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Medicme - Pharmacy. OLD, 1221


Plate LXV TWEED Fig.3,

lat with Fig.S. Chajotli.


. d. from Chermes various.

Lamp Chronometer.

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(1.) * CHAFFWEED, n. fi [gnaphalium, Lat.) or gilt copper; the thread or wire of each kind An berb; the same with cudweed; which see. is very fine. In making these chains, a part


the wire is folded into little links of an oval form ; * CHAFFY. adj. (from chaf:] Like chaff; full the longest diameter about 3 lines; the shortest,

of chaff; light.-If the straws be light and chaffy, one. There, after they have been exactly solderqild and held at a reasonable distance, they will not ed, are again folded in two; and then interwoven, nile unto the middle. Brown.

by several other threads of the same thickness; "CHAFING DISH. n. f. [from chafe and dish.] fome whereof, which pass from one end to the or A reffel to make any thing hot in; a portable grate ther, imitate the warp of a stuff; and the others, for coals.-- Make proof of the incorporation of which pass transverse, the woof. There are at filver and tin in equal quantities, whether it will least 4000 little links in a chain of four pendants ; endure the ordinary fire which belongeth to cha- which are bound fo equally, and firmly together, brzdishes, posnets, and fuch other silver vessels. that the whole seems to consist of one entire piece. Bacon's Physical Remains.

Of late years, however, the manufacture of this CHAGAING, a city of Birmah, with a small kind of chains, has been almost entirely superfort. It is the principal emporium for cotton, feded by that of the polished steel ones; which which is brought from all parts of the country, are much superior in beauty, and are manufactuand embarked here for the Chinese market. Here red in gren variety of patterns and at all prices, at alia is the only manufacture of marble idols, Birmingham, Woodstock, &c. whence the whole Birman empire is supplied : (3.) CHAIN, in furveying, a measure, consifting more being allowed to be made in any other place. of a certain number of links of iron wire, usually The quarties where the materials are got are only 100, serving to take the dimensions of fields, &c.

a few miles distant. It is situated opposite Ava, This is what Mersenne takes to be the arvipendithe deserted capital, on the N. side of the Irawad- um of the ancients. The chain is of various di

47, which here runs N. and parts it from Umme- mensions, as the length or number of links varies: papour, the present capital.

that commonly used in measuring land, called (1.) CHAGFORD, a town near Tunbridge, Gunter's chain, is in length 4 poles or perches;

or 22 yards; or 66 feet or 100 links; each link CHAGFORD, near Dartmore, Devonshire. being 2 inches it. This chain is peculiarly adapt. province of Darien.

chains make exactly an English acre. Its chief 13.) CHAGRE, a fort at the mouth of the river, convenience is in finding readily the numbers conNo 1. It has been taken feveral times by the tained in a given field. Where the proportion of buccaneers, and last of all by Admiral Vernon in square feet and acres differ, the chain, to have 1:40. It lies a little SW. of Porto-Bello. Lon. 80. the fame advantages as Gunter's chain, muft alla 7. W. Lat.

be varied. Thus in Scotland, the chain ought to *CHAGKIN. 1. f. (chagrine, Fr.] Ill humour; be of 74 feet, or 24 Scotch ells, if no regard be had to vexation; fretfulness; peevithness. It is pronoun- the difference between the Scotch and English foot; ced shagreen.--I grieve with the old, for so many but if regard be had to this difference, the Scotch

additional inconveniencies and chagrins, more than chain ought to contist of 741 English feet, or 74 PHP their small remain of life seemed destined to under- feet 4 inches and $ of an inch. This chain being 8o. Pope's Letters.

divided into 100 links, each of these will be * To CHAGRIN. v. a. (chagriner, Fr.] To vex; 81 inches. That ordinarily used for large disa to put out of temper; to teaze; to make uneasy. tances, is in length 100 feet; each link one foot.

