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(3) United States bilateral development assistance should give high priority to undertakings submitted by host governments which directly improve the lives of the poorest of their people and their capacity to participate in the development of their countries, while also helping such governments enhance their planning, technical, and administrative capabilities needed to insure the success of such undertakings.
(4) Development assistance provided under this chapter shall be concentrated in countries which will make the most effective use of such assistance to help satisfy basic human needs of poor people through equitable growth, especially in those countries having the greatest need for outside assistance. In order to make possible consistent and informed judgments in this respect, the President shall assess the commitment and progress of countries in moving toward the objectives and purposes of this chapter by utilizing criteria, including but not limited to the following:
(A) increase in agricultural productivity per unit of land through small- farm, labor-intensive agriculture;
(B) reduction of infant mortality;
(C) control of population growth;
(D) promotion of greater equality of income distribution, including measures such as more progressive taxation and more equitable returns to small farmers;
(E) reduction of rates of unemployment and underemployment; and
(F) increase in literacy.
(5) United States development assistance should focus on critical problems in those functional sectors which affect the lives of the majority of the people in the developing countries; food production and nutrition; rural development and generation of gainful employment; population planning and health; environment and natural resources; education, development administration, and human resources development; and energy development and production."
(6) United States assistance shall encourage and promote the participation of women in the national economies of developing countries and the improvement of women's status as an important means of promoting the total development effort.
(7) United States bilateral assistance shall recognize that the prosperity of developing countries and effective development efforts require the adoption of an overall strategy that promotes the development, production, and efficient utilization of energy and, therefore, consideration shall be given to the full implications of such assistance on the price, availability, and consumption of energy in recipient countries.
(8) United States cooperation in development should be carried out to the maximum extent possible through the private sector, including those institutions which already have ties in the developing areas, such as educational institutions, coopera
• The reference to energy development and production was added by sec. 104(a) of the International Development Cooperation Act of 1979 (Public Law 96-53; 93 Stat. 360).
tives, credit unions, free labor unions, and private and voluntary agencies.
(9) To the maximum extent practicable, United States private investment should be encouraged in economic and social development programs to which the United States lends support.
(10) Assistance shall be planned and utilized to encourage regional cooperation by developing countries in the solution of common problems and the development of shared resources.
(11) Assistance efforts of the United States shall be planned and furnished to the maximum extent practicable in coordination and cooperation with assistance efforts of other countries, including the planning and implementation of programs and projects on a multilateral and multidonor basis.
(12) United States bilateral development assistance should be concentrated on projects which do not involve large-scale capital transfers. However, to the extent that such assistance does involve large-scale capital transfers, it should be furnished in association with contributions from other countries working together in a multilateral framework.
(13) United States encouragement of policy reforms is necessary if developing countries are to achieve economic growth with equity.
(14) 7 Development assistance should, as a fundamental objective, promote private sector activity in open and competitive markets in developing countries, recognizing such activity to be a productive and efficient means of achieving equitable and long-term economic growth.
(15) United States cooperation in development should recognize as essential the need of developing countries to have access to appropriate technology in order to improve food and water, health and housing, education and employment, and agriculture and industry.
(16) United States assistance should focus on establishing and upgrading the institutional capacities of developing countries in order to promote long-term development. An important component of institution building involves training to expand the human resource potential of people in developing countries.
(c) The Congress, recognizing the desirability of overcoming the worst aspects of absolute poverty by the end of this century by, among other measures, substantially lowering infant mortality and birth rates, and increasing life expectancy, food production, literacy, and employment, encourages the President to explore with other countries, through all appropriate channels, the feasibility of a worldwide cooperative effort to overcome the worst aspects of absolute poverty and to assure self-reliant growth in the developing countries by the year 2000.
7 Paragraphs (13), (14), (15), and (16) were added by sec. 301 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-83; 99 Stat. 190).
NOTE.-Foreign assistance appropriations for fiscal year 1992 are included in the Further Continuing Appropriations, Fiscal Year 1992 (Public Law 102-145; 105 Stat. 968), as amended by Public Law 102-266 (106 Stat. 92). That Public Law continues much of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101-513; 104 Stat. 1979), through fiscal year 1992, as well as enacting by reference some portions of H.R. 2621 as passed by the House on June 19, 1991. Amounts appropriated by these three pieces of legislation to carry out the purposes of provisions contained in the FA Act, 1961, during fiscal year 1992, are included in footnotes. For text of the relevant foreign assistance provisions of Public Law 101-513, Public Law 102-145, and H.R. 2621, see beginning at page 551.
NOTE. The Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101-513; 104 Stat. 2002), as continued by Public Law 102145, as amended, provided the following:
"SEC. 502. Except for the appropriations entitled 'International Disaster Assistance', and 'United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund', not more than 15 per centum of any appropriation item made available by this Act shall be obligated during the last month of availability.".
NOTE.-Transfers Between Accounts. The Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101-513; 104 Stat. 2004), as continued by Public Law 102-145, as amended, provided the following:
"SEC. 514. None of the funds made available by this Act may be obligated under an appropriation account to which they were not appropriated, unless the President, prior to the exercise of any authority contained in the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to transfer funds, consults with and provides a written policy justification to the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate: Provided, That the exercise of such authority shall be subject to the regular notification procedures of the Committees on Appropriations.".
NOTE.-Deobligation/Reobligation Authority. The Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101-513; 104 Stat. 2004), as continued by Public Law 102-145, as amended, provided the following:
"SEC. 515. (a) Amounts certified pursuant to section 1311 of the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1955, as having been obligated against appropriations heretofore made under the authority of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 for the same general purpose as any of the headings under the 'Agency for International Development' are, if deobligated, hereby continued available for the same period as the respective appropriations under such headings or until September 30, 1991, whichever is later, and for the same general purpose, and for countries within the same region as originally obligated: Provided, That the Appropriations Committees of both Houses of the Congress are notified fifteen days in advance of the deobligation and reobligation of such funds in accordance with regular notification procedures of the Committees on Appropriations.
(b) Obligated balances of funds appropriated to carry out section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act as of the end of the fiscal year immediately preceding the current fiscal year are, if deobligated in accordance with amendments of applicable grant or loan agreements, hereby continued available during the current fiscal year for the same purpose under any authority applicable to such appropriations under this Act: Provided, That the Appropriations Committees of both Houses of the Congress are notified fifteen days in advance of the deobligation and reobligation of such funds in accordance with regular notification procedures of the Committees on Appropriations.".
NOTE.-Availability of Funds. The Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101-513; 104 Stat. 2005), as continued by Public Law 102-145, as amended, provided the following:
"SEC. 517. No part of any appropriation contained in this Act shall remain available for obligation after the expiration of the current fiscal year unless expressly so provided in this Act: Provided, That funds appropriated for the purposes of chapter 1 of part I, section 667, and chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, shall remain available until expended if such funds are initially obligated before the expiration of their respective periods of availability contained in this Act: Provided further, That, notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, any funds made available for the purposes of chapter 1 of part I and chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which are allocated or obligated for cash disbursements in order to address balance of payments or economic policy reform objectives, shall remain available until expended: Provided further, That the report required by section 653(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 shall designate for each country, to the extent known at the time of submission of such report, those funds allocated for cash disbursement for balance of payment and economic policy reform purposes.".