lordship, which makes me need to say the less; only I humbly pray you to believe, that I aspire to the

LII. TO MY LORD OF ESSEX. conscience and commendation of "bonus civis," and * bonus vir;" and that though I love some things better, I confess, than I love your lordship, yet I I am glad your lordship hath plunged out of your love few persons better; both for gratitude's sake, own business : wherein I must commend your lordand for your virtues, which cannot hurt but by acci- ship, as Xenophon commended the state of his dent; of which my good affection it may please country, which was this, that having chosen the your lordship to assure yourself; and of all the true worst form of government of all others, they governed effect and offices I can yield. For as I was ever

the best in that kind. “ Hoc pace et venia tua,” sorry your lordship should fly with waxen wings, according to my charter. Now, as your lordship doubting Icarus's fortune, so for the growing up of is my witness that I would not trouble you whilst your own feathers, be they ostrich's or other kind, your own cause was in hand, though that I know, no man shall be more glad. And this is the axle that the farther from the term, the better the time tree whereon I have turned and shall turn. Which was to deal for me, so that being concluded, I prehaving already signified to you by some near mean, sume I shall be one of your next cares. And hav. having so fit' a messenger for mine own letter, I ing communicated with my brother of some course, thought good also to redouble by writing. And so either to perfect the first, or to make me some other I commend you to God's protection.

way; or rather, by seeming to make me some other From Gray's-Inn this *

way to perfect the first; wherewith he agreed to

acquaint your lordship; I am desirous, for mine own 9th day of July, 1600.

better satisfaction, to speak with your lordship my-
self: which I had rather were somewhere else than
at court; and as soon as your lordship will assign

me to wait on you. And so in, &c.

MR. Bacon,
I can neither expound nor censure your late ac-

IT MAY PLEASE YOUR LORDSHIP, tions ; being ignorant of all of them save one ; and That your lordship is in statu quo prius, no man having directed my sight inward only to examine taketh greater gladness than I do; the rather, because myself. You do pray me to believe, that you only I assure myself that of your eclipses, as this hath aspire to the conscience and commendation of " bo- been the longest, it shall be the least; as the comical nus civis," and " bonus vir ;" and I do faithfully as- poet saith “ Neque illam tu satis noveras, neque te sure you, that while that is your ambition, though illa ; hocque fit, ubi non vere vivitur." || For if I your course be active, and mind contemplative, yet may be so bold as to say what I think, I believe we shall both “ convenire in eodem tertio;" and neither your lordship looked to have found her Ma** convenire inter nos ipsos." Your profession of jesty in all points as you have done, neither her affection, and offer of good offices, are welcome to Majesty per case looked to have found your lordme; for answer to them I will say but this; that ship as she hath done. And therefore I hope upon you have believed I have been kind to you, and you this experience may grow more perfect knowledge, may believe that I cannot be other, either upon and upon knowledge more true consent; which I, homour or mine own election. I am a stranger to for my part, do infinitely wish, as accounting these all poetical conceits, or else I should say somewhat accidents to be like the fish remora ; which though of your poetical example. But this I must say, that it be not great, yet hath it a hidden property to I never flew with other wings than desire to merit, | hinder the sailing of the ship. And therefore, as and confidence in my sovereign's favour; and when bearing unto your lordship, after her Majesty, of all one of these wings failed me, I would light no public persons, the second duty, I could not but sigwhere but at my sovereign's feet, though she suf- nify unto you my affectionate gratulation. And so fered me to be bruised with my fall. And till her I commend your good lordship to the best preservMajesty, that knows I was never bird of prey, finds ation of the Divine Majesty. it to agree with her will and her service that my

From Gray's-Inn.
wings should be imped again, I have committed
myself to the mue. No power but my God's, and
my sovereign's, can alter this resolution of
Your retired friend,


I am apt enough to contemn mendacia famæ, yet
it is with this distinction, as fame walks among in-

feriors, and not as it hath entrance into some ears. • 19 Jal. Cab.