1.) * CHAIN. 11. 1. (chaine, Fr.] 1. A series of For small parcels, as gardens, &c. is sometimes Links faftened one within another.-And Pharaoh used a small chain of one pole or 16 feet length;

took off his ring, and put it upon Joseph's hand, each link one inch 46. Some instead of chains 21 * and put a gold chain upon his neck. Gen. xli. 42. use ropes; but there are liable to several irregu.

12. A bond; a matacle; a fetter; something with larities; from the different degrees of moisture, which prisoners are bound.

and of the force which itretches them. Schwen. Still in constraint your fuff'ring sex remains, terus, in his Practical Geometry, tells us, he has Or bound in formal, or in real chains. Pope. observed a rope 16 feet long, reduced to fifteen . A line of links with which land is meafured. in an hour's time, by the mere falling of a hoar - A surveyor may as fuon, with his chain, mea frost. To obviate these inconveniences, Wolfius fare out infinite space, as a philosopher, by the directs, that the little Arands whereof the rope quickest fight of mind, reach it, or, by thinking, consists be twisted contrary ways, and the rope cumprehend it. Locke. 4. A series linked toge. dipped in boiling hot oil; and when dry, drawn ther; as, of causes, or thoughts; a fucceffion; through melted wax. A rope thus prepared, will a fubordination. Those fo mistake the Christian neither gain nor lose any thing in length, even religion, as to think it is only a chain of fatal de. though kept under water all day. Crees, to deny all liberty of 'man's choice toward

(4.) Chain is also a measure used in France, for good or evil. Hammond.

wood, corn, hay, &c. (2.) CHAIN alfo denotes a kind of ffring, of (5.) Chains are made of various matters, and fi wifted wire; serving to hang watches, tweezer-ca- zes and for divers uses.-- Ports, rivers, &c. are clofe), and other valuable toys upon. The invention fed with iron chains: The arms of the ci-devant of this is ascribed to the English; whence, in fo. kingdom of Navarre were, Chains, Or, in a field, teign countries, it is denominated the English chain. Gules. The kings of Spain had leagued againit the These chains are usually either of gold, filver, Moors; and having gained a great victory over


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(2.) CHALDE PARAPHRASS, in the rabbinical

leucia on the W. Cyrrhestica on the N. Apamene in the 3d century, who wiote a commentary ce and Cælefyria on the S. and Chalybonitis on the E. Plato's Timæus, which is eftvened. This word being so called from its principal city CHALCIS. has been trandated from the Greek into Latin. This province, one of the most fruitful in Syria, (1.) CHALCIS, a mountain of Ætolia. was seized by Ptolemy the son of Mennæus during (2-5.) CHALCIS, the name of 4 ancient citie; the troubles of Syria, and by him made a separate viz. !. in Etolia, near the mouth of the Evcnus, kingdom. Ptolemy himself is called by Josephus on the lonian Sea, at the foot of the mountain and llegelippus only prince of Chalcis, but his fon (N° 1.) and therefore called by fome HYPOCHALE Lysanias is itiled king both by Jolephus and Dio. cis: 2. the capital of Chalcidere in Syria, dear Upon the death of Antiochus Dionylius king of Libanus, and a mountaia or river called Betu; Syria, Ptolery attempted to make himielf mafter hence distinguished by Pliny, by the epithets

