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many of those evasions, those com- in Balzac, who professes himself enpromises between conscience and ex- chanted with the black lustre' of his pediency, which are still thought ne- style, and comparen his obsurity to cessary and justifiable for the support the rich and glossy darkness of ebony. of religious establishments. So in. The three Greek Fathers, whom the dustrious were the churchmen of the writer before us has selected, are in early ages in the inculcation of this general considered the most able and monstrous doctrine, that we find the eloquent of any ; and of their merits Bishop Heliodorus insinuating it, as our readers shall presently have an a general principle of conduct, through opportunity of judging, as far as a the seductive medium of his Romance few specimens from Mr. Byod's transTheagenes and Chariclea. The se- lations can enable theni :

-But, for cond maxim, .equally horrible,' says our own parts, we confess, instead of Mosheim, “though in a different point wondering with this gentleman that of view, was, that errors in religion, his massy favourites should be doomed when maintained and adhered to after to a temporary oblivion,' we are only proper admonition, are, punishable surprised that such affected declaimers with civil penalties and corporeal tor- should ever have enjoyed a better fate; tures.' St. Augustine has the credit or that even the gas of holiness with of originating this detestable doctrine; which they are inflated, could ever to him, it seems, we are indebted for have enabled its coarse and gaudy vefirst conjuring up that penal spirit, hictes to soar so high into the upper which has now, for so many hundred regions of reputation. It is South, years, walked the earth, and whose we believe, who has said that in orvotaries, from the highest to the der to be pious, it is not necessary to meanest, from St. Augustine flown to be dull;' but, even dullness itself is Doctor Duigenan, from, the perse- far more decorous than the puerile cutors of the African Donatists to the conceits, the Haunting metaphors, and calumniators and oppressors of the all that false finery of rhetorical deIrish Catholics, are all equally dis. clamation, in which these writers have * graceful to that mild religion, in whose tricked out their most solemn and imname they-have dared to tornient and portant subjects. At the time, indeed, subjugate mankind,

when they studied and wrote, the With respect to the literary merits glories of ancient literature had faded ; of the Fathersø it will hardly be de. sophists and rhetoricians had taken nied; that to the sanctity of their sub. the place of pbilosophers and orators ; jects they owe mnych of that imposing nor is it wonderful that from such ineffect which they have produced upon structors as Libanius they should the minds of their admirers. We have learn to reason ill and write affectedly. no doubt that the incoherent rhapso- But the same flurid effeminacies of dies of the Pythia (whom, Straþo tells style, which in a love-letter of Phius; the ministers of the temple now lostratus, or an ecphrasis of Libanius, and thenhelped to a verse) found many are harmless at least, if not amusing,

*an orthodox critic among their hearers, become altogether disgusting, when mtwho preferred them to the sullimest" applied to sacred topics ; and are little

strains of Homer or Pindar, Indeed, less offensive to piety and good taste, } the very last of the Fathers, St. Gre than those rude exbibitions of the old gory the Great, has at guce settled moralities, in which Chrisť and his the point for all critics of theological apostles appeared dressed out in writings, by declaring that the words trinkets, tinsel, and embroidery. The of Divine Wisdom are nut amenable chief advantage that % scholar can now to the laws of the vulgar grammar of derive from a perusal of these volumithis world ; non debent verba ca- nous doctors, is the light they throw lestis originis subesse regulis Donati.' upon the rites and senets of the PaIt must surely be according to some gans; in the exposure and refutation such code of criticism that Lactantius of which they are, as is usually the has been ranked above Cicero, aurt case, much more successful than in the that Erasmus himself has ventured to defence and illustration of their own. prefer St. Basil to Demosthenes. Cven In this respect Clemens 'Alexandrinus the harsh, muddy and unintelligible is one of ihe most valuable; bring Tertullian, whom Salmasius gave up chiefly a compiler of the dogiras of in despair, has found a warm admirer atrcient learning, and abouncing with

1

eurious notices of the religion and li- his letters to them, in which his
terature of the Gentiles. Indeed the weakness for the sex rather interest.
manner in which some of the Fathers ingly betrays itself. It is in the con-
have been edited, sufficiently proves solatory epistles, particularly, that we
that they were considered by their discover these embers of his youthful
commentators as merely a sort of temperament ;---as in the 93rd to Ita-
inferior classics, upon which to hang lica, on the death of her husband, and
notes about heathen gods and philo- the 263rd, to Sapida, in return for a
sophers. Ludovicus Vives, upon the garinent she had set him, in the
• City of God' of St. Augustine, is an thonghts of which there is a cousi-
example of this class of theological derable degree of fancy as well as
annotators, whom a hint about the tenderness.
three Graces, or the god of Lampsa- We cannot allude to these fair cor-
cus, awakens into more activity than respondents of Augustine, without
whole pages about the Trinity and the remarking, that the warmest and best
resurrection.

