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sesses the power of pronouncing sen- The Diocese of Lund, which contence in cases where the students sists of Scania and Blekingæ, and have been guilty of any misbehaviour, contains 427 churches, on an extent but has no power over more serious of 118 Swedish square miles. offences.

The Diocese of Gothenburg, which All matters touching religion, the contains the counties of Bohns and public means of instruction, and the Hallandia, with the Western part of sciences are submitted to the King by Westrogothia, and possesses 259 the Secretary of State for Ecclesias- churches, on an extent of 137 Swedish tical Matters. The latter possesses square miles. Do power whatever.

The Diocese of Calmar, which conSweden, as far as relates to the sists of a small part of Smolandia and Church, is divided into 12 dioceses, the isle of Eland, and contains 62 172 prewsteries or dignitaries, 1223 churches in the space of 64 Swedish rectories, 2400 parishes or congrega- square miles. tions, containing as many churches, The Diocese of Carlstad, which and 45 chapels.*

contains Werinlandia, vith the excep. The dioceses are,

tion of one parish, Dalslandia, and The Arch-Diocese of Upsala, which part of the mine-country, called Bergsincludes the counties of Uplandia and langen, in the county of Nerikæ. It Gefleborg, with a part of Westman- possesses 130 churches, on 192 Swe, landia ; forming in extent 294 Swe- dish square miles. dish square miles,t and containing The Diocese of Hernosand, which 244 churches.

contains the most Northerly parts of The Diocese of Linköping, which the provinces of Sweden: its extent consists of nearly all Ostrogothia, and is no less than 2062 Swedish square part of Imolandia, is in extent 183 miles, and it contains 136 churches. Swedish square miles, and the number The Diocese of Wisby, which conof its churches is 215.

sists of the island of Gothland, and The Diocese of Skara, which in- possesses 92 churches, on an extent cludes the greater part of Westrogo. of 27 Swedish square miles. thia, a district of Smolandia, and a The Archbishop is the most disparish of Wermlandia, and contains tinguished of the prelates, but he 363 churches, on an extent of 116 possesses no authority over them. At Swedish square miles.

the meeting of the States-General, he The Diocese of Strengnæs, which is the representative or spokesman of includes all Sodermania, the Southern the clergy. part of Nerikæ, a rectory of West- Each bishop superintends, in his manlandia, and another of Ostrogo- own diocese, all that relates to the thia : it possesses 159 churches, and affairs of the church and the means extends 12l Swedish square miles. of instruction. He is assisted by his

The Diocese of Westerose, which Consistorial Court, and by them his includes Dalekarlia, the greater part power is limited, as all decisions are of Westmanlandia, and one half of formed upon a plurality of votes. Nerikæ, and possesses 127 churches, When a clergyman is arraigned for on an extent of 387 Swedish square any offence connected with his office, miles.

the Consistorial Court has the power The Diocese of Wexiæ, which in. of examining the case and of dismisscludes the greater portion of Smolan- ing the offender, if the fault be of so dia, and possesses 186 churches, on serious a nature as to require such a an extent of 176 Swedish square course. miles.

The Bishop ordains all who take These chapels are small churches, orders, and instals the rectors. It is which are chiefly situated upon small also incumbent on hirn to travel islands among the out rocks. They ge- throughout his diocese, in order that nerally have separate clergymen, although he may see in what manner the priestthey do not form different parishes.

hood perform their duties, and inquire A Swedish square mile is 44 7's into the state of religious instruction English square miles, or 1,082,410,000 afforded to the community. His office Parisian feet,

does not oblige bim to preach.

Every district or parish has its in all towns where there are bishops. church; but a rectory generally con- They are elected in the same manner tains several districts, sometimes six as the other rectors. or seven. The rector, who has the The Church ceremonies are more care of these congregations, is ap- solemnly performed than those of the pointed, in soine cases, by the King, Reformed Churches, particularly on and, in others, by the Consistorial grand festivals. The use of candles Court. In the latter instance the upon the communion-table and the Court decides upon three candidates, pulpit at Christmas, is, however, owand the parish has the right of electing ing to there being so little day-light the one whom they may think proper. at the time of these holidays, as to be The Lord of the Manor sometimes often insufficient for the performance possesses the privilege of electing the of public worship. In addition to rector. This privilege is called Jus this, on Christmas-day early matins Patronatus.*

are held, when it is absolutely necesIn most places the rector has curates sary that the churches should be and chaplains to assist him. These lighted. In most towns matins are are always appointed and paid by the very frequently performed, and in the parish. The rector is also allowed a larger ones, on every Sabbath, there separate assistant, who is called an are Even-songs. In the country, where adjunct, when he arrives at a certain the number of churches often exceeds age, or possesses inany occupations. that of the clergymen in each rectory, The rector himself pays this assistant. but one sermon is preached, except