, and of Damascus and all Cælefyria ; but the inhabi- Libanum, and ad Belum ; 3. in Chalcidice, nie at tants, having an utter avertion to him on account Olynthus: and, 4. in Eubaa, on the Euript', of his cruelty, chose rather to submit to Aretas the country of the port Lycophrott. king of Arabia, by whom Antiochus and his whole (1.) CHALCITIS, an illand opposite to Chalce. army had been cut off. He opposed Pompey on don, mentioned by Pliny. his entering Syria ; but was by him deteated, (2.) CHALCITIs, one of the divisions of Melo taken prisoner, and sentenced to death; which, potamia, S. of Anthemusia, the most northern however, he escaped by paying 1oco talents, and dillrict, next to Armenia, and ftuated between was alfo left in the potession of his kingdom. Edella and Carra, After Ariftobulus king of Judea had been poison * CHALCOGRAPHER. 17. f. lx aixoyage, a ed by the friends of Pompey, and Alexander his 2n)6, brass, anxi zgapu, to write or engrave.] As. son beheaded at Antioch, he sent Philippion his engraver in brass. son to Alcalon, whither the widow of Ariftobulus * CHALCOGRAPHY. n. Lyanan papas) had retired with her other children, to bring them graving in brafs. all to Chalcis; proposing, as he was in love with CHALCOLIBANON, a word which occurs is one of the daughters named Alexandra, to main- the Apocalypse of St Jolin, and which is generally tain them in his own kingdom in a manner suit- translated bra's; but which, Mr Chambers lys able to their rank: but Philippion, likewise being interpreters lave very much misunderstood. ka in love with Alexandra, married her on the way; forned of zeaxes, brals, and olibanum, frankincené; for which prelumption Ptolemy put him to death and he argues when the name of a metal is preko on his return, and then took her to himself. On ed to another word, it only denotes the thing to b... account of lis affinity, he supported to the utmost be of the colour of that metal. He therefore you may of his power Antigonus the younger son of drif- translates it, frankincense of the colour of brass.. tobolus, who took the field at the head of a cone CHALCOMB, a village in Northamptonshire, fiderable army, but on his entering Judæa was near Oxford. entirely defeated by Herod. Ptolemy foon after (1.) CHALCONDYLAS, Demetrius, a learned -14 died, and was succeeded by his son Lyfanias; Greek, born at Conftantinople, who left that city who, espauling the cause of the Asmonæan family after its being taken by the Turks, and afterwards with great warinth, promised to Barzaphernes taught Greek in several cities of Italy. He canwho commanded the Parthian troops in Syria, poled a Greek grammar; and died at Milan ini terlet, and to Pacorus the king's son, 1ooo talents and

(2.)CHALCONDYLAS, Laonicus, a famous Greek paid bir 500 women, provided they foukl put Antigonus historian of the 15th century, born at Athens. fle in poflellion of the kingdom of Judæa, and de- wrote an excellent history of the Turks, from Oipore Hyrcanus. He was not long after put to toman, who reigned about A. D. 1300, to Mabodeath by Marc Antony, at the instigation of Cle- met II. in 1463. opatra; who accused him falfely of having enter CHALCOPTHONGUS, a species of black ed into an alliance with the Parthians, that the marble mentioned by Pliny, which when druck might get poflellion of his dominions.

upon, founded like brals. CHALCIDIC, CHALCIDICUM, or CHALCEDO

CHALCUS, (zamxos, Gr.] See FER EOLUS. NIUM, in ancient architecture, a large magnificent CHALCAIC. See CHALDEE, Ş 1, 2.. hall belonging to a court of justice. Pertus says, CHALDEA, in ancient geography, 1. in a larze it took its name from the city Chalcis. Philander senie, included Babylonia ; as in the prophecies ci will have it to be the court where affairs of money Jeremiah and Ezekiel. and coinage were regulated; so called from zeaxos, denoted a province of Babylonia, towards Aratia brass, and dixn, junice. Others fay, the money Deserta ; called in Scriptute The land of the Congo was sruck in it; and derive the word from canxos

, deans. It is said to have been named from Chaled and ciros, houfe. In Vitruvius, it is used for the the 4th son of Nahor. See Babylonia, IRAC d. auditory of a bafilica; in other ancient writers for a

RABIA, and ASTRONOMY, Index. liall where the heathens imagined their gods dined. CHALDEANS, the people of Chaldea.

(1.) CHALCIDICE, in ancient geography, an CHALDECOTE, a village in Purbeck iks eanern district of Macedonia, stretching north- Dorteilhire, E. of Smedmore. wards between the Sinus Toronæus and Singiti. (1.) CHALDEE, OF CHALDAIC, LANGUAGE: cus; formerly a part of Thrace, but taken by that spoken by the Chaldeans. It is a dialect er Philip.


