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and mother. A happy buoyancy supports bride and bridegroom go quietly home and
them against the discouraging persuasions begin home-life the day they are married,
of reason and experience. The period of and take a honeymoom trip some six months
courtship may do something to dispel the afterwards, when they have had time to get
illusion, but unless the honeymoon is con- accustomed to one another. Only this is
trived with an exceeding judiciousness, it is not a boneymoon, and he would be an au.
then that the truth really dawns. The man dacious social leveller, with need of cak and
finds that his wife is only a grown-up girl, triple brass about his breast, who should
after all; and the woman, that the husband dare to suggest the abolition of the mystic
cannot always preserve the attractions of institution.
the lover. So far, therefore, the honey-
moon may be “ discomfortable.” But, for-
tunately, the discomfort rights itself. The
happy couple get views which are more

From the Spectator. useful for the rest of their lives. And such

MOZART'S LETTERS.* couples are often sądly in need of it. In England, our national reserve keeps the We should be disappointed were we to transcendental nonsense which fills the look for the same kind of interest in Mominds of extremely young folk from com- zart's as in Mendelssohn's letters. The ciring out very strongly. But in the United cumstances of the two lives were different. States they are more freespoken. There Different worlds surrounded the two men. two people can be found to insist on being Mendelssohn was happy, fortunate, appremarried up in a balloon, among, “ God's ciated. Mozart's sunny temperament gave clouds.” Having taken pen and ink with

way under the pressure of sorrow, ill-luck, them, moreover, they sign a superb decla- and ill-treatment. He started in life badly, ration to the effect that

and he never made up his arrears. From

the first he was the slave of a cruel master, Presenting ourselves, fully impressed with the and no better master would have pity on sublime presence of God and the joyous spirit- him and release him. When at last he was ual beings of His creation, heartily apprecia- forced to renounce that service, he had only ting heaven's highest vouchsafed happiness, the blessed union of two souls in purity and the most precarious support to depend glowing love, emanating from the eternal foun- upon, pupils who were capricious, and comtain of truth and wisdom, hence deriving some positions that were not certain of acceptprimitive conception of the magnitude of Deity. ance. It is a miserable spectacle, the cainspired unceasing humanity, endowed with reer of a man whom everybody now reverpowers and attributes evermore approximating ences as one of the greatest of musicians, Divinity, with assurances that uninterrupted but who was condemned to failure and povprogress remains dependent upon genial social

erty all his life, and whose very grave is relations, and possessing the approving sanc

unknown to this day.
tion of cherished friends, we do now henceforth
evermore give and devote, accept and receive,

Nevertheless, we think Dr. Nohl has each other in holy wedlock; and we solemnly done us a service by collecting these letters, and unreservedly avow and promise that we will and Lady Wallace a service by translating love, honour, and cherish each other as hus- them. Both editor and translator have band and wife during our whole existence; and their faults. Dr. Nohl should have added in the express language of Holy Writ, we hope more explanatory notes, and should not fully pray, What God hath joined together have left the reader to supplement Mozart's let no man put asunder.”

letters by one of the lives of Mozart. One

of the doctor's omissions, which we have It is easy to believe that, in this case at had occasion to trace, is fatal to the interest all events, when they returned to earth, of the letter in which it occurs, and many the “ aspect of things, like an unaired robe, such would seriously injure the collection. struck coldly against their hearts.” It may Writing of the Archduke Maximilian, Mobe suspected that, when the honeymoon is zart says, “ Stupidity peers out of his eyes," a failure, the result is due either to an ex. Now in the original of this letter the words travagant transcendental pitch of mind of - Archduke ” and “stupidity

are in cithis kind, which must always end in vexa- pher, a fact we learn from Dr. Nohl himself tion, or else to some mistake in selecting in the notes to his Life of Beethoven. But the place and manner in which the time is to be passed. It is not certain, though, The Letters of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart that something may not be said for a plan vig Nohl by Lady Wallace, i 2 vols. London:

(1769–1791). Translated from the collection of Ludsuggested in an American story. The Longmans,