allies of the Fathers, in adopting their
The best specimen of eloquence we fancies and spreading their miracles,
have met among the Fathers, at least appear to have been those enthusias-
that which we remember to have tic female pupils hy groups of whom
read with most pleasure, is the Cha- they were all constantly encircled ;---
risteria, or Oration of Thanks, de. whose imaginations required but little
hvered by Gregory Thaumaturgus, fuel of fact, and whose tongues would
to his instructor Origen. Though not suffer a wonder to cool in cir.
rhetorical like the rest, it is of a more culating. The same peculiarities of
manly and simple character, and does temperament, which recommended
credit alike to the master and the dis- females in the Pagan world, as the
ciple. But upon the whole, perhaps fittest sex to receive the inspirations
St. Augustine is the author whom of the tripod, made them valuable
if ever we should be doomed, in pe- agents also in the imposing machinery
nance for our sins, to select a Father of miracles. At the same time it must
for our private reading-we should be confessed that they performed ser-
choose, as, in our opinion, the least vices of a much higher nature; and
tiresome of the brotherhood. It is that to no cause whatever is Chris-
impossible not to feel interested in tianity more signally indebted for the
those struggles between passion and impression it produced in those pri-
principle, out of which his maturer mitive ages, than to the pure piety,
age rose so triumphant; and there is the fervid zeal, and heroic devoted-
a conscious frailty mingling with his ness of the female converts. In the
precepts, and at times throwing its lives of these holy virgins and ma-
shade over the light of his piety, truns, in the humility of their be-
which gives his writings an air pecu- lief and the courage of their suffer-
liarly refreshing, after the pompous ings, the gospel found a far better il-
riyidity of Chrysostom, the Stoic af- lustration than in all the voluminous
fectation of Clemens Alexandrinus, writings of the Fathers :---there are
and the antithetical trifling of Gregory some of them, indeed, whose adven-
Nazianzen. If it were not too for the tures are sufficiently romantic, to sug-
indelible stain which his conduct to gest materials to the poet and the no-
the Donatists has left upon his me- velist; and Ariosto himself has con-
mory, the pluilosophie mildness of his descended to borrow from the le-
Tract against the Manicha ans, and gends his curious story of Isabella and
the canuour with which he praises his the Moor,---to the no small borror of
heretical antagonist Pelagius, as'sanc- the pious Cardinal Baronius, who
tum, bonum et prædicaudum virnm,' remarks with much asperity on the
would have led us to select him as an sacrilege of which “ that vulgar poct'
example of that tolerating spirit, has been guilty, in daring to intro-
which--- we grieve to say --is so very duce this sacred story among his fic-'
rare à virtue among the saints.--. tions. To the little acquaintance these
Thougb Augustine, after the season women could have formed with the
of his follies was over, very sedulously, various dogmas of ancient philosophy,
avoided the society of females, yet he and to the unincumbered state of their
corresponded with most of the holy minds in consequence, may be attri-
women of his time; and there is a buted much of that warmth and clear-**
strain of tenderness through many of ness, with which the light of Chris-

Original Letter of George Fox's. fanity shone through them; where to folios, posterity, at least, has been s, in the learned heads of the Fa- nothing the worse for them; nor thers, this illumination found a more should we have known the strange dense and coloured medium, which notions of Saint Macrina about the timbed its celestial beam astray, and soul and the resurrection, if her brotinged it with all sorts of gaudy ima- ther, Gregory of Nyssa, bad not raginations. Even where these women ther officiously informed us of them, indulged in theological reveries, as in the dialogue he professes to have had they did not embody their fancies in- with her on these important subjects.

MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS.

THE

Original Letter of George Fox's. Friends live in the peaceable life and SIR, Brumley, Jan. 8th, 1815. truth that the Lord may be glorified THE following is a copy of a let- in you all, that hath purchased and

ter from George Fox, some va- bought you. I did write from Banrations in spelling excepted. It was bury and E. Man from London, and addressed to his wife, who was the concerning the black cloth Edward widow of Judge Fell. The original Renald to take care about it. And hiter is in my possession, indorsed by that you might return that money my father, as “ George Fox's own you speak of to E. Man for me. And enting." It appears to have been I have been at London about a week, sritten in 1674, when a prosecution and have a copy of my indictment, was pending against him for worship- and nothing is done as yet, but they ping God as his conscience dictated, would be willing to get it off, and we and for obeying the command of shall see this term. Christ, “ Swear not at all,” by refus- “ 'j he people of the sessionst was ing to take the oath of allegiance and like friends and the Lord's power was supremacy. The details of this pro- over all, and they are very fair. Gersecution are given in his Journal, pp. rard Roberts was with some of 402–480.