A contract or prewstery consists of on Christmas-day; and, in many six, ten, and sometimes fourteen rec- places, public worship is performed tories, and one of the rectors is called in rotation in the different churches the Contract-Prewst. In other cases of the rectory, one of them being the title of Prewst is conferred by the always without service. In the Westbishop upon any rector whom he may ern parts of Sweden, the clergyman please to select

is sometimes obliged to performa duty If a rector die after the 1st of May, in one church, and afterwards to travel his widow or heirs are entitled to the eight or ten English miles to preach profits of the rectory until the 1st of in another. There are some churches May next ensuing. If he leave a wi- in which service is performed but a dow, or children under age, they few times in the course of the year. receive, besides the above, an amount There formerly existed throughout equal to one year's profits, and if he Sweden a custom, which still prevails die poor, to an amount equal to two in some parts of the country, which is years' profits. These are called single this: the beadle walks up and down and double years of grace. In some the aisles during sermon-time, holding dioceses tliere are founded widow-seats in his hand a rod, and if he find any or habitations, the product of whichi individual napping, he strikes the the rector's widow collects while she floor with his staff; if this do not sucremains unmarried.

ceed in awakening the sleeper, he is at On the appointment of a bishop, liberty to rouse him by applying his each rector gives a vote to three in- rod to the shoulder of the offender. dividuals : these are not of necessity Another custom, which, however, is etergymen. The votes having been discontinued in the larger towns, is collected, three names which possess that of collecting money during the the greater number of votes are subé sermon, in a bag affixed to tlie end of mitted to the King, who has the power a long stick, which is often furnished of appointing the one whom he shall with bells. Of the money thus col. please, to the office of bishop. lected part is applied to the uses of

The Doctors of Theology are ap- the church, part is given to the priest, pointed by the King.

and part is devoted to charitable purThe Rectors of Cathedrals are called poses within the parish. For the same Doom-Prewsts or Deans, and reside object, plates are deposited at the

church doors, in the towns, after serSomne few parishes also possess the mon-time, into which individuals may Jus Patronatus.

drop their donations.

Sunday is generally selected by the who have served for the greater numpeasantry for the burial of the dead, ber of years are always entitled to a the baptism of their children, and for preference. the solemnization of marriage. The A new translation of the Bible has last is attended by several ceremonies been proposed in Sweden for upwards of different descriptions, according to of fifty years ; but not one has been. the difference of customs in each pro- produced, which has afforded satisfacvince: these are increased if the bride tion to the clergy. Particular parts and bridegroom possess much pro. of both the Old and New Testaments perty. For the purpose of baptism, bave, however, been translated with children are generally brought tó great ability, especially the Psalms of church ere they are eight days old: David, the book of Joh, and the printhey are sometimes taken to the house cipal parts of the Prophets, by Tingof the clergyman : in the latter case, stadius, Bishop of Strengnæs. During the priest desires that some of the the last year å new-modelled book of individuals of his house become spon- Psalıns was published, which will, in sers. The godfather and godmother, all probability, ere the close of this, at the baptismal ceremony, take upon he generally made use of in all themselves the responsibility of teach- churches. Dr. Wallin has had the ing the child the grounds of Christi.. principal znanagement of the publi-, anity, if its parents shall die during its cation, and is also the author of the tender years; but this is done condi- greatest as well as the finest part of tionally, that is to say, as far as cir- the new Psalms. As many of the old cumstances shall admit of their ful- ones as could well be retained, have filling this duty; and they possess no been preserved in this collection. authority over the child.

