26. Edmund Spenser publishes his 'Faerie Queene.' "Now began the golden age of England's literature; and this age was to last for about fourscore years"

1590

1474 1523

1611

28. William Shakespeare carried the use of the English language to the greatest height of which it was capable. He employed 15,000 words. "The last act of 'Othello' is a rare specimen of Shakespeare's diction: of every five nouns, verbs, and adverbs, four are Teutonic " (Born 1564) 1616

1667

"Are

30. The Prayer-Book revised and issued in its final form.
was substituted for be in forty-three places. This was a
great victory of the North over the South"

31. John Bunyan writes his 'Pilgrim's Progress '—a book full of pithy English idiom. "The common folk had the wit at once to see the worth of Bunyan's masterpiece, and the learned long afterwards followed in the wake of the common folk" (Born 1628) 1688

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32. Sir Thomas Browne, the author of 'Urn-Burial' and other works written in a highly Latinised diction, such as the 'Religio Medici,' written

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33. Dr Samuel Johnson was the chief supporter of the use of "long-tailed words in osity and ation," such as his novel called 'Rasselas,' published

1661

34. Tennyson, Poet-Laureate, a writer of the best English—“ a countryman of Robert Manning's, and a careful student of old Malory, has done much for the revival of pure English among us

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(Born 1809)

1642

1759

PART IV.

OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE

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