† Rawley's Resuscitatio. Ibid. § Ibid. | Terent. Heaut. 1. 1. | Rawley's Resuscitatio. † Ibid,

And yet nevertheless, in that kind also I intend to knowing no more remedy against lies, than others avoid a suspicious silence, but not to make any base do against libels. The root, no question of it, is apology. It is blown about the town, that I should partly some light-headed envy at my accesses to her give opinion touching my lord of Essex's cause; first, Majesty; which being begun and continued since that it was a præmunire; and now last, that it my childhood, as long as her Majesty shall think reached to high treason; and this opinion should me worthy of them, I scorn those that shall think be given in opposition to the opinion of the lord the contrary: and another reason is the aspersion chief justice, and of Mr. Attorney-General. Sir, I of this tale, and the envy thereof, upon some greater thank God, whatsoever opinion my head serveth me man, in regard of my nearness. And therefore, my to deliver to her Majesty, being asked, my heart lord, I pray you answer for me, to any person that serveth me to maintain, the same honest duty direct you think worthy your own reply, and my defence. ing me and assisting me. But the utter untruth of For my lord of Essex, I am not servile to him, havthis report God and the queen can witness; and the ing regard to my superior's duty. I have been improbability of it, every man that hath wit, more much bound unto him. And on the other side, I or less, can conceive. The root of this I discern to have spent more time and more thoughts about his be not so much a light and humourous envy at my well doing, than ever I did about mine own. I pray accesses to her Majesty, which of her Majesty's God, you his friends, amongst you, be in the right. grace being begun in my first years, I would be. “ Nulla remedia tam faciunt dolorem, quam quæ sorry she should estrange in my last years; for so sunt salutaria." For my part, I have deserved better, I account them, reckoning by health not by age ; as than to have my name objected to envy, or my life a deep malice to your honourable self; upon whom, to a ruffian's violence. But I have the privy coat by me, through nearness, they think to make some of a good conscience. I am sure these courses aspersion. But as I know no remedy against libels and bruits hurt my lord more than all. So having and lies ; so I hope it shall make no manner of dis- written to your lordship, I desire exceedingly to be severance of your honourable good conceits and preferred in your good opinion and love: and so affection towards me; which is the thing I confess leave you to God's goodness. to fear. For as for any violence to be offered to

3 December 1599. me, wherewith my friends tell me, to no small terror, that I am threatened, I thank God s have the privy coat of a good conscience; and have a good while since put off any fearful care of life, or the LVI. TWO LETTERS, FRAMED, THE ONE accidents of life. So desiring to be preserved in AS FROM MR. ANTHONY BACON, TO THE your good opinion, I remain.

EARL OF ESSEX; THE OTHER, AS THE This last letter seems to be wrote 1600, in the EARL'S ANSWER THEREUNTO:t interval between the return of the earl of Essex

Both written by Mr. Francis Bacon, at the instance of Mr. from Ireland, and his hearing before the lord Anthony Bacon his brother, and to be showed to the queen, chancellor, &c.

upon some fit occasion; as a mean to work her Majesty to receive the earl again to favour and attendance at court

. They were devised whilst my lord remained prisoner in his own house. See Sir Francis Bacon's Apology to the earl