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surely such a fact ought to be stated in its | at last drove him out of his service with the own place; it adds greatly to the value of foulest abuse. “ All the edifying things Mozart's letters; it is apt to be overlooked the Archbishop said to me, and the pious in notes at the end of another man's life. epithets this admirable man of God applied Lady Wallace's faults are of another order. to me,” writes Mozart, “ had such an effect She is

, generally speaking, one of our best on my bodily frame that the same evening translators from the German, but she is ap- at the opera I was obliged to go home in parently less familiar with Italian. In Let- the middle of the first act in order to lie ter 11, “ Sentimmo la messa cantataought down, for I was very feverish, trembled in to be, “ we heard the mass chanted,” not every limb, and staggered in the street like “ the chanted mass,” and Campidoglioa drunken man.” No wonder that the is generally known in English as “Capitol.” Archbishop considered himn“ a most selfAgain, "jeri l' altro” is the day before yes- sufficient young man. Basil Hall makes a terday, not the other day; and “ deutscha captain roar with laughter at the idea of a Compositor(patois) stands for a German, midshipman having any feelings, and in not a good, composer. If Lady Wallace the eighteenth century a musician who means to imply that German and good are could object to such mild phrases as rogue, synonymous, we must beg to differ from rascal, ragamuffin, was evidently unfit to her; but as we presume this mistake is serve a prince. It was no doubt this overmerely a slip of the pen, we pass it with a strained delicacy in Mozart that hindered slight protest. In other parts we find that all other princes from taking him into their she has softened down Mozart's phrases employment. He had many admirers, but almost unnecessarily. One passage, meant few supporters. Gluck and Haydn could to be unusually emphatic, as it is written afford to praise him without reserve, and a large in the original manuscript and printed travelling pianist, after watching him play, in small capitals by Dr. Nohl, is not marked exclaimed," Good heavens! how I do labour at all in the English. Mozart tells a story and overheat myself without getting any of an infamous case of official brutality at applause, while to you, my dear friend, it Innsbrück. A noble abused the manager seems all child's play." But when Salieri of a theatre in the street, and followed up applauded openly, it was in order to intrigue the abuse by a blow. On the manager re- in private, and his epitaph on Mozart ran, turning this he was taken to the House of “The loss of so grand a genius is much to Correction by a party of soldiers, and given be deplored, but it is fortunate for us that fifty blows with a stick. “ At the fifth he is dead, for if he had lived longer we blow,” says Mozart, “ his trousers were in really should not have been offered a crust pieces;" but this most significant touch, of bread for our compositions." The Elecwhich lights up the whole atrocity of the tor of Bavaria asked, “ Who could believe scene, is left out by Lady Wallace. that such great things could be hidden in

Even if this whole story had been left out, so small a head ?” but would not give the there would be enough in these letters to small head a chance of taking off its hat in show the chaos existing in Germany before Munich. Prince Kaunitz said of Mozart the French Revolution. Mozart began life that “Such people only come into the as concert master to the Archbishop of world once in a hundred years, and must Salzburg, at the magnificent: salary of not be driven away from Germany, more twelve florins and a half yearly. In order particularly when we are so fortunate as that he might not apply for an increase, his actually to enjoy their presence in the capmaster always proclaimed that he knew ital.” "But had Prince Kaunitz already lost nothing, and that he ought to go to a train- his influence with the Emperor, and could ing school to learn music. The slavery he do nothing more than talk in favour of of Salzbury," that “ beggarly Court," the Mozart ? Archbishop “playing the great man with While such was the state of German pame,” are significant phrases. But when the trons, the rest of the country was equally Archbishop took Mozart to Vienna in his in darkness. After trying several Courts suite the slavery was more pronounced, and without success, Mozart turned his eyes to the beggary (though of course Mozart's France or England. “If Germany will not salary had been increased) was quite as accept me,” he says,

