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to these compositions. No author ever kept his fervoar, that he brought to his poetic labours a verse and his prose at a greater distance from mind replete with learning, and that his pages each other. His thoughts are natural, and his' are embellished with all the ornaments which style has a smooth and placid equability, which , books could supply; that he was the first who has never yet obtained its due commendation. imparted to English numbers the enthusiasm of Nothing is far sought, or hard-laboured; but the greater ode, and the gayety of the less ; that all is easy without feebleness, and familiar with he was equally qualified for sprightly sallies, and out grossness.

for lofty flights ; that he was among those who It has been observed by Felton, in his Essay freed translation from servility, and instead of on the Classics, that Cowley was beloved by following his author at a distance, walked by every muse that he courted; and that he has his side ; and that if he left versification yet imrivalled the ancients in every kind of poetry but provable, he left likewise from time to time tragedy.

such specimens of excellence as enabled succeedIt may be affirmed, without any encomiastic / ing poets to improve it.

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En kyun09. Ur Sie John DENHAM very little is known but | fessed, and perhaps believed, himself reclaimed ; what is related of him by Wood, or by himself. and, to testify the sincerity of his "repentance,

He was born at Dublin in 1615;* the only son wrote and published. “An Essay upon Gamof Sir John Denham, of Little Horseley, in ing." Essex, then chief baron of the Exchequer in Tre- He seems to have divided his studies between daud, and of Eleanor, daugh of Sir Garret law and poetry: for, in 1636," he translated the More, baron of Mellefont.

second book of the Æneid. Two years afterwards, his father, being made Two years after, his father died; and then, one of the barons of the Exchequer in England, notwithstanding his resolutions and professions, brought him away from his native country, and he returned again to the vice of gaming, and lost educated him in London. "!!

several thousand pounds that had been left him. In 1631 he was sent to Oxford, where he was 1642, “ . This considered as a dreaming' young man, given seems to have given hith his first hold of the more to dice and cards than study : " and there- public attention ; for Waller remarked, “ That fore gave no prognostics of his future eminence; he broke out like the Irish rebellion; threescore nor was suspected to conceal, under sluggishness thousand strong, when nobody was aware, or in and laxity, a genius born to improve the litera- the least suspected it; an observation which ture of his country.

could have had no propriety, had his poetical When he was, three years afterwards, re- abilities been known before ***.16.18 moved to Lincoln's Inn, he prosecuted the com- He was after that pricked for sheriff of Surry, mon law with sufficient appearance of applica- and made governor of Farnham Castle for the tion; yet did not lose his propensity to cards and King; but he soon resigned that charge, and redice; but was very often plundered by game-treated to Oxford, where, in 1643, he published

“ Cooper's Hill." Being severely reproved for this folly, he pro- This poem had such reputation as to excite

the common artifice by which envy degrades ex

cellence.-A report was spread, that the per• In Hamilton's Memoirs of Count Grammont, Sir formance was not his own, bui that he had John Denham is said to have been 79 when he mar. bought it of a vicar for forty pounds. The samo ried Miss Brook, about the year 1664: according to attempt was made to rob Addison of Cato, and. which statement he was born in 1585. But Dr. Pope of bis Essay on Criticism. Johnson, who has followed Wood, is right. He en

In 1647, the distresses of the royal family retered Trinity College, Oxford, at the age of 16, in 1631, as appears by the following entry, which I quired him to engage in more dangerous emcopied from the matriculation book:

ployments. He was entrusted by the Queen Trin. Coll. " 1631. Nov. 18. Johannes Denham, with a message to the King; and, by whatever Essex, filius J. Denham, de Horsley parrà in

means, so far softened the ferocity of Hugh com. prædicta militis annos natus 16."-Malone.

Peters, that by his intercession admission wan

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procured. Of the King's condescension he uncertain'; a second marriage brought upon him has given an account in the dedication of his so much disquiet, as for a time disordered his works.

understanding ; and Butler lampooned him for He was afterwards employed in carrying on his lunacy. I know not whether the malignant the King's correspondence; and, as he says, lines were then made public, nor what provocadischarged this office with great safety to the tion incited Butler to do that which no provoroyalists: and, being accidentally discovered cation can excuse. by the adverse party's knowledge of Mr. Cow- His frenzy lasted not long ;* and he seems ley's hand, he escaped happily both for himself to have regained his full force of mind; for he and his friends.

wrote afterwards his excellent poem upon the He was yet engaged in a greater undertaking. death of Cowley, whom he was not long to surIn April, 1648, he conveyed James the duke of vive; for on the 19th of March, 1668, he was York from London into France, and delivered buried by his side. him there to the queen and prince of Wales. Denham is deservedly considered

as one of the he published his translation of “ Cato fathers of English poetry.