of Devonshire. LV. TO MY LORD HENRY HOWARD. *


This standing at a stay in your lordship's forTHERE be very few besides yourself, to whom I tunes doth make me, in my love towards your lordwould perform this respect. For I contemn mendacia ship, jealous lest you do somewhat, or omit somefame, as it walks among inferiors; though I neg- what, that amounteth to a new error. For I suppose lect it not, as it may have entrance into some ears. that of all former matters there is a full expiation; For your lordship's love, rooted upon good opinion, wherein, for any thing that your lordship doth, I for I esteem it highly, because I have tasted the fruits my part, who am remote, cannot cast nor devise of it; and we both have tasted of the best waters, in wherein any error should be, except in one point, my account, to knit minds together. There is which I dare not censure nor dissuade; which is, shaped a tale in London's forge, that beateth apace that as the prophet saith, in this affliction you look at this time, that I should deliver opinion to the up" ad manum percutientem," and so make your queen in my lord of Essex's cause : first, that it was peace with God. And yet I have heard it noted, a præmunire ; and now last, that it was high trea- that my lord of Leicester, who could never get to son; and this opinion to be in opposition and en- be taken for a saint, nevertheless in the queen's discounter of the lord chief justice's opinion and the favour waxed seeming religious : which may be attorney-general's. My lord, I thank God, my wit thought by some, and used by others, as a case reserveth me not to deliver any opinion to the queen, sembling yours, if men do not see, or will not see which my stomach serveth me not to maintain ; one the difference between your two dispositions. But and the same conscience of duty guiding me and to be plain with your lordship, my fear rather is, befortifying me. But the untruth of this fable God cause I hear how some of your good and wise friends, and my sovereign can witness, and there I leave it; not unpractised in the court, and supposing themRawley's Resuscitatio.


selves not to be unseen in that deep and unscrutable my lord keeper's, were won from the queen merely centre of the court, which is her Majesty's mind, do upon necessity and point of honour, against her own not only toll the bell, but even ring out peals, as if | inclination. Thirdly, in the last proceeding, I note Four fortune were dead and buried, and as if there three points, which are directly significant, that her were no possibility of recovering her Majesty's favour; Majesty did expressly forbear any point which was and as if the best of your condition were to live a pri- * irreparable, or might make your lordship in any rate and retired life, out of want, out of peril and out of degree uncapable of the return of her favour; or manifest disgrace; and so in this persuasion of their's might fix any character indelible of disgrace upon include a persuasion to your lordship to frame and you: for she spared the public place of the staraccommodate your actions and mind to that end : I chamber, which spared ignominy; she limited the fear, I say, that this untimely despair may in time charge precisely not to touch upon any pretence of bring forth a just despair, by causing your lordship disloyalty ; and no record remaineth to memory of to slacken and break off your wise, loyal, and sea- the charge or sentence. Fourthly, the very distincsonable endeavours and industry for redintegration tion which was made in the sentence of sequestration to her Majesty's favour ; in comparison whereof all from the places of service in state, and leaving to other circumstances are but as atomi, or rather as a your lordship the place of master of the horse, doth, vacuum without any substance at all. Against this to my understanding, indicativè, point at this ; that opinion it may please your lordship to consider of her Majesty meant to use your lordship's attendance these reasons which I have collected, and to make in court, while the exercises of the other places stood judgment of them, neither out of the melancholy suspended. Fifthly, I have heard, and your lordship of your present fortune, nor out of the infusion of knoweth better than I, that now, since you were in that which cometh to you by others' relation, which your own custody, her Majesty in verbo regio, and by is sabject to much tincture, but ex rebus ipsis, out his mouth, to whom she committeth her royal grants of the nature of the persons and actions themselves, and decrees, hath assured your lordship she will as the trustiest and least deceiving grounds of opi- forbid, and not suffer, your ruin. Sixthly, as I have nion. For though I am so unfortunate as to be a heard her Majesty to be a prince of that magnanistranger to her Majesty's eye, and much more to her mity, that she will spare the service of the ablest nature and manners; yet by that which is apparent, subject or peer, when she shall be thought to stand I do manifestly discern, that she hath that character in need of it ; so she is of that policy, as she will of the divine nature and goodness, “ quos amavit, not lose the service of a meaner than your lordship, amarit usque ad finem ;” and where she hath a where it shall depend merely upon her choice and creature, she doth not deface nor defeat it; inso- will. Seventhly, I hold it for a principle, that geneDuch as, if I observe rightly in those persons whom rally those diseases are hardest to cure whereof the heretofore she hath honoured with her special fa- cause is obscure; and those easiest, whereof the cause Four, she hath covered and remitted not only defects is manifest : whereupon I conclude, that since it and ingratitudes in affection, but errors in state hath been your error in your courses towards her and service. Secondly, if I can spell and scholar- Majesty, which hath prejudiced you, that your like put together the parts of her Majesty's pro reforming and conformity will restore you ; so as you ceedings now towards your lordship, I cannot but may be faber fortune proprie. Lastly, considering make this construction, that her Majesty in her your lordship is removed from dealing in causes of rosal intention never purposed to call your lord-state, and left only to a place of attendance ; meship's doings into public question ; but only to have thinks the ambition of any man, who can endure no used a cloud without a shower, in censuring them partners in state matters, may be so quenched, as by some temporary restraint only of liberty, and they should not laboriously oppose themselves to your deberring from her presence. For, first, the hand being in court: so as upon the whole matter, I can ling the cause in the star-chamber, you not be find neither in her Majesty's person, nor in your own ing called, was enforced by the violence of libelling person, nor in any third person, neither in former and rumours, wherein the queen thought to have precedents, nor in your own case, any cause of dry satisfied the world, and yet spared your lordship’s and peremptory despair. Neither do I speak this appearance ; and after, when that means which so, but that, if her Majesty, out of her resolution, was intended for the quenching of malicious bruits, should design you to a private life, you should be as turned to kindle them, because it was said your willing, upon her appointment, to go into the wilderlordship was condemned unheard, and your lordship's ness, as into the land of promise. Only I wish your sister wrote that piquant letter, then her Majesty lordship will not preoccupate despair, but put trust, sav plainly, that these winds of rumours could not next to God, in her Majesty's grace, and not to be be commanded down without a handling of the wanting to yourself. I know your lordship may cause

