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wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and active and gaining strength daily ; horses, and chariots, and bodies and seeing also that the prophecies rightly souls of men.
studied are a key to the future; have So far we have the description of we any intimation, in these prophe. this fourth kingdom, of its destiny cies, of a last and fearful struggle, and doom, in the two great prophets prior to the total destruction of the who have written of these things. But Antichrist; or may we consider the we shall do well to take heed to Paul's present advance of Rome's power as advice, and not be troubled : " for that a mere solitary phase of her history? day shall not come, except there come What is our danger and our duty ? a falling away first, and that man of What our prospect? sin be revealed, the son of perdition ; While the Euphrates is represented who opposeth and exalteth himself as drying up, prior to the consummaabove all that is called God, or that tion of the present dispensation, it is is worshipped ; so that he as God sit- said, “I saw three unclean spirits teth in the temple of God, shewing like frogs come out of the mouth of himself that he is God.” Paul goes the dragon, and out of the mouth of on to say, speaking of the time in the beast, and out of the mouth of the which he wrote, “ The mystery of ini. false prophet. They are the spirits of quity doth already work: only he who devils, working miracies, which go now letteth will let, until he be taken forth unto the kings of the earth and out of the way: and then shall that of the whole world, to gather them to Wicked be revealed, whoin the Lord the battle of that great day of God shall consume with the Spirit of His Almighty.” And the warning follows, mouth, and shall destroy with the “ Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed brightness of bis coming : even him is he that watcheth, and keepeth his whose coming is after the working of garments, lest he walk naked, and Satan with all power and signs and they see his shame. And he gathered lying wonders, and with all deceiv- them together into a place called in ableness of unrighteousness in them the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.” that perish; because they received not And then follows the announcement the love of the truth, that they might of the conclusion of the whole matter, be saved. And for this cause God " It is done." shall send them strong delusion, that Is not the Euphratean power shrithey should believe a lie: that they velling and drying rapidly? Are not all might be condemned who believed the spirits of Infidelity (the Dragon,) not the truth, but had pleasure in un- Tyranny (the Beast,) and Priestcraft righteousness."
(the False Prophet) rampant ? and We need not indeed be troubled; shall we hesitate about our position, but we may rest assured that the hin- our duty, and our prospects ? drance has long been removed; for The great day of battle is at hand. we have already seen the develop- “Who is on the Lord's side? Who?" ment of that Wicked that should be This is no time for parleying with the revealed; we have seen him “ whose foe. It is a time of contest, wherein coming is after Satan with
“ He that is not with signs and lying wonders;" we have me is against me." There is no safety seen, and, alas, felt the great falling but under Him who will destroy all away, which not only in times past, his enemies with the brightness of but more especially in our own day, His coming; who will thresh the has given edge to the weapons of the earth as a threshing floor; who will adversary, and pointed his barbs consume His foes with His breath ; against us. The traitors in our own and drive from His presence all who camp and country have invited the will not have Him to rule over them. foe; and he stalks boldly amongst us, Let us not halt between two opidoing as he lists.
nions. Either Jesus is the Lord and Seeing then, that our enemy, the Rome is His foe, or Rome and all her enemy of the cross of Christ, who shall sorceries, her idolatries, and her sins, be destroyed at his coming, is still are clear from transgression, and our
confidence in God is a lie. Either beast. In every land he reigns triRome is doomed, with all who are not umphant. Even in our own Protesopposed to her and joined to Christ, tant isle, so long the bulwark of the or the Scriptures are false.
faith, we have removed the hedges, then from all contamination with pulled down the walls, demolished this idolatrous antichrist, and find we the ramparts of our faith, and the refuge with Christ, who alone can enemy has rushed in like a flood. Our shelter us against the blast of fury hopes centered in earthly power are about to be poured upon all the earth. gone. There is no power left us but
It is no time for hesitation. We that which is from above. are all weak. Our enemy is armed then seek that help which shall never to the teeth, and united with all the fail us. Cease we from man, and put powers of hell to trample us to the our trust in God. Then shall our ground and to grind us to powder. victory be certain and our reward The day of retribution is coming upon all the earth, and the visitation of Let no one who owns the love of vengeance is upon all who have not Jesus countenance the foe of God and obtained the victory over this great Let none be lukewarm in the enemy.
cause of the Lord against the mighty. Our weapons must not be carnal. “Quit we like men, and be strong.' Where indeed should we find them? Go we forth with a shout, “ Victory to Truly the kings have agreed to give the Lamb that was slain, who liveth their power into the hands of the and reigneth for ever and ever.”