“ Denham and Major."

Waller,” says Prior, “improved our versificaHe now resided in France as one of the fol- tion, and Dryden perfected it.” He has given lowers of the exiled king; and to divert the specimens of various composition, descriptive, melancholy of their condition, was sometimes ludicrous, didactic, and sublime, enjoined by his master to write occasional ver- He appears to have had, in common with alses; one of which amusements was probably his most all mankind, the ambition of being upon ode or song upon the Embassy to Poland, by proper occasion " a merry fellow," and in comwhich he and Lord Crofts procured a contribu- mon with most of them to have been by nature, tion of ten thousand pounds from the Scotch or by early habits, debarred from it. Nothing that wandered over that kingdom. Poland was is less exhilarating than the ludicrousness of at that time very much frequented by itinerant Denham; he does not fail for want of efforts : traders, who, in a country of very little com

he is familiar, he is gross; but he is never merry, merce and of great extent, where every man unless the « Speech against Peace in the close resided on his own estate, contributed very Committee” be excepted. For grave burlesque, much to the accommodation of life, by bringing however, his imitation of Davenant shows him to, every man's house those little necessaries to be well qualified. 103, which it was very inconvenient to want, and Of his more elevated occasional poems, there very troublesome to fetch. I have formerly is pérhaps none t'at does not deserve commenread, without much reflection, of the multitude dation. In the ve ses to Fletcher, we have an of Scotchmen that travelled with their wares in image that has since been often adopted :fi ver Poland ; and that their numbers were not small, the success of this negotiation gives sufficient Bat whither am I stray'd ? I need pot raise evidence. sid.48

Trophies to thee, from other men's dispraise; About this time, what estate the war and the

Nor is thy fame on lesser ruins built,

Nor need thy juster title the foul guilt gamesters had left him, was sold, by order of the

of Eastern kings, who, to secure their reign, 101 parliament; and when, in 1652, he returned to

Must have their brothers, sons, and kindred slain. England, he was entertained by the earl of Penbroke, eurobu.

After Denham, Orrery, in one of his prologues, Of the next years of his life there is no ac

U109 At the restoration he obtained that

Poets are sultans, if they had their will ; which many missed the reward of his loyalty ;

For every author would his brother kill. being made surveyor of the king's buildings, and And Pope,

314.75 6918 !!

ju. Onintos Star dignified with the order of the Bath. He seems now to have learned some attention to money,

Should such a man too fond to rule alone, salute for Wood says, that he got by this place seven

Bear, like the Turk, no brother near the throne. thousand pounds. After the restoration, he wrote the poem on excelled by his poem to Fanshaw, and his Elegy

But this is not the best of his little pieces: it is Prudence and Justice, and perhaps some of his

on Cowley. other pieces : and, as he appears, whenever any terious question comes before him, to have been aman of piety, he consecrated his poetical powers * In Grammont's Memoirs, many circumstances to religion, and, made a metrical version of the are related, both of his marriage and his frenzy, Psalms of David. In this attempt he has failed; / very little remarkab, to his cha

e to his character.—R. + It is

Tell

that Jolinson shoula not have but in sacred poetry who has succeeded ? :/4"}

recollected, that this image is to be found in Bacon. It might be hoped that the

of his mas

Aristoteles more othomannoram, regua : re se haud ter, and esteem of the e

tuto posse putabat, nisi fratres suus, omnes contra him happy. But human felicity is short and

now make

udasset.—De angment, scient. lib. iii. 25 atau ir

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His praise of Fanshaw's version of Guarini ciously collected, and every mode of excellence contains a very sprightly, and judicious character separated from its adjacent fault by so nice, a of a good translator : tsis torte abstrybuss line of limitation ; the different parts of the sen