Worcestershire officers since they The letter is curious in several re- came to London, and (they] do prespects : Ist. As to what it says "con- tend much, some of them that moved ceraing-black cloth," the use of formerly for my going to Worcester. which does not seem to have been E. Fell was well lately and Margaret, proscribed in George Fox's family. but her boy is very weak, the Lord 2d. Brief as this unquestionably au- strengthen it; poor woman, she is thentic epistle is, the writer of it exercised, but I would have her get twice uses the pronoun

you" in

a place of rest, and to settle her mind addressing his wife, although he says in. This is John Jay, that had his fn bis Journal, p. 22, “ When Tae neck broke out of tlıe joint, that I do Lord sent me into the world," mean- send this by. So iu haste my love in ing about the 24th year of his age, the life,

G. ff." *I was required to thee and thou all Kingston, Month 3d, Day 17th." men and women, without any respect

« While we were at Shrewsbury, to nich or poor, great or small.” 3d. in East Jersey," [in 1672) says George This letter is said to have been sent Fox, p. 446, u an accident befel, by a person “that had his nick broke which for the time was a great exercise out of the jent," I suppose from to us; John Jay, a friend of Barbadoes kingston upon Tbames to Swarth- who came with us from Rhode Island, taore Hall, in Lancashire, where he and intended to accompany us through sesided after his marriage. I subjoin the woods to Maryland, being to try he warrative of this siugular accident a horse, got upon his back, and the and recovery from his Journal p. 446, forse feli a running, cast him down and remain, very respectfully, upon his head, and broke his neck, as

THOMAS FOSTER. the people said. Those that were “Dear Love, to whom is my love with him took him up as dead, carried in the Seed that is over ail, and to him a good way, and laid him on a Thomas and all the children. And tree. I got to him as soon as I could; Thomas Lower, his wife's son-in-law,

† At Worcester,

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and feeling him, concluded he was ment. The result was an increase of dead. As I stood by him pitying him conviction, that the orthodox Theoand his family, I took hold of his hair, logy has originated principally in and his head turned any way, his misconception of the meaning of the neck was so limber. Whereupon I Apostle Paul in his letters to the took his head in both my hands, and different Churches; and that this setting my knees against the tree, I misconception has arisen from inattenraised his head, and perceiving there tion to the circumstances both of the was nothing out or broken that way. writer and the Churches, and to the Then I put one hand under his chin, occasion and object of the letters. and the other behind his head, and After the critical question it seemed raised his head two or three times lawful and just to examine the system with all my strength, and brought it itself, and see if its features are such in. I soon perceived his neck begin as indicate probability of truth. It to grow stiff again, and then he began was not too much to require, that it to rattle in his throat, and quickly be free from contradiction, that proafter to breathe. The people were fessing to illustrate it shall not deamazed; but I bade them have a stroy the moral attr butes of deity, good heart, be of good faith, and carry that it maintain the paternal as well him into the house. They did so, as the judicial character of God, since and set him by the fire. I bid them Christianity asserts both, that it tend get him something warm to drink, not to confuse all moral perception by and put him to bed. After he had requiring that we admire the display been in the house a while he began of justice where the human under. to speak; but did not know where standing discerns only the want of he had been. The next day we pass. it, and that it shall not forbid the ed away (and he with us, pretty well) appeal to human reason while there about sixteen miles, to a Meeting at system is founded on the supposition Middletown, through woods and of analogy between the divine govern. bogs, and over a river; where we ment, and human jurisprudence, swam our horscs, and got over our- the collected reason of man. It may selves upon a hollow tree. Mauy be objected in limine, that to prohundred miles did he travel with us

a divine proceeding unjust after this".

because the justice is not apparent to

ile partial view of a finite underReasons for rejecting the Calvinistic standing, is both arrogant and im Theology. No. I.

pious. The proposition is true; but Blackheath, Jan. 2, 1815. as an objection to the examinatiou of THEN a child I was taught to any doctrine which professes to be