, by making you a party, and admitting your justly interpret, that this which I persuade, may have defence. And to this purpose I do assure your some reference to my particular, because I may

lordship, that my brother Francis Bacon, who is too truly say, Te stante, not virebo, for I am withered in I wise

, I think, to be abused, and too honest to abuse; myself, but manebo, or tenebo; I shall in some sort though he be more reserved in all particulars than be, or hold out. But though your lordship’s years is needful, yet in generality he hath ever constantly and health may expect return of grace

and fortune; fr

and with asseveration affirmed to me, that both yet your eclipse for a time is an ultimum vale to my those days, that of the star-chamber, and that at

* Irrecuperable, Cab.

for your

fortune; and were it not that I desire and hope to having no other pledge of my love, but communisee my brother established, by her Majesty's favour, cate freely with you, for the ease of my heart and as I think him well worthy, for that he hath done yours. and suffered, it were time I did take that course, from which I dissuade your lordship. But now in

LVIII. A LETTER TO MR. SECRETARY CEthe mean time, I cannot choose but perform these

CIL, AFTER THE + DEFEATING OF THE honest duties to you, to whom I have been so deeply




EARL IN ANSWER TO THE FORMER LET- As one that wisheth you all increase of honour ; TER.*

and as one that cannot leave to love the state, what MR. Bacon,

interest soever I have, or may come to have in it;

and as one that now this dead vacation time hath I THANK you kind and careful letter, It

some leisure ad aliud agendum ; I will presume to persuades me to that which I wish strongly, and hope propound unto you that which though you cannot for weakly; that is, possibility of restitution to her but see, yet I know not whether you apprehend and Majesty's favour; but your arguments that would

esteem it in so high a degree; that is, for the best cherish hope turn to despair. You say the queen action of importation to yourself