" then in God's name conspicuous. The Archbishop treated Mo- let France or England be enriched by one zart as a lackey, would not allow him to more German of talent, to the disgrace of give a concert for his own benefit, quar- the German nation!”. The opera at Virelled with him because he was not ready enna was given up to the Italians. to leave Vienna at a moment’s notice, and I would be thought an everlasting blot on

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Germany if we Germans were ever really many sharp descents and abrupt rises of to begin to think in German and to act the roads there, that, seated in a diligence, like Germans, to speak German, and above he is incontinently jerked into the arms of all, to sing in German !” But in what we a lady opposite." No doubt this was a are apt to consider the national peculiari- necessary preparation for writing the life of ties of Germany the eighteenth century Mozart. eclipsed the nineteenth. In matters of pa- These letters throw so much light on the ternal government and tardiness of locomo- external state of the times, that we have tion even Germany has made great improve- neglected their still more valuable additions ments. When Mozart wished to marry to our knowledge of the character of their against the will of his future mother-in-law, author. In many of them Mozart, both as she threatened a resort to the ubiquitous man and composer, stands clearly before police. “ Have the police really the power us. His knowledge of his own powers and to enter any house they please ?” he asks. his trust in them were proper pride with We did not know their right had ever been the genius without which they would have contested. The use of ciphers in Mozart's been vanity. He could not help despising letters prove that they were liable to be many of his contemporaries when he saw opened at the post office, and when he their inferiority to himself, and how they writes to announce his quarrel with the were preferred to him. Occasionally he Archbishop of Salzburg, he says significant- showed this contempt by an open sarcasm, ly, “I write this in our native German which rankled all the more for its truth. tongue, that the whole world may know." The victims of his epigrams might say, — This clause would hardly have been needed if the post office was proof against official

“Pudet hæc opprobria nobis curiosity. As for the travelling of those Et dici potuisse, et non potuisse refelli;” days it must have been unendurable. A carriage was detained a quarter of an hour – but if they could not refute him they outside a city because the gates were under could intrigue against him, and dullness in repair. The conveyance by which Mozart high places was naturally leagued with its went from Paris to Strasburg took ten days brothers and subordinates. In these letters on the road, never changing horses, and we see Mozart's spirit gradually giving way. setting off sometimes at two in the morning. The cheerful nonsense of his earlier letters Owing to the constant stoppages, the ex- yields to gloom or bitterness. He was pense of living on the road made the dili- worked and worried to death. With a gence dearer than posting, as it was also the temperament alive to the slightest changes, custom to treat the conductor at all the and affected keenly by pleasures; a fiery inns. The roads were so bad that it was spirit that would have fretted a less puny impossible to sleep in night travel ; " the body to decay, and a genius that was percarriage jolted our very souls out, and the petually yoked to the dullest round of musiseats were as hard as stone. From Was- cal lessons; enemies that harassed him, and serburg I thought I never could arrive in friends that preyed on him; an eternal Munich with whole bones, and during two want of pence, and a critic pen of his own stages I held on by the straps, suspended that would not suffer him to write down to in the air, and not venturing to sit down." the tastes which had pence to bestow, -it The truth of these descriptions may be cer- would be strange if his familiar letters did tified by Mozart's English biographer, Mr. not reflect his troubles, and partake of the Holmes, who states, in his Ramble among despondency which more than once beset the Musicians of Germany (1828), that the him. We cannot justly say that we wish diligence took six days from Munich to Vi- they were pleasanter reading, for every line enna. Nothing on the way but beer-houses that flowed from Mozart, whether on plain and the most lenten entertainments ; in or ruled paper, must be pleasant to read or three days they only had one solitary dish to hear. But we wish they had been pleasof veal, Þread and beer being all they could anter to write, and that their subject-matcount upon regularly. Mr. Holmes also ter had not been the cause of so much pain bears witness to the state of the roads; to a man for whom we feel such admiration “such malignant bumps are inflicted on the and such love. inferior part of the traveller's person in the

