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she should follow. I sunpose, said the queen dowager, that you are going to dismiss Pombal. The young queen, who was of a mild disposition, and felt the danger of her new situation, answered in a faultering tone: I suppose I must'; since every body wishes it. In that case, answered the queen-mother, cease from this moment to transact business with him. She foresaw that in seven or eight audiences, the crafty minister would have obtained a complete ascendency over the mind of the young queen; and would have persuaded her that the country could not be saved, but by him.
The marquis de Pombal, after his disgrace, retired to his estate of Oeyras; where he sought, and found, the means of ending his days in peace: a circumstance not very usual for disgraced ministers, in that country. A single trait will show the line of conduct to which he was indebted for that signal favour. His estate lay at no great distance from Coimbra, the bishop of which city had been for several years shut up in a dungeon, by order of the marquis of Pombal. On the disgrace of that minister he was reinstated in his see, amidst the acclamations of his flock; and to enjoy his triumph more fully, he immediately set about visiting his diocese, before the enthusiasm of the people had time to cool. In the course of his apostolical journey, he stopped, perhaps, on purpose, at the village belonging to Pombal, and close to his residence. This circumstance excited universal expectation. As soon as the ex-minister knew of the arrival of the bishop, he sent to inquire, at what hour he would be pleased to receive him. He was punctual to the time appointed, and began by throwing himself at his feet; nor did he rise till he had received his blessing. They afterwards remained in conversation for a quarter of an hour. The bishop returned the visit, punctually. As soon as Pombal saw the coach entering the gate, he ran to meet it; flew to the carriage door, and threw himself again on his knees, to receive the good prelate's blessing. At the foot of the stairs, the bishop met Pombal's daughter, who went through the same ceremonies, &c. The exiled minister followed the same line of conduct towards the monks, whom he detested and despised so much. And to many this may seem to imply no ordinary degree of meanness. But the clergy were all-powerful under the new reign; and the slightest want of respect to one member of this body, might have provoked the rea sentment of the whole. Pombal had, besides, in the person of the queen's husband," a personal enemy, eager to seize every opportunity of avenging his private injuries, on the discarded minister, who now wished only to end his days in peace.
In his retreat, Pembal continued to indulge his fondness for study. Well informed people affirm, that he kept a constant correspondence with the queen, on the various objects connected with government. Several political publications were expected as the produce of his leisure hours; but those expectations have been disappointed; whether through the interference of the Portuguese government, is not known. He died on May 8, 1782.
Were we to give our opinion on the character of this famous statesman, we should not hesitate in saying, that the marquis de Pombal was a man much above the ordinary level of mankind. Circumstances, indeed, eminently favoured the display of his great abilities, in a contracted sphere. An earthquake brought his country to a chaos-like confusion ; thousands of cons
Don Pedro, who was at the same time her uncle. He never forgave Pombal ; because that minister advised king Joseph, his brother, to have him arrested, as being implicated in the conspiracy of 1756.
comitant disorders were to be remedied, or prevented ; a capital was to be rebuilt ; soon after, a conspiracy was formed against the 'life of his sove. reign; great and powerful criminals were to be punished ; a powerful society, the Jesuits, had become dangerous to the state, and was to be suppressed; Pombal had, besides, two wars to maintain, with inadequate means; his country wanted establishments of commerce and manufactures ; he had ancient prejudices to silence, and powerful enemies to humble, &c. Surely an ordinary man would have been crushed under the accumulated weight of so many enterprises. M. de Pombal boldly undertook them, and succeeded. He had vices, no doubt; but men must be strangely blinded by partiality, to deny his eminent qualities. Above all, he possessed that firmness of mind, that undaunted resolution, which, indeed, lead sometimes to the commission of crimes, but without which, no man ever achieved great things.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE MONTHLY MAGAZINE
IT often happens that some of the limbs of fruit-trees, trained against a wall, are blighted, and die; while others remain in a healthy and flou. rishing state. This evil is, by gardeners, generally attributed to the effects of lightning. But; if this were the case, would not the violent action of the electrick fluid produce a laceration of the branch and stalk of the tree? No such effect is to be perceived. It therefore appears to me that we must seek some other cause for this evil, and I flatter myself that I have disco. vered the real one.