Through the instrumentality of the In the country, instruction is afford- late Archbishop Lindblom, a new book ed partly by the clerk of the parish, of Common Prayer and Liturgy has and partly in separate schools. In been adopted. It does not contain, many places schools have been erected however, any alteration in the church by private individuals, who have be- ceremonies, except that the exorcism stowed a piece of ground for the pure and the crossing at the administration pose. Other individuals have given of baptism are discontinued. The an annual stipend to the schoolinaster. customary church prayers have been In some instances the congregation corrected and altered, although not in has taken this affair upon themselves. every instance, to the improvement of The government interferes but little their expression. Lindblom likewise in this branch of instruction : never remodelled, and caused to be adopted theless, at the present moment there in the schools, the catechism of Lu. is scarcely any person in Sweden of a ther, to which was annexed, the exinature age who does not know how planation of Bishop Swebelius. This to read, and by far the greater part catechism contains several of the suare able to write.

perstitious doctrines of the 16th cenThe Lancasterian plan of tuition tury, which are not suited to the more has lately been practised in Stockholm enlightened opinions of the present and a few other towns.

age. The alterations effected by the In the towns, any child may be sent Archbishop Lindblom often evince a free of expense to the public institu- want of clear judgment, and have not tions, as the tutors are paid by the that consistency which the old regula. state, though not generally in a hand- tions possessed. A new arrangement soune manner. In some places they of the Epistles and Gospels is exreceive a compensation for their low pected.* salary in the following manner : every year which they have passed in the

* In Sweden, the clergyman does not performance of duty in the schools is select his own text for his sermon. The considered as equivalent to two years holiday throughout the year, and are

texts are appointed for every Sunday and passed in the exercise of any other collected in what are called books of official capacity; and this computation Evangelists, from their containing, in has great advantages when they stand every text, a longer or shorter extract as candidates for a living, as - those from the writings of the Evangelists. At

rate.

WE

• Among religious associations, those tills), are to be met with in most called the Bible Societies are most houses, and are particularly employed worthy of remark. These exist in in the country, where the distance from several towns, and liold correspon- Church renders it oftentimes difficult dence with each other. Their object to proceed thither. It is not unusual is partly to distribute Bibles gratis, to find the whole household engaged in and partly to furnish thenà at a cheap family prayers, the sermon being read

A society, calling themselves by the master of the house. Formerly the Evangelical Society, and whose it was customary for the distinguished President is the Counsellor of State, families to keep chaplains. Count Rosenblad, consists solely of

B. Hernbuthians; they print and distribute religious tracts, which principally Testimony to Christianity from contain relations of the conversion or

Lord Byron. death of some individual. Another TE seldom introduce the name society, which has adopted the motto of Lord Byron into the Monthof " Pro Fide et Christianismo,” is of ly Repository. We dare not express wore ancient foundation; it has pub- admiration, and we are unwilling to lished divers writings, which bear no join the ranks of those that, from such mark of any Dissenting principles. different motives, raise their voices

In Sweden there are no religious against him. He is now employed periodical publications deserving no- in a good work, the assistance of the tice. One of them, styled “ Accounts Greeks, and happy shall we be to see of the Progress of the Gospel," is of that in this philanthropic service he Hernhuthian principles, and is but is making amends to inankind for any little read. A journal, called " The injury which he may have done to Swedish Congregational Paper," was society by his writings. commenced this year, and contains A passage in one of his latest poems, matter relative to the history of the with a curious note upon it, has led Swedislı Church, biographies not very to the introduction of his name upon often connected with the same, and the present occasion. The passage, some criticisms, which are more ela- and still more the note, is ambiguous : borate than interesting. In each dio- we are eager to find in it some glimcese there is published what is called mering of returning piety, but the the Diocesal newspaper; but it relates flash of light in the text is succeeded little else besides clerical preferments by thick darkness in the note. The and deaths, statements of vacant rec- lines are as follows: tories, and ordinances relative to the clergy. Occasionally there are, like Experience is the chief philosopher,

But saddest when his science is well wise, short biographical notices of

known : deceased ininisters.

And persecuted sages teach the schools There are more works upon the. Their folly in forgetting there are fools. ology published in Sweden yearly, Was it not so, great Locke ? and greater than upon any other subjects; these

Bacon? consist principally of sermons, which Great Socrates ? And thou Diviver still, are sometimes formed into collections, whose lot it is by man to be mistaken, with an appropriate sermon for each And thy pure creed made sauction of Sunday and holiday throughout the all ill ? year. These collections, or fainily Redeeming worlds to be by bigots shaken, sermon-books (called in Sweden Pos. How was thy toil rewarded ?