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tence are so accurately adjusted, and the flow That servile path thou nobly dost decline,

th and sweet;, that Of tracing word by word and line by line. Those are the labourd birth of slavish brainst;' soit the passage, however celebrated, has not been

praised above its merit. It has beauty peculiar Not the effect of poetry, but paios; 4 UAS 2014};) Cheap vulgar arts, whose parrowness affords II

to itself, and must be numbered among those fer

be produced at will by wit No flight for thoughts, but poorly stick at words. 1 ch cannot be A new and nobler way thou dost pursue, in greaty

but must arise unexpectedly in some - To make translations

translators tog.zoitesb

hour

to poetry: They but preserve the ashes ; tho

thou the flame, He appears to have been one of the first that True to his sense, but truer to his

understood the necessity of emancipating trans

hr ein vd Bonn The excellence ence of these lines is greater, as the interpreting single words. How much this ser

of ruth which they contain was 'n not at that time vile practice

Se obscured the clearest and deformed generally known. "qati

: beautiful paine works of meni

ancient authors, His poem on the death of Cowley was his last

, the most i aña, among his shorter works, his best perform

Torsions

some of them are ance: the numbers are musical, and the thoughts well qualified, not only by critical are just. non mo" ftLuba vei of 2189098 31.1.

but by poetical genius,

who belowledge,

a mistaken i Cooper's Hill” is the work that conifers upon ambition of exactness, him the rank and dignity of an original author.

and themselvátegraded at once'thie

ont roqu groa "10 960 He'seems to have been, at least among us, the

originals

better way, but has not author of a species of composition t that may be

versions denominated zocal poetry, of which the funda: Virgil not pleasing, but with addition of such

Tully on Old Age' has

de” has neither the Clearness

the sprightliness of poetry.

of proses more to retrospection or incidental meditation.stm.10) To trace a hew scheme of poetry, has initi

The strength of Denhat," which Pope 'so

emphatically mentions, is to be found self a very high claim to praise, and its praise is lines and couplets, which convey'i

much meaning yet et more when it is apparently copied by Garth

in few words, and exhibit the sentiment with and "Pope ;*Tafter whose names little will qbe more eie gained by an enumeration of smaller poets, that buition ad$ to 1011*9 dooni tooliw5577 have left searcely a corner of the island not diga DI PAT VI TI915 ON THE THAMESS dt agm191072 10 nified either by rhyme or blank verse. Though with those 'stteatis He to resemblance hora, “ Cooper's Hid,” if it be maliciously inspec- Whose foam is amber, and their gravel gold; ve '913

be found without its faults. The His genuine and less guilty wealth t'explore, nghive digressions are too long, the morality too fre- Search not his bottom; but survey kis shores poda quent, and the sentiments sometimes do ło 19tvo vd bloc?sw Aid j141 hod 2191291 will not bear a rigorous inquiry odd senty

of banu347 Od ,ON STRAFFORD. bis : JA19mdi'leq The four verses, which, since Dryden has His wisdom such) at once ittata appear i bavigoi commended them; almost every writer for a Three kingdoms' wonder, and three kingdoms' feärid century past has imitated, are generally known: While single befatood forth, and seem?d, although

Each had an army, as, an equal toegift JA O could I flow like thee,

Tote thee, and make thy stream Such was his force of eloquence, to make more in ur My great example, as it is my theme!

e hearers more concern'a than

spake : seem'a to act he

ee II V1140 Though deep, yet clear; though gentle, yet not dull; Each Strong without rage, without o'erflowing

And none was more a looker-on than her byningib

So did he moves our passions, some were known won The lines are in themselves not perfect for To wish, for the defence, the crime their own. W 101 most of the words, thus artfully opposed, are to Now private pity strove with public hate hasenost be understood simply on one side

side of the
the compaseasompana
Reason with rage, and

d eloquence wit

11 Nonton A rison, and metaphorically on the other; and if Eid te amor SON COWLEY. "I had gebung there be any language that does not express in

S os hoa 29:19iq "19811:3 tellectual operations by material images into 19 Author was unknown1290 DOIS

wrote was an his that language they cannot be translated. But

Horace"s wit, and Virgil's state, isiq lo svemu wo much

meaning is comprised in so few words; He did not steal, but emulater has toigi97 of the particulars of resemblances are so perspica-b-And when he would like tbem appear, o emise!