ATTILA AND NAPOLEON.
THE THIRD VIAL, 1792 to 1805. “And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters ; and they became blood. And I heard the angel of the waters say, Thou art righteous, O Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt be, because thou hast judged thus. For they have shed the blood of saints and prophets, and thou hast given them blood to drink; for they are worthy. And I heard another out of the altar say, Even so, Lord God Almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments.” The parallel judgment, A. D. 433 to Roman earth, and afterwards falling 453, on the old Western Empire is on the Rhine, and then on the Alpine thus expressed in the vision of “ The streams that feed the Po, he caused Third Trumpet :"'* " And the third the bitterness of distress, and famine, angel sounded, and there fell a great and pestilence, and death, to those star from heaven, burning as it were who drank of the waters ; that is, to a lamp, and it fell upon the third part the inhabitants of the Roman provinof the rivers, and upon the fountains ces watered by those streams. of waters; and the name of the star As the local scene of the judgment is called Wormwood : and the third of the third vial is similarly the rivers part of the waters became wormwood; and the fountains of waters, we seem and many men died of the waters be- bound by the law of parallelism to cause they were made bitter.”
interpret the former, of the two great Attila the Hun, with his desolating frontier rivers of Papal Christendom, power, fixed himself first
the Rhine and upper Danube ; the middle Danube, one of the two fron latter, of the Po and its Alpine tertier rivers of the western third of the ritories ; and to conclude, that after
the judgment of blood on the mari. See the fulfilment of the third trumpet, vol. i., p. 220_222.
• See Whiston, Bickens, and Keith.
time power and maritime colonies of on the middle Rhine and its tributaries, France and other European king- from Luxembourg to Metz and doms, a judgment of war and blood- Manheim : and yet again in 1796, shed would begin to be poured out on on quitting its valley, and advancing the countries watered by the Rhine from Dusseldorf and Treves towards and the Danube, and on the sub-Alpine Nuremberg and Ingolstadt, on the provinces also of Piedmont and Lom- Danube, as a common centre, the bardy. Nor on consulting the French armies of Jourdan and Moreau were revolutionary wars, shali we fail of driven back to the Rhine by the Ausdiscerning the fulfilinent of the pre- trian Archduke Charles ; the time diction : and this as distinctly and having not yet come for the effusion remarkably as of the prediction of the of the vial on the Danube. But the former vial.
Alpine springs of water were even now It was in April, 1792, that war was to experience its bitterness. The year declared by the French National As- that we speak of is ever memorable sembly against the German Emperor; in history, as that of the first Italian in the September following, against campaign of Buonaparte against the the King of Sardinia : and ere the allied Sardinians and Austrians. Its close of that year, it resulted that course is to be traced from Alpine both the Rhine began to be notable river to river, along the whole of the as one fateful scene of the outpouring north of Italy, from Coni on the Stura of this vial of blood, and advance to Venice. In the progress of the was made by the French towards a contest, every river was made a posisecond scene, destined to suffer under tion and battlefield. During the it, the Alpine streams of Piedmont and command of the Austrian general Lombardy.