Christitrines which is contained in the As. anity proclaims itself to be a display sembly's Catechism, and which is of divine wisdom and goodness to the a good exhibition of the Calvinistic mind of man, a revelation of as much creed, as the genuine doctrine of of the divine government as it is ne. Christianity. In youth I saw reason cessary that he should know, in order to question the identity of Christianity to contemplate the moral character of and Calvinism, and came at length to his Creator with adoration, gratitude believe that they are as far removed and coufidence. It declares, that as truth and falsehood. But retaining God is just and true and merciful, as I do a respect almost to deference that as judge of all he cannot do for the talents and virtues of many, wrong, that as father of all be is inbetween whose religious tenets and finitely good to all, and that his those of the Westminster divines government is without partiality, re. there is little or no difference, I have jecting all distinctions but of moral thought it Loth decent and safe, to quality. Glory, honor and peace to re-consider ju maturer years the every man who does good, to the reasons, which have convinced me,' Jew first and also to the Gentile, for that the Calvinistic system is not there is no respect of persons with Cliristianity. In this review it seemed. God. It is also certain, that the best to examine, first of all, the direct: Apostles of Christ regarded, the evidence ou both sides by a critical Christian dispensation as an

èmanation reading of the books of the New Testa- of those moral attributes which they

nounce

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ascribed to God, and that they in- proceeding, and could not be explainvited and exhorted all men to ex- ed in any other terms than such as anine and receive their doctrine as are taken from the proceedings in being not only the truth, but such courts of jadgment. Nothing is built truth as gave evidence and display of upon the parental relation to all and the divine perfections. This was an each of mankind. It stands as it appeal to the moral part of our nature, might have stood, had the relation be. call it reason, the moral sense, or with tween God and man, universally, the Apostle the law of God written in never been described in the Christian our hearts, whatever phraseology be Scriptures to be that of a father and chosen, the fact is the same: and their his children; and for this reason it appeal was either without meaning wants that amiable and attractive or it meant, that taking the words character which meets us in every justice, goodness and mercy to denote page of the New Testament, that such moral qualities as they are gen- benign radiance which, falling upon erally used to denote among men, it the ordinary charities of our nature, appears, and appears to the human kindles them into devotion. If in any understanding in the Christian revela- part of the scheme the paternal mind is tion, that God is infinitely just, good, displayed, it is in the institution of an and merciful. It is then, irrelevant atonement for sin, that the merciful and frivolous to object, that human father may pardon those whom the reason is out of its limits when it righteous judge must condemn; but presumes to inquire if any proceeding since it was also predetermined (for ascribed to the moral governor of the this makes a link in the system,) that world be merciful or cruel, just or a part only of the offending family unjust. In this inquiry such a use shall receive the benefit of this instituis made of reason, or of the moral tion, with respect to the rest of manfaculty, as was challenged and de- kind, that is, the vast multitude of the manded by the first preachers of the non-elect, the judicial character alone gospel; and therefore it must be ac- has been displayed. . If offers of peace knowledged by every Christian to be have been made to them, the grace a lawful use of the faculty. Indeed it which was necessary to acceptance of would be absurd to attribute to Chris- them, though granted to the chosen, tian doctrine any instrumentality in has been withheld from them; and forming thc moral character, if the they perish beneath the sentence of boral perfections of the divine Nature, the law, having received none of the though exerted in the Christian E- benefit of a filial relation. Had the conomy, were not also displayed to Roman father spared one of his human apprehension. On any other equally guilty sons and ordered the supposition the exhortation to he other to execution, the survivor might followers of God, or to imitate his recognize the father, but the viction moral character, would be trifling at of public justice only the judge: who best, and in connexion with some could applaud either the father or the religious tenets might be pernicious in judge ? Yet he who was taught of the extreme. Believing then, that it God has commanded us to imitate our is not only lawful, but incumbent on father who is in heaven ; 'be ye per. me, to examine whatever professes to fect, as your Father who is in heaven be the scheme of the moral govern- is perfect.'. ment of God disclosed in Christianity' 2dly. The system which I reject by the light of my moral faculties, makes moral responsibility to exceed which is also “light from heaven," i the measure of ability. If any pro. have jadged it rigtit to make the position may be regarded as an axiom Calvinistic creed the subject of such in morals, this is one, that there canexamination; and I shall now add not exist an obligation to perform some reasons which appear to me what is naturallg impossible. No conclusive against its pretensions to man is obliged to perform miracles. be considered the true form of Christ. It is said, that every man inherits a ian doctrine.

corrupt nature, which is incapable of 1. In that system we contemplate the perfect obedience to the divine law. Supremë Being, in his relation to the Perfect obedience, therefore, would whole race of man, solely in a judicial be contrary to luis nature, and whether Character. It presents to " u * tegal the deviation from a law of nature

be wa ANTU GHIV.

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