Their garb, but not their clothes, did wear oi tid By Garth, in his “ Poem on Claremont;" and As one of Denham's principal

of by Pope, in bis“ Windsor Forest.

posterity arises from his improve

a

to be

ted, will not

is such as

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ment of our numbers, bis versification ought to out difficulty, by following the sense; and also be considereda - It will afford that pleasure for the most part as exact at least as those of which arises from the observation of a man of other poets, though now and then the reader is judgment, naturally right, forsaking bad copies shifted off with what he can get: by degrees, and advancing towards a better practice as he guins more confidence in hinaself.' 11.11

O how transforma?

How much unlike that Hector, who 'returned to read In his translation of Virgil, written when he

Clad in Achilles' spoils !
was about twenty-one years old, may be still,
found the old manner of continuing the sense And again :
ungracefully from verse to verse !..

From thence a thousand tesser poets sprung
-Then all those

Like petty princes from the fall of Rome. ?
Who in the dark our fury did escape,
Returving, know our borrow'd arms, and shape,

Sometimes the weight of rhyme is laid upon
And differing dialect; then their numbers swell a word too feeble to sustain it.,
And grow upon us; first Choroebeus fell ;11

-Troy confounded falls
Before Minerva's altar: next did' bleed

From all her glories : if it might have stood
Just Ripheus, whom no Trnjan did exceed
In virtue, yet the gods his fate decreed.

By any power, by this right hand it shou’d.

And though my outward state misfortune hath! They Hypanis and thee, Pantheus, thy piety,

Dymas, wounded by Their friends ; por

Deprest thus low, it cannot reach my faith. Nor consecrated from the same

-Thus, by his fraud and our own faith o'ercome,

A feigoed tear destroys us, against whom Di fate could save, ny country's funeral flame

Tydides nor Achilles could prevail,
And Troy's cold ashes Tattest, and call

Nor ten years conflict, nor a thousand sail.”
To witcess for myself, that in their fall
No foes, no death, por danger, I declin’d,
Did, and deserved, po less, my fate to find.

He is not very careful to vary the ends of his

verses ; in one passage the word die rhymes From this kind of concatenated 'metre he three couplets in six.' afterwards refrained, and taught his followers Most of these petty faults are in his first prothe art of concluding their sense in couplets ; ductions, where he was less "skilful, or 'at' least which has perhaps been with 'rather too much less dexterous in the use of words; and though constancy pursued. Did km

they had been more frequent, they could only This passage exhibits one of those' 'triplets have lessened the grače, not the strength, of his which are not unfrequent in this first essay, but composition. He is one of the writers that imwhich it is to be supposed his maturer judgment proved our taste, and advanced our language; disapproved, since in his latter works he has and whom we ought therefore to read with gratotally forborn them."' 1151 034

titude, though, having done much, he left much "His rhymes are such as' seem found with to do. 1111100 311 01011 me 1.1.1 1751,11! In"!! 20 at 14

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The life of

, Milton has been already written in His grandfather, John, was keeper of the forso many forms, and with such min

minute inquiry, est of Shotover, a zealous papist, who disin. that I might perhaps, more properly have con- herited his son because he had forsaken the retented myself with the addition of a few notes ligion of his ancestors. on Mr. Fenton's elegant Abridgment, but that His father, John, who was the son disinhea new narrative was thought necessary to the rited, had recourse for his support to the profesuniformity of this addition.

sion of a scrivener. "He was a man eminent for John Milton was by birth a gentleman, de- his skill in music, many of his compositions bescended from the proprietors of Milton, near ing still to be found; and his reputation in his Thame, in Oxfordshire one of whom forfeited profession was such, that he grew rich, and reps his estate in the times of York and Lancaster. tired to an estate. He had probably more than Which side he took I know not; his descendant common literature, aš his son addresses himn in Inherited no veneration for the White Rose. one of his most elaborate Latin poems lla

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married a gentlewoman of the name of Caston, éve