From the Spectator. ( evidently more and more impressed with THE ZAMBESI AND ITS TRIBUTARIES.* the fertility of the soil and its undeveloped Dr. LivingSTONE's name is a guarantee beds of rivers within two miles of Tette,

sources of wealth. Gold is washed for in for the fidelity of his book. It is true he coal and rich iron ore are to be found to shovels out information, with facts and suggestions tumbling over each other in any amount, whilst the cotton seed taken exquisite confusion, but his facts are worth out by Dr. Livingstone was found unnecesknowing, and his suggestions worth heed- sary, from the fact that the cotton already ing. We are not sure it is not rather introduced was equal if not superior to the pleasant than otherwise to meet occasion- common American, and far above that proally with an author who has so much worth duced in India, but we gather from the saying, that he is rather' careless how he narrative that two causes were at work to says it. The main object of the Zambesi prevent anything like extensive cultivation expedition is stated clearly enough. Dr. of any of these sources of wealth. There Livingstone and those who went out with seems no want of industry among the native him were instructed to extend the knowla population, but in the absence of the civedge already attained of the geography extreme fertility of the soil supplies with

ilization which creates artificial wants, the and mineral and agricultural resources of little cost of labour all the requirements of Eastern and Central Africa," and also in various ways to become better acquainted checks his desire to cultivate for the sake of

the negro, whilst the slave trade effectually with the natives, induce them to cultivate their lands more largely, with a view commerce. Dr. Livingstone's simple descripto their engaging in commerce with Eng; than twenty blue-books of the way this curse

tion of the valley of the Shire speaks more land, supplying us with raw material in return for British manufactures, and to of slavery eats as a canker at the heart of ascertain the actual condition of the slave every enterprise. When he passed through trade, and by promoting other sources of

in 1859 the Upper Falls of the Shire were profit to check it as far as possible. Their studded with yillages placed in picturesque first object on reaching the East Coast spots among the hills

, filled with busy in(May, 1858) was to explore the Zambesi,

habitants, eager to do business with the its mouths and tributaries, “ with a view to The soil was extensively cultivated, the

strangers and exchange food for calico. their being used as highways for commerce and Christianity to pass into the vast in- people working in iron, cotton, and basketterior of Africa.” It seems to have been making. And besides the ordinary crops

of millet, beans, maize, &c., cotton was cullong the policy of Portuguese officials in Africa to mislead the English as to the true

tivated in almost every village, one kind,

called the “ Tonje manga," mouth of the Zambesi, in order that slaves

foreign might be quietly shipped from it whilst the cotton,” being of excellent quality, and

“ considered in Manchester nearly equal to English cruisers were watching elsewhere.

the best New Orleans." Every village has Iņ settling the Kongone Harbour as the true one, Þr. Livingstone has rendered an blacksmiths, and the inhabitants manufac

its smelting-house, its charcoal-burners, and important service to European enterprise. He has obtained the key of a door through turing crockery, and carrying on a good which not a few will probably hereafter native trade between the villages “in towish to enter. Familiar as Dr. Livingstone bacco, salt, dried fish skins, and iron; the must be with African scenery, its beauty the least to be judged by the low type of

people intelligent, and good-looking, not in seems to him ever fresh. The immense height of many of the trees covered with negroes on the immediate coast.” Evidently creeping plants reminded him in the dis- the peaceful beauty of the scene, as he surtance, he tells us, of the steeples of his veyed it from the hills, and the quiet wellnative land, and gave "relish to the remark to-do condition of the people, gave a tinge of an old sailor, that but one thing was

even of bitterness to the memory, as the wanting to complete the picture, and that good Doctor recalled the crowded lanes and was a grog-shop near the church.” As they alley in our crowded cities at home.“ Here

squalid poor of many a well-remembered penetrated further inland, and came upon is room enough, and to spare,” he seems to the native villages, the travellers were

have said to himself, " while they perish for *Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi hunger; ” but passing through this same and its Tributaries ; and of the Discovery of the valley in 1863, the scourge of slave war Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa, 1858–1864. By David had passed over the country, and it was and Charles Livingstone. With Map and Mustrations. London: John Murray. 1865.