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2. In a restricted leate, it



paraphrases in Walton's Polyglot ; viz. 1. of On With chalk I first describe a circle here, Keios; 2. of Jonathon fon or Uziel; and 3. 'of Je

Where these ethereal fpirits must appear. Drsd. ruglem. See Bible, $ 19.

(2.) CHALK, CRETA, is a white earth found * CHALDER. CHALDROK. CHAUDRON. n. f. plentifully in Britain, France, Norway, and other A dry Englifl measure of coals, contiting of ,36 parts of Europe, snid to have been ancienily dug buthels heaped up, according to the fealed bushel chiefly in the island of Crete, and thence to have kept at Guildhall

, London. The chaldron fhould received its name Creta. They have a very easy weigh 2000 lb. Chambers.

way of digging chalk in the county of Kint in CHALDON, EAST, two towns in Dorsetshire, England. It is there found on the rides of hills;

CHALDON WEST, } between Wareham and and the workmen undermine it fo far as appears Weymouth.

proper; thien digging a trench at the top as far CHALDOWN, NE. of Ryegate, Surry. distant from the edge as the undermining goes at CHALDRON. See CHALDEK. On shipboard, bottom, they fill this with water, which foaks ni chaldrons of coals are allowed to the score. through in the space of a night, upon which the (3.) CHALDWELL, a town NE. of Tilbury, whole fake falls down at once. In other parts of Elex

the kingdom, chalk generally lies deeper, and they (1) CHALE, a river of China, which rises in are forced to dig for it at considerable depths, the kingdom of Lafia, and falls into the Gulf of and draw it up in buckets. Chalk whether burne Cochin China.

into lime or not, is in many cales an excellent (2.) CHALE, a village in the Isle of Wight.

See RURAL ECONOMY. Pure chalk CHALESWORTH, in the Peak of Derby. melis easily with alkali and fint into a transparent CHALEUR BAY, a deep broad bay of North colourless glass. With alkaline falts it melts Tome. America, W. of the Gulf of St Lawrence. what more difficultly, and with borax more easily, CHAL.FONT ST Gires ; ? two villages, near than with flint or sand. It requires about half its CHALFONT ST PETERS; } Amersham, Bucks. weight of borax, and its whole weight of alkali, CHALFORD, two towns; 1. in Biley parish, to fuse it. Sal mirabile and fandiver, which do Gloucestershire ; 2. one mile from Oxford. not vitrify at all with the crystalline eartlis, form CHALGRAVE, two villages ; 1. in Bedford- with half their weight of chalk, the first a yellowthire

, S. of Tuddingham : 2. in Oxfordshire, NE. ith black, the latter a greenish, glass. ' Nitre, one of Dorchester,

of the most active fluxes for fint, does not per11.).* CHALICE. 17. f (calic, Sax, calice, Fr. fe&lly vitrify with chalk. This earth notably pro. calyx, Lat.) 1. A cup or bowl.

motes the vitrification of flint; a mixture of the When in your motion you are hot,

two rcquiring less alkali than either of them lepaAnd that he calls fordrink, I'll have prepar'dhim, rately. "If glass made from flint and alkali is furA chalice for the nonce,

Shakespeare. ther saturated with the fint, fo as to be incapable 2. It is generally used for a cup used in acts of of bearing any further addition of that earth witli

worship.-All the church at that time did not out becoming opaque and milky, it will still in a *think emblematical figures unlawful ornaments on strong fire take up for f of its weight of chalk, cups or chalices. Stilling fleet.

without injury to its transparency. Hence chalk (2.) CHALICE (§ 1. def. 2.) is peculiarly applied is sometimes made use of in compositions for glass, to the cup used to adminifter the wine in the sa as a part of the falt may then be {pared. Chalk crament, and by the Roman Catholics in the mass. has also a great effect in melting the stony matters The use of the chalice, or communicating in both intermixed with metallic ores, and hence might kinds, is by the

urch of Rome denied to the be of use in smelting ores: as indeed limestone is laty, who communicate only in one kind; the used for that purpose. But when deprived of its clergy alone being allowed the privilege of com- fixed air, and converted into limestone, it loses municating in both kinds ; in direct opposition to much of its disposition to vitrify. It then nielts our Saviour's words, “ Drink ye all of it.”. very difficultly and imperfectly, and renders the