A few years since, when Galvanism was first introduced to publick notice, I constructed a pile, consisting of about one hundred plates of copper, and as many of zink, each about two inches square. Among other experiments, I applied it to the branch of a tender plant (a species of the ficoides). Having left it for about an hour, on my return I found the branch withered, and hanging close to the stalk. It immediately occurred to me that Galvanism might be the cause of the aboveinentioned defect in wall fruit trees, occasioned by the oxidation of the nails, by which they are oftentimes fastened (for I conceive Galvanism to be produced, in a greater or less degree, by every metal passing into a state of oxidation). Recollecting that the limb of a cherry tree in my garden had, nearly a year before, been fastened to the wall with an iron cramp, I instantly examined it, and found it dead; though, when fastened, it was a flourishing, healthy limb, at least an inch in diameter, and nine feet in length.
I have since examined several peach and nectarine trees; and wherever I discovered a limb dead, I invariably found that one or more of the nails which fastened it, were in contact with the bark. A limb of a peach trec puzzled me for some time. It was dead, but I could not perceive that any of the nails were in contact with it (the scraps of cloth being left pretty long). After a narrow search, however, I found the mud, of which the wall was built, considerably stained with rust immediately under the branch: and on digging into the wall with my knife, I brought the hidden mischief to light-It was part of a very large spike nail, and which lay about an inch below the surface.
On mentioning some of those circumstances to a friend, he observed, that about a year before, he had-fastened some currant trees to a wall with iron hooks. Va examination, almost every limb so fastened was dead.
The effect of the Galvanism in these cases will probably be found to be greater in rainy seasons, as the oxidation then goes on more rapidly than it does at other times.
I could have wished to have made some further observations on this subject, before I communicated them to the publick ; but at present I have not the opportunity ; but I hope some of your numerous correspondents will attend to the subject, and communicate the result of their further observations through the channel of your valuable Magazine. Your's, &c. May 30, 1808.
ORATOR HENLEY. THIS eccentrick preacher, of whom it is not yet settled whether he was inspired or deranged, resided at one period in Craven-buildings, Drury Lane; and, we have been informed, used to dress like a beau, and frequent publick amusements. The celebrated Mrs. Bracegirdle lived in a house opposite to him. He is said to have aimed at the restoration of the ancient eloquence of the pulpit: but this is not correct. He affected, whether from motives of ridicule, or with a view to display his erudition, the mysterious denunciations of the Salian priests, combined with the inexplicable doctrines of the Sophists. And when he had sufficiently entangled the intellects of his auditors, would burst at once upon them with observations scriptural, classical, and elegant. From these he would sometimes again diverge to ludicrous descriptions of common life; instruct butchers how they should cut their joints; taylors, how they should make clothes; shoe. makers, in the expeditious mode of executing the business of the gentle craft; and mingle sense, absurdity, and enthusiasm in such a manner as to render his entertainments highly agreeable to the palates of his various guests.
One of his advertisements, for Sunday, the 29th of September, 1729, is curious :
" At the Oratory, the corner of Lincoln's-in-fields near Clare-market, to morrow, at half an hour after ten, 1. the postell will be on the turning Lot's wife into a pillar of salt. The sermon will be on the necessary power and attractive force which religion gives to the spirit of man with God and good spirits."*
“The Monday's orations will be shortly resumed. On Wednesday, the oration will be on the skits of the fashions, or a live gallery of family pictures, in all ages, ruffs, muffs, puffs, manifold shoes, wedding-shoes, twoshoes, slip-shoes, peals, clocks, pantofles, buskins, pantaloons, garters, shoulder-knots, perriwigs, head dresses, modesties, tuckers, farthingales, corkins, mioikins, slammakins, ruffles, round robbins, toilets, fans, patches ; dame, forsooth, madam my lady, the wit and beauty of my grannam, Winifred, Joan, Bridget, compared with our Winny, Jenny, and Biddy, fine ladies pretty gentlewomen : being a general view of the beau monde from before Noah's flood to the year 29. On Friday will be something better than last Tuesday. After each a BOB at the times.”
We dare not quote the next passage, for a reason which that useful divine, Jere. niah Collier, bas given, in bis View of the Impiety of the English Stage.
One of the advertisements of this singular character, we have heard, in vited the licensed victuallers of the metropolis to a lecture on “ Social Mo. rality.” After which he promises to inform them,“ how they shall sell more porter than they do at present."