, of sound honour never meant to call me to public censure, which and merit to her Majesty and this crown, without showeth her goodness; but you see I passed under | ventosity and popularity, that the riches of any occait, which showeth others' power. I believe most sted- sion, or the tide of any opportunity, can possibly fastly her Majesty never intended to bring my cause minister or offer : and that is the causes of Ireland, to a sentence; and I believe as verily, that since if they be taken by the right handle. For if the that sentence she meant to restore me to attend wound be not ripped up again, and come to a freupon her person. But they that could use occa

crudency by new foreign succours, I think that no sions, which was not in me to let, and amplify occa

physician will go on much with letting of blood, in sions, and practise upon occasions, to represent to declinatione morbi; but will intend to purge and her Majesty a necessity to bring me to the one, can

corroborate. To which purpose I send you mine and will do the like to stop me from the other. You opinion, without labour of words, in the enclosed ; say, my errors were my prejudice, and therefore I and sure I am, that if you shall enter into the matter can mend myself: it is true; but they that know according to the vivacity of your own spirit, nothing that I can mend myself, and that if ever I recover

can make unto you a more gainful return. For you the queen, that I will never lose her again ; will shall make the queen's felicity complete, which now, never suffer me to obtain interest in her favour. And

as it is, is incomparable: and for yourself, you you say the queen never forsook utterly, where she show yourself as good a patriot as you are thought inwardly favoured: but I know not whether the

a politic, and make the world perceive you have not hour-glass of time hath altered her mind; but sure

less generous ends, than dexterous delivery of your. I am the false glass of others' informations must sell towards your ends ; and that you have as well alter her, when I want access to plead my own true arts and grounds of government, as the facility

I know I ought doubly to be her Majesty's ; and felicity of practice and negotiation ; and that both jure creationis, for I am her creature ; and jure you are as well seen in the periods and tides of redemptionis, for I know she hath saved me from

estates, as in your own circle and way: than the overthrow. But for her first love, and for her last which, I suppose, nothing can be a better addition protection, and all her great benefits, I can but pray and accumulation of honour unto you. This, I hope, for her Majesty : and my endeavours are now to

I may in privateness write, either as a kinsman, that make my prayers for her Majesty and myself better

may be bold; or as a scholar, that hath liberty of heard. For, thanks be to God, they that can make discourse, without committing any absurdity. But her Majesty believe I counterfeit with her, cannot

if it seem any error in me thus to intromit myself, make God believe that I counterfeit with him ; and

I pray your honour to believe, I ever loved her Mathey which can let me from coming near unto her, jesty and the state, and now love yourself ; and there cannot let me from drawing near unto him, as I hope is never any vehement love without some absurdity, I do daily. For your brother, I hold him an honest

as the Spaniard well says:

“ desnario con la calengentleman, and wish him all good, much rather for

tura." So desiring your honour's pardon, I ever your sake. Yourself I know hath suffered more for continue. me and with me than any friend I have: yet I cannot but lament freely, as you see I do ; and advise you CONSIDERATIONS TOUCHING THE QUEEN'S not to do that which I do, which is to despair. You

SERVICE IN IRELAND.|| know letters what hurt they have done me, and therefore make sure of this: and yet I could not, as The reduction of that country, as well to civility * Rawley's Resuscitatio.

Rawley's Resuscitatio. + Therefore this was wrote, 1603,

§ festered sense. Cab. || Rawley's Resuscitatio.



and justice, as to obedience and peace, which things, by cutting off the opinion and expectation of foreign as affairs now stand, I hold to be inseparable, con- succours ; to which purpose this enterprise of Alsisteth in four points :

giers, if it hold according to the advertisement, and 1. The extinguishing of the relicks of the war. if it be not wrapped up in the period of this summer, 2. The recovery of the hearts of the people. seemeth to be an opportunity cælitus demissa. And 3. The removing of the root and occasions of new to the same purpose nothing can be more fit than a troubles.

treaty, or a shadow of a treaty of a peace with 4. Plantations and buildings.