CHALICED. adj. [from calyx, Lat. the cup glass opaque and milky. Chalk readily imbibt's of a flower.) Having a cell or cup: applied by water; and hence matics of it are einployed for Shakespeare to a flower, but now obsolete. drying precipitates, lakes, carthy powders that Hurk, hark! the lark at heaven's gate sings, have been levigated with water, and other moist And Phaebus 'gins arise,

preparations. Its uses in cleaning and polishing His steeds to water at those springs,

metalline or glass utensils are well known. When On chalic'd flowers that lies. Shakesp. powdered and walied from any gritty matter it CHALIZA, in the Jewish customs, the cere. contains, it is called WHITING. 'In inedicine it is mony whereby a widow pulls off her brother-in one of the most useful absorbents, and is to be law's thoes, who should espouse her, and thus is considered fimply as such. The attringent virtues, at liberty to marry whom ihe pleases.

which some have attributed to it, have little toun. (1.) * CHALK. n. S. (cealc, cealestan, Sax. calck, dation, unless in fo far as the earth is faturated Welch.) Chalk is a whitish foffile, usually reckon- with an acid, with which it composes a faline coned a stone, but by some ranked among the boles. crete manifefly sub-aftringent. See CHEMISTRY, It is used in medicine as an absorbert, and is cele- Index: brated for curing the heartburn. Chambers.-Chalk (3.) Chalk, in geography, a town of Kent, is of two forts; the hard, dry, strong chalk, which near Northheet, is best for lime; and a soft, unctuous chalk, which (4.) CHALK, BLACK, a name given by painters is bef for land, because it easily diffolves with to a species of earth with which they draw on rain and frost. Martiner.

blue paper, &c. It is found in pieces from 2 to


pical objection agai

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larly is the black earth called KILLOW, faid by Dr great clover will do. The best manure is daogaon, the jury it Merret, in his Pinax Rerun Britannicar 4997, to be old rags, and the sheep dung left after folding beber aliens (if c

CHALLANS, a town of France, in the departe cent in Englar 15.) CHALK, RED, an earth much used by pain- Abbey was much celebrated. It lies 17 miles La vie crown of Eng

ment of the Upper Loire. Its late Benedidins the statute de

Did hear a challenge urg'd more modeftly. Shakespiticular jurors;

Left greedy eyes to them might chalenge basis on lipicion of (6.) CHALK, SILVER. See ARGENTARIA, N° 2. -There mult be no challenge of fuperioris. Bachalenges to th

Busy with oker did the shoulders mark. State judges or i discountenancing of freedom. Collier of Friendly leads by Sir F

party, or he IT 2. To manure with chalk.--Land that is chalked, number is excepted against, as partially impanas bume, I

conllenge to the jurours is divided into chele, ela loppofititi

You are mine enemy, I make my tballoy "This Tay

to feet long, and from 4 inches to 20 broad, ge CHALK-HEAD, a village in Cumberland, neart bearer of such nerally flat, but somewhat rising in the middle, Caldbeck.

ease and imprisonmei and thinner towards the edges, commonly lying CHALK-HILL, near Dunstable, Bedfordshire.

See Duel. in large quantities together. While in the earth, * CHALK-PIT. 1. f. [from chalk and pit.) A3the law of 1 it is moist and Raky: but being dried, it becomes pit in which chalk is dug. See CHALK-CUITER. or made to jurors, considerably hard and very light; but always CHALK-STONES, in medicine, fignify the con passical cales. breaks in some particular direction ; and if atten- cretions of calcarous matter in the hands and S, I CITIL CASE: tively examined when fresh broken, ar pears of a feet of people violently afflicted with the gout. kmpte


and ftriated texture. To the touch it is soft and smooth, Leuwenhoek examined these by the microscope; stains very freely, and by virtue of the smoothness but his observations and distinctions have led to 32 TO THE ARRAY, makes very neat marks. It is easily reduced into nothing useful, with regard to the nature of cwe smp be made i an inipalable foft powder without any diminu- of the disease.