We

might fill the commencement of each Gospel a Volumes with similar sad illustrations, short prayer is to be found, called the But leave them to the couscience of the Collect : then follows an extract from

nations. the writings of the Apostles, called the Epistle ; and after the Gospel is another

On the words “Diviner still,” the prayer. At Even-song the sermons are

Noble author has the following comfounded upon the Epistle; and at Matins ment : the priests are allowed to select their own “As it is necessary in these times text, Christmas-day excepted, when there to avoid ambiguity, I say, that I mean, are two Gospels appointed.

“ Diviner still," CHRIST. If ever

by

Bristol,

SIR,

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God was man-or man God-he was both. I never arraigned his creed,

February 4, 1824. Mr. Canning one day quoted Christi. of your valuable Miscellany, to anity to sanction Negro Slavery, and lay before the Unitarian public a few Mr. Wilberforce had little to say in observations on a subject which I reply. And was Christ crucified, that could wish had found, what it justly black men might be scourged? If so, merits, an equally able, as it has in he had better been born a Mulatto, to me a zealous advocate. give both colours an equal chance of It is that of Sunday-Schools. freedom, or at least salvation.”

As I am always solicitous to subThe belief of a God-man or Man- mit my sentiments with diffidence, I god is here put upon a condition shall beg to offer them in the phrasewhich renders it nugatory. “Your ology of inquiry : first adverting to if is a great peacemaker" to con- the cause which actuated their forthscience.

coming. Of the debate between Mr. Canning It is a fact, a lamentable fact, and and Mr. Wilberforce we have no re- to me no less a matter of regret than collection; and we doubt the correct- it is of surprise, that among Unitarian ness of the statement that the former Christians there are to be found those, gentleman “ quoted Christianity to and I fear many, who, if not averse, sanction Negro Slavery.” But sup- are manifestly indifferent to the teachpose that he did, and that others ad- ing of the poor, in other words, to mit his authority, it would not follow Sunday-Schools. that any Christians believe that Christ We are apt, and I allow with a dewas crucified that black men might be gree of propriety, to expatiate on the scourged! Here is, in fact, a com- palpable inconsistency which pervades plete non sequitur. The confusion the opinions and practice of modern of ideas is palpable. His Lordship's orthodoxy. We are apt to indulge rhodomontade seems to have been de- the smile of sarcasm, and the tear of signed to bring in the poor joke in the pity, at the absurdity of the means, last sentence, which means nothing, and the enthusiasm of the manner, and is only a proof of the writer's employed to propagate those opinions propensity to slide back to old habits. -opinions which we cannot but deem

We accept, however, from Lord the mere offspring of deep-rooted preByron, a testimony, at least disinter- judice, of a wild imagination, or of a ested, to the “pure creed," “ Di- tortured and debitated judgment. vine" character and exalted merits of But, Sir, is there not too inuch our Lord. He“ never,” he declares, room for a retort, though not to be “arraigned his creed, but the use or identified in species, yet in character abuse made of it.” This disavowval of no less reprehensible; when the Unihostility to the Christian religion is tarian is heard to condemn, as prejuso far good as it stops the mouths of dice or dissimulation, the credenda of smaller wits, who, under sanction of all who embrace it, not from convieLord Byron's name, have thrown out tion, and yet at the same time himself jests and sarcasms against Christianity, with hold 'the means, and those the and supposed them to be arguments. only means, by which that is to be May it not be further, a promise of accomplished—the means of instrucgood things to come”. May we tion ? not hope, that as this keen-eyed man Here, however, I would remark, begins to distinguish between the use that it is not a Unitarian education and the abuse of Christianity, he may which I mean; that would be defcating in the end be convinced of the truth the very end in view. It has ever been and excellence of the gospel, and re- my most scrupulous regard to avoid ceive the consolation which his anxious the least inculcation of any system of mind is looking for, in the belief and religion. For is it not as unreasonable profession of the pure doctrine of to expect a conscientious, unprejuJesus, and become, in a higher sense diced Unitarian, after an education in than he has yet been, the admiration that doctrine, as it is to look for it in and ornament of his specics ? the man whose ignorance renders him

incapable to judge for himself? Hence

VOL. XIX.

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