a miserable scene of desolation, the vil

or

lages deserted or burnt, and miserable skel- pride, sometimes fancy obliterated. Sekeetons often the only trace that human letu is not the less an able chief that he beings had been there. Dr. Livingstone, wonders if cannon could not blow away the whose imagination never outruns bis judg- Victoria Falls, and possibly whiter men ment, calmly asserts that so much murder than Chibisa have shared his faith in the is involved in the very carrying on of the divine right of kings, and might not think trade, that “it is certain not more than his somewhat naïve expression of them as one in five ever reach their kind masters' altogether absurd. in Cuba or elsewhere.” Without fairly facing the enormous evils resulting from “ He was an ordinary man, he said, when the slave trade, thus carried on in great his father died and left him the chieftainship, measure by half-caste Portuguese or °Por- but directly he succeeded to the high office be tuguese convicts against Portuguese laws, was conscious of power passing into his head and but with the connivance of Portuguese he was a chief, clothed with authority, and pos.

down his back. He felt it enter, and knew that officials, it would be impossible fairly to sessed of wisdom, and people then began to fear estimate the importance of the discovery of and reverence him. He mentioned this as one Lake Nyassa by Dr. Livingstone, or of would a fact of natural history, any doubt being his suggestions concerning it. It ap- quite out of the question.” pears that “the trade of Cazembe and Katanga's country, and of other parts of the Valuable hints with regard to African interior, crosses Nyassa and the Shire on missions are scattered throughout the work. its way to the Arab port Kilwa and the Dr. Livingstone evidently deeply regrets Portuguese ports of Iboe and Mozambique.” the abandonment of the mission of the Uni

This trade at present consists chiefly of versities by the present bishop, and has, we slaves, ivory, malachite, and copper orna- think, completely lifted from Bishop Mackments. Dr. Livingstone suggests that “ by enzie's name the cloud which rested on his means of a small steamer, purchasing the reputation as a man of sound wisdom as well ivory of the lake and river above the as genuine piety. cataracts," the slave trade would become

Believing, with all men who have really unprofitable, as it seems it is only because studied the subject, that none but the best the slaves carry the ivory three hundred men are worth sending, that the talk about miles further than this point, down to the sacrificing valuable lives for mere heathen coast, “ that they do not eat up all the is nothing but talk, the result of slovenly profits of the trip.” A steamer thus placed, and indolent thinking, that the highest naDr. Livingstone considers, would also have ture can always stoop the most easily, and immense influence over an enormous area those who grasp any truth most accurately of country. “ The Magitu about the north can always define it most simply, — end of the lake will not allow slave-traders to pass through their country, and would be “The qualities (says Dr. Livingstone), reefficient allies to the English.” The pop- quired in a missionary leader are of no common ulation around the lake is dense, and they kind. He ought to have physical and moral grow an abundance of cotton, which they courage of the highest order, and a considerable can sell at a penny a pound, or less, and amount of cultivation and energy, balanced by the conclusion Dr. Livingstone would patient determination. Above all these are neevidently desire to force on his readers is, the main spiritual results of the work.”

cessary a calm Christian zeal and anxiety for that at trifling expense the British Government might promote a thriving and legit- Such a man was Bishop Mackenzie. He imate trade, and supplant as well as sup- died in the trenches, but his name is not press the present iniquitous slave traffic. We should do injustice to the work before us if likely soon to be forgetton. we passed by the sketches of individual

Dr. Livingstone is seldom eloquent, but character with which its pages are enriched, he is always graphic. Take this description and by means of which Dr. Livingstone has of the contrast between African and Eurodone more to bring us into personal ac- pean scenery: quaintance with the natives of the villages through which he passed, than he could

“Nearly all the mountains in this country have done by a far more elaborate descrip-our, according to the season, green or yellow.

are covered with open forest and grass, in coltion of their habits and social condition. Many are between 2,000 and 3,000 feet high, We study these little pen-and-ink photo with the sky-line

fringed with trees; the rocks graphs, and recognize the great family like- show just sufficiently for one to observe their ness which we, in our ignorance or our stratification or their granitic form, and though

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