' ; but they taide no great expectations ; theyr: a Weleh family, by whom he had two sons, would in any numerous sehool have obtained John, poet, and Christopher, who studied praise, but not excited wondet. mot roerte sinna the law, and adhéred, as the law taught him, to Many of his elegies appear to have been writuri the King's party, for which he was a while per- ten in his eighteenth year, by which it appears i secuted; but having, by his brother's interest, that he had then read the Roman authors withi: ohtained permission to live in quiet, he support- very nice discernment. b once cheard Mr. ed himself so honourably by chamber-practice, Hampton, the translator of Polybius, remark," that, soon after the accession of King James, he what I think is true that Milton was the first i was knighted, and made a judge ; but, his con- Englishman who, after the revival of letters, as stitution being too weak for business, he retired wrote Latin verses with classic elegance. If before any disreputable compliances became ne- any exceptions can be

man ride of

they Elizabeth's cessary wisata ini

Haddon and Ascham, He had likewise a daughter, Anne, whom he reign, however they have succeeded in prose, no married with considerable fortune to Edward sooner attempt verse than they provoke yderi: Philips, who came from Shrewsbury, and rose sion. If we produced any thing worthy of ne in the Crown-office to be secondary : by him tice before the elegies of Miltong it was perhaps she had two sons, John and Edward, who were Alabaster's Roxana.* Pluring out 1990nul educated by the poetz and from whom is derived of the exercises which the rules of the Unithe only authentic account of his doméstic mari- versity required, some were published by him

*** Pierluigh 24 ** *3 vs in his maturer years. They had been undoubtJohn, the poet, was born in his father's

house, edly applaudes, for they were such as few scan at the Spread Eagle, in Bread-street, Dec. 9, perform ; yet there is reason to suspect that he 1608, ,between six and s

zseven in the morning. was regarded in his college with no great fondHis father &

Sappears to have been very, solicitous ness. That he obtained no fellowship is cerabout his education ; for he was instructed at tajn; but the unkindness with which he . first by private tuition, under the care of Tho- treated was not merely negative. I am ashamed. mas Young, who was, afterwards chaplain to to relate, what I fear is true, that Milton was the English merchants at Hamburgh, and of one of the last students in either University whom we have reason to think well, since his that suffered the public indignity of corporal scholar considered him as worthy of an episto-correction, lary elegy.

It was, in the violence of controversial hostilHe was then sent to St. Paul's School, under ity, objected to him, that he was expelled; this the care of Mr. Gill; and removed, in the be- he steadily denies, and it was apparently noth ginning, of his sixteenth year, to Christ's Col- true; but it seems plain, from his lege, in Cambridge, where he entered a sizar,*. to Diodati, tiamictured rustication, a Feb. 12, 1624.

temporary

the country, with He was at this time eminently skilled in the perhaps the loss of a term: Latin tongue; and he himself, by annexing the dates to his first compositions, a boast of which Me tenet urbs reflcâ quam Thamesis alluit unda, the learned Politian had given him an example, Jam nec arundiferum mihi cura revisere Camum,

Meque nec invitum patria dulcis-habetowwww seems to commend the earliness of his own pro- Nec dudum vetiti me laris angit amor.-ficiency to the notice of posterity. But the Nec duri libet usque minas perferre magistri, products of his vernal fertility have been sur-Ceteraque ingenio non subeunda meo. passed by many, and particularly by his con- Si sit hoc exilium patrios addiise pepates, temporary Cowley. of the powers of the

Et vacuum curis otia grata sequi, mind it is difficult to form an estimate : many Non ego vel profugi nomen sortemve recuso

Lætus et exilii conditione fruor. have excelled Milton in their first essays, who never rose to works like Paradise Lost.

I cannot find

even kindnese ve uses till he is six

reverence can als, which teen, he translated or versified two Psalms, 114 vetiti laris, <a habitation from which he is excitde* and 136, which he thought worthy of the public ed;"> or how exile can be otherwise interprétédot

He declares yet more, that he is weary of endur

ing the threats of a rigorous master, and some o In this assertion Dr. Johnson was

way mistaken. thing else, which a temper like his cannot undergo. Milton was

aamitted a pensioner, and what was more than threat was probably pun." College ReciciJohan

Sg extract as will appear

the

Milton Londinensis, provés likewise that it was not perpetual; for Alius Juhannis; institutus fuit in literarum elementis it concludes with a resolution of returning some sub Mag'ro Gili Gymnasit Paulini, præfecto; admis. sus est Pensionarius Minor Feb. 120, 1624, sub M'ro Chappell, solvitg, pro logrol, 108.0d."-R.,200 46200 * in Published 1632.-R.

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