Beaulieu, the Bormida, the Tanaro, We read in the annals of that year the Adda with its bridge of Lodi, that the French and Austrian armies, and Mincio flowing through the Lake conflicting at Mentz, and Worms,
of Garda to the Mantuan fortress ; and Spires, all situated on the middle then (the veteran Wurmser having Rhine, the very towns that Attila superseded Beaulieu) the Adige and long before desolated ; of other armies the Brenta ; then, on Alvinzi assumconflicting in the Austrian Nether. ing the command, the Adige and lands, watered by the Meuse, the last Mincio; again at Arcoli and Rivoli; tributary of the lower Rhine; and then, after the Archduke Charles had also of a third French army advancing advanced to the succour of his couninto Savoy, as far as the foot of the trymen, the Tagliamento, and Alpine Piedinontese Alpine frontier : the in- streams of Carinthia :—who can estifection of the Republican democratic mate the carnage? The Alpine founspirit having every where - from Hol- tains of water were indeed turned into land in the North, to Sardinia and blood. At length in 1797, after VeItaly in the south,-prepared for, and nice itself, at the mouth of the Brenta, facilitated, the progress of French in- had felt the sprinkling of the vial, vasion. In 1793 and 1794 the scene and shuddered under the terrible meof war and bloodshed was still the nace of the conqueror, “I will prove
The French army of the Ne- an Attila to Venice," — after the therlands, at first unsuccessful, soon Archduke had been again routed in recovered its ground; and driving the Carinthian Alpine defiles; and in the allies out of Flanders, advanced central Germany too, the Austrians into Holland : uniting it thencefor- had been cotemporarily defeated, and ward with France; and constituting driven by Moreau and Hoche from it like the latter, as a democracy. In Coblentz and Strasburg on the Rhine to like manner the army of the middle Francfort; resistance was suspended, Rhine, at first driven back across the and submission made by Austria. river, returned and repulsed the allies And so the treaty of Campo Formio beyond it, in battles of tremendous was concluded ; by which the whole bloodshed. In 1795, again, the car- valley of the Rhine, the one local scene nage was renewed with various success of this Apocalyptic vial—from its
source in Switzerland to its mouth in The vial had now been felt in the Holland-together with the Austrian whole range of scene allotted to it; Netherlands and Palatinate on one as on the Rhine and Alpine fountains side of its central stream, and Wur- of waters, so also on the left of the temberg, Pavaria, Baden, Westphalia, Danube. Indeed it had so made on the other, now united as the Con- itself to be felt, as to warrant the bold federation of the Rhine, was all ceded assertion, that in the whole history of or virtually subjected to France; and European wars,- from the first rise also Piedmont and Lombardy, the of the ten Papal kingdoms in the country noted as another local scene sixth century even to the present of this vial, being that of the Alpine time,- there is not recorded any one fountains of waters. But the vial had war in which these three vallies of the not yet exhausted itself. In 1799, on Rhine, the Danube, and the Po, had war recommencing, the fountains of wa- such a vial of wrath, or anything like ters became the scene of the celebrated it, poured out upon them. Italian campaign of Suwarroft: and But what the reason for judgments they were again, stream after stream, so terrible ? Amidst many national turned into blood; as the French were sins that doubtless evoked them, repulsed along the whole line of their there was one thus declared to St. former victorious progress from Ve- John in the verses following: " And rona and Mantua to the Maritime I heard the angel of the waters say, Alps and Western sources of the Po; Thou art righteous, O Lord, which and again in 1800, they were made art, and wast, and shalt be, because the scene of Buonaparte's second Ita- thou hast judged thus. For they lian campaign,-a campaign memora- have shed the blood of saints and proble by the passage of the St. Bernard, phets, and thou hast given them blood and decisive and terrible battle of to drink; for they are worthy. And Marengo. Moreover the Danube, the I heard another out of the altar say, other great frontier river of the old Even so, Lord God Almighty, true Roman world and Papal Christendom, and righteous are thy judgments.” It began now to feel also the outpouring does not need that we here enter on of the vial. The war was directed by the question suggested by this men: Mcreau to Ulm, the first great fortress tion of the “ Angel of the waters,' on the upper Danube ; and thence, whether there be attached in God's still by the line of the Danube, to In- providential government, particular golstadt :-until at length, in the win- angelic agencies to particular counter following, the victory of Hohen- tries and localities. Direct scripture linden on the Iser, one of its tributa- proof seems wanting on the point; ries, having decided the German cam- and certainly we shall not be warpaign, and Moreau advancing down ranted in inferring it from the figures the Danube towards Vienna, peace of a symbolic vision, like that before was again sued for by Austria, and for On the main point set forth in three years re-established.