It is little to be doubted, but that the Oratory was, on this important oc. Gasion, crowded with publicans. The orator was particularly animated and entertaining. He explained to them the nature of their situation; their duties ; descanted on the various characters of their guests, and many other collateral circumstances. At last, he said : “ My brethren, to perform my promise, and, by explaining to you how you shall sell more beer, endeavour to inculcate a moral duty, I must apprise you, that my instructions can never be forgotten, because they are comprised in three words :--" FILL YOUR POTS !”
GARRICK AND PREVILLE.
When Garrick was in France, he made a short excursion from the capiial with the celebrated Parisian performer, Preville. They were on horseback, and Preville took a fancy to act the part of a drunken cavalier. Garrick applauded the imitation, but told him, he wanted one thing, which was essential to complete the picture; he did not make his legs drunk. “ Hold, my friend," said he, “and I shall show you an English blood, who, after having dined at a tavern, and swallowed three or four bottles of port, mounts his horse in a summer evening to go to his box in the country." He immediately proceeded to exhibit all the gradations of intoxication. He called to his servant, that the sun and the fields were turning round him; whipped and spurred his horse until the animal reared and wheeled in every direction. At length he lost his whip; his feet seemed incapable of resting in the stirrups; the bridle dropped from his hand; and he appeared to have lost the use of all his faculties. Finally, he fell from his horse in such a death-like manner, that Preville gave an involuntary cry of horrour, and his terrour greatly increased when he found that his friend made no answer to his questions. After wiping the dust from his face, he asked again, with the emotion and anxiety of friendship, whether he was hurt ? Garrick, whose eyes were close, half opened one of them, hiccupped, and with the most natural tone of intoxication, called for another glass. Preville was astonished, and when Garrick started up, and resumed his usual demeanour, the French actor exclaimed : “ My friend, allow the scholar to embrace his master, and thank him for the valuable lesson he has given him."
There are two members in the house of commons, named Montagu Mathew, and Mathew Montagu ; the former a tall handsome man ; and the latter a little man. During the present session of parliament, the speaker, having addressed the latter as the former, Montagu Mathew observed, it was strange he should make such a inistake, as there was as great a difference between them as between a horse chesnut and a cheanut horse.
An Irish footman, having carried a basket of game from his master to a friend, waited a considerable time for the customary fee ; but not finding it likely to appear, scratched his head, and said: “Sir, if my master should say-Paddy, what did the gentleman give you ; what would your honour have me to tell him?"
ODE TO THE TEST WINDS. Come, in the globe-flower's golden laver BY JOHN HODGSON.
wash Whither, ye timid zephyrs, have you Your little hands with dew drops, and in
flown, Ye people of the west wind, tell me where Of evening tears, upon the leaves
You stretch your aromatick wings, of alchemilla, gertly plunge
Your beauteous limbs.
And banquet on th' ambrosia it affords? With spring to linger on the breezy shores Will you not in the wortle sit, Of Ebro, or the olive's leaf
And luscious nectar drink beneath To paint with everlasting green
Its ruby dome? On Tajo's banks O! you shall revel on Eliza's lip; Perhaps, you sport upon the golden sands Madden with rapture on its coral bloom, Of Niger, and, in heat meridian, dip
And, in her gentle eye, behold Your wings upon Anzico's plains ; The infant softness of your forms Or, in the cocoa vestured isles,
Reflected bright. Beyond the line, Come then, O genial winds, and in your Kiss the young plantain, and to dance way
Visit the fairest fountains of the sky; The simple natives call. O! ministers
And in the hollow of your hands, of health, and medicines that cure Bring each a precious drop to cheer The soul with sickness wo begone
That rule the north. As once this pledge appeared a token, From the fair pastures of the bright horn'd These follies had not, then, been mine; bull
For, then, my peace had not been Descending, on the orient shafts of day, broken. A thousand sylphs of heat are come
To thee, these early faults I owe,
To thee, the wise and old reproving :
They know my sins, but do not know, Already has the primrose decked for
'Twas thine to break the bonds of loving. you
3. Her fragrant palaces, and wide unfolds Their vestibule with yellow doors.
For, once, my soul like thine was pure, The purple spotted orchis, too,
And all its rising fires could smother ; Prepares his halls But now, thy vows no more endure, Of curious workmanship, where you may
Bestowed by thee upon another. spend
4. Your festal mornings, or, beneath the Perhaps his peace I could destroy, gloom
And spoil the blisses that await him,
Yet, let my rival smile in joy,
To eyes like yours.
BY GEORGE GORDON.