Spain, which methinks shall be in our power to fasten For the first; concerning the places and times, at least rumore tenus, to the deluding of as wise and particularities of farther prosecution, in fact I people as the Irish. Lastly, for this point; that leave it to the opinion of men of war; only the which the ancients called “ potestas facta redeundi difficulty is, to distinguish and discern the proposi- ad sanitatem ;" and which is but a mockery when tions, which shall be according to the ends of the the enemy is strong, or proud, but effectual in his state here, that is, final and summary towards the declination; that is, a liberal proclamation of grace extirpation of the troubles, from those, which though and pardon to such as shall submit, and come in they pretend public ends, yet may refer indeed to within a time prefixed, and of some farther reward to the more private and compendious ends of the coun- such as shall bring others in; that one's sword may cil there: or of the particular governors or captains. be sharpened by another's, is a matter of good exBut still, as I touched in my letter, I do think muchperience, and now, I think, will come in time. And letting blood, in declinatione morbi, is against me- percase, though I wish the exclusions of such a thod of care ; and that it will but induce necessity, pardon exceeding few, yet it will not be safe to conand exasperate despair; and percase discover the tinue some of them in their strength, but to translate hollowness of that which is done already, which them and their generations into England; and give now blazeth to the best show. For laglia's * and them recompence and satisfaction here, for their proscriptions of two or three of the principal rebels, possessions there, as the king of Spain did, by divers they are, no doubt, jure gentium, lawful : in Italy families of Portugal. To the effecting of all the usually practised upon the banditti; best in season points aforesaid, and likewise those which fall within when a side goeth down ; and may do good in two the divisions following, nothing can be in priority, kinds ; the one, if they take effect; the other, in either of time or matter, better than the sending of the distrust which may follow amongst the rebels some commission of countenance, ad res inspiciendas themselves. But of all other points, to my under-et componendas ; for it will be a very significant destanding, the most effectual is, the well expressing monstration of her Majesty's care of that kingdom ; or impressing the design of this state, upon that a credence to any that shall come in and submit; miserable and desolate kingdom; containing the a bridle to any that shall have their fortunes there, same between these two lists or boundaries ; the and shall apply their propositions to private ends ; one, that the queen seeketh not an extirpation of and an evidence that her Majesty, after arms laid that people, but a reduction ; and that, now she down, speedily pursueth a politic course, without hath chastised them by her royal power and arms, neglect or respiration : and it hath been the wisdom according to the necessity of the occasion, her Ma- of the best examples of government. jesty taketh no pleasure in effusion of blood, or dis- Towards the recovery of the hearts of the people, planting of ancient generations. The other, that her there be but three things, in natura rerum. Majesty's princely care is principally and intention- 1. Religion. ally bent upon the action of Ireland; and that she 2. Justice and protection. seeketh not so much the ease of charge, as the roy- 3. Obligation and reward. al performance of the office of protection, and re- For religion, to speak first of piety, and then of claim of those her subjects: and in a word, that the policy, all divines do agree, that if consciences be to case is altered so far as may stand with the honour be enforced at all, wherein yet they differ, two things of the time past: which it is easy to reconcile, as in must precede their enforcement; the one, means of my last note I showed. And again, I do repeat, instruction ; the other, time of operation; neither of that if her Majesty's design be ex professo to reduce which they have yet had. Besides, till they be wild and barbarous people to civility and justice, as more like reasonable men than they yet are, their well as to reduce rebels to obedience, it makes weak- society were rather scandalous to the true religion ness turn christianity, and conditions graces; and than otherwise; as pearls cast before swine : for till so hath a fineness in turning utility upon point of they be cleansed from their blood, incontinency, and honour, which is agreeable to the humour of these theft, which are now not the lapses of particular times. And besides, if her Majesty shall suddenly persons, but the very laws of the nation, they are abate the lists of her forces, and shall do nothing to incompatible with religion reformed. For policy, countervail it in point of reputation, of a politic pro- there is no doubt but to wrestle with them now, is ceeding, I doubt things may too soon fall back into directly opposite to their reclaiming, and cannot but the state they were in. Next to this ; adding re- continue their alienation of mind from this governputation to the cause, by imprinting an opinion of ment. Besides, one of the principal pretences, her Majesty's care and intention upon this action, is whereby the heads of the rebellion have prevailed the taking away of reputation from the contrary side, both with the people, and with the foreigner, hath Al Taglaes.

been the defence of the catholic religion : and it is

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