the prophetic intimation, we cannot it broken by the war of the third mistake, viz., on the fact of the judgGerman coalition in 1805, except to ments of the third vial bring a rightbring down the residue of the vial of eous retributill from God on the wrath on the same fated rivers and countries and nations judged, for murcountries watered by it. The cam- ders previously committed by them paign of Napoleon is traced along the on His saints and prophets. And the Danube from Ulm and Ingolstadt applicability of this ground for judgdown to Vienna and the udjacent camp ment, to the nations that I have supof Attila. And the German Empe- posed intended in the prophecy,- the ror having been forced to retire north- Piedinontese, and Austrians, and ward from his capital, the battle of French,- is notorious. The cruelties Austerlitz, a town on the Littawa, of the French against the associated one of the tributaries of the same Waldenses and Albigenses before the great German river, ended the war Reformation, and the Hugonots and and broke the power of Austria. Albigenses after it;-of the Piedmon
tese and their ruling princes of Savoy the martyrdom or the sufferings of against the Waldenses of Piedmont, witnesses for the Lord Jesus. Which in every century from the 13th to the being the case, and the apparently 18th ;-and of the House of Austria retributive character of these German against both the Waldenses, the Huss- wars of the Revolution such that the ites, and, afterwards, the Lutherans, secular historian cannot refrain from in Lombardy, Bohemia, Moravia, the remarking it, we can surely scarce err Netherlands, and other of its provin- in regarding these cruelties to Christ's ces, - have already been sketched. saints in centuries preceding, as (in Indeed, in the vallies of the Rhine, part at least) the cause of the retrithe Danube, and the Po, there are but bution, agreeably with God's frequent few of the localities famed as scenes method of deferring judgment for sin of carnage and bloodshed in these to a later generation ; and consewars of the Revolution, which may quently in considering the coincidence. not have other and holier recollections between the prophecy and the history associated with them in the mind of (in this respect as well as others) to the christian traveller, as scenes of be complete.
A PLEA FOR OPEN-AIR PREACHING.
A LETTER ADDRESSED TO INCUMBENTS, BY THE Rev. J. H. TITCOMB, M.A.
(Continued from page 214.) V. Love for the Church of England of the parochial minister to gain an invites it.
influence. We may stand in our pul1. Because it would more effectually pits, or visit here and there in private work out the parochial system.
houses, but we cry in the ears of the As it is, in all our large towns and masses only like some shipwrecked widely scattered villages, the paro- sailor who is calling for help amid chial system remains a dead letter. the raging billows of the ocean. Our True there may be a parish church voice is drowned by the tumult going and schools, and perhaps two paro- on around us. Thus the influence of chial ministers in every such place, the Church of England is lost. And nevertheless the machinery is incom- yet, by her very constitution, she petent to work upon the whole popu- professes to be the poor man's Church! lation. Even when we have added to She avows herself the friend of the these the labours of District Visitors masses, who would be otherwise left and Scripture Readers, we fail to untouched and uncared for ! Beautiful reach the more degraded portion of aim, strangely missed and lost sight the masses. It is not affirming too
But if the work of open-air much, when I say that there are preaching were once boldly comthousands of men in London, Bir- menced, how changed would be the mingham, Manchester, &c., who have picture! I speak not now of the eterbeen living in their respective parishes nal, but simply of the parochial refor inany years, and yet know neither sults. The Church of England would the names nor persons of their own then be brought front to front with parochial clergymen. Why is this? the masses. Her clergy would be Is it because they are careless shep- known and recognized. They would herds? In some cases it may be. then vindicate their right and title to But, alas, it is almost equally true of be shepherds over their flocks, and be clergymen who are models of disin- acknowledged not simply by the materested activity. The fact is, that jesty of English law, but by the freepopulation and crime have beaten will homage of the masses, to be auback with giant power all the efforts thorized teachers of the people. Thus