siz default of the tion of its blackness. In this state it mixes calily CHALK-STREET, a village in Kent, between anarayed the parel. with oil into a smooth paste; and being diffused Chalk and Gravesend. through water, it Nowly settles in a black llimy CHALRWELL, near Settingbourn. Kent.

bi te panel at the n or muddy form; properties which make its use (1.) * CHALKY. adj. (from chalk.) 1. Cosa noon of either party very convenient to the painters both in oil and ifting of chalk; white with chalk,water colours. It appears to be an earth quite As far as I could ken the chakly cliffs, different from common chalk, and rather of the When from thy more the tempest beats us back csod; but by ftatut Naty bituminous kind. In the fire it becomes I food upon the hatches in the storm. Shakespea ta aboliked upon aj white with a reddish cast, and very friable, retain 2. Impregnated with chalk.--Chalky water to lattes; and u ing its fiaky ítructure, and looking much like the wards the top of earth is too fretting. Bacon. white flaky malles, which some sorts of pit coal (2.) CHALKY LAND.

Barley and wheat face leave in burning. Neither the chalk nor thele athes ceed very well on the better fort of chalky dando a bre. The aita are at all affected by acids. are fupplied with this earth from Italy or Ger- The natural produce of this fort of Land in wela sa upon a rule obtai many, though some parts of England afford fuhis that fort of small vetch, called the time to the heart is a jury dem stances nearly, if not entirely, of the Lime quali- with poppies, may-weeds &c. Saintoil and the presente e retumed by the ty, and which are found to be equally serviceable clover will generally succeed pretty well on the end. Edward 111.c. found in Lancashire; and by Mr Da Cofla, in his them. history of foffils, to be plentiful near tlie top of Cay-Avon, a high bill in Merionethihire. Itrs and artificers, and common in the colour of Brioude. Shops. It is properly an indurated clayey ochre; (1.) * CHALLENGE. n. f. [from the verb] and is dug in Germany, Italy, Spain, and France, 1. A summons to combat.but in greatest quantity in Flanders,

It is of

I never in my life å fine, even, and firm texture ; very heavy and very hard ; of a pale red on the outside, but of a

2. A demand of something as due.deep dusky chocolate colour within.

It adheres

Taking for his younglings, firmly to the tongue, is perfectly insipid to the taste, and makes no with acids.

(7.) CHALK, Yellow. See TRIPOLI. * TO CHALK. v. a. (from the noun.]

I. To

3. (In law.] An exception taken either agant rub with chalk.

persons or things; persons, as in aflīze to the jare The beastly rabble then come down

ours, or any one or more of them, by the po From all the garrets in the town,

foner at the bar. Challenge made to the jurouts Aad stalls and fhopboards in vast swarms, is either made to the array, or to the poil:

With new chalk'l bills and rusty arms. Hudib. Challenge made to the array is, when the whole if it is well dunged, will receive but little be. led: , nefit from a second chalking. Mortimer.

againstnot : mark or trace out as with chalk. Being not propt by ancestry, whose grace

, and cause: cballenge pro Chalks fuccellours their way. Sbakespeare. cipal is that which the law allows without cause -Elis own mind chalked out to him the juit pro- alleged, or farther examination; as a proloner portions and measures of behaviour to his fellow the bar, arraigned upon felony, may puremptors creatures. Soub.

chullenge to the number of 20, one after anotta, * CHALK-CUTTER. 11. /[from chalk and cut of the jury empannelled upon him, alleging A man that diys chalk.-Shells, by the seamen cause. Cowel.---called chalk egos, are dug up.commonly in the balk-pirs, where the balk-cutters drive a great

You shall not be my judge, trade with them. I'aodward,

(II.) A CHALLENGE to fight a duel, by word CHALKDOWN. See CHALDOWN

place, for the more

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