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that may otherwise limit implementation of its provisions in any particular geographical area abroad.
§ 42.3 Policy.
(a) The interception of wire and oral communications for law enforcement purposes is prohibited unless conducted in accordance with this part and applicable law.
(b) The only DoD components authorized to intercept wire and oral communications and conducts pen register operations under this part are the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force. Within these components, authority to use this technique shall be limited to those offices specifically designated in writing by the head of the component.
(c) Interception of wire and oral communications is a special technique which shall not be considered as a substitute for normal investigative procedures and shall be authorized only in those circumstances where it is demonstrated that the information is necessary for a criminal investigation and cannot reasonably be obtained in some other, less intrusive manner.
(d) Nonconsensual interception of wire and oral communications is prohibited unless there exists probable cause to believe that:
(1) In the case of interceptions within the United States, a criminal offense listed in 18 U.S.C. 2516(1) has been, is being, or is about to be committed;
(2) In the case of interceptions abroad conducted pursuant to an order issued by a military judge under $42.7(a)(1)(ii)(A), one of the following violations of the Uniform Code of Military Justice has been, is being, or is about to be committed by a person subject to the Uniform code of Military Justice under article 2, 10 U.S.C. 802:
(i) The offense of murder, kidnapping, gambling, robbery, bribery, extortion, espionage, sabotage, treason, fraud against the Government, or dealing in narcotic drugs, marihuana, or other dangerous drugs; or
(ii) Any other offense dangerous to life, limb, or property, and punishable by death or confinement for 1 year or more; or
(iii) Any conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses.
(3) In the case of other interceptions abroad, one of the following offenses has been, is being, or is about to be committed:
(i) An offense listed in 18 U.S.C. 2516(1); or
(ii) Fraud against the Government or any other offense dangerous to life, limb, or property and punishable under title 18 of the U.S. Code by death or confinement for more than 1 year; or
(iii) Any conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses.
(e) Consensual interceptions of wire and oral communications shall be undertaken only when at least one of the parties to the conversation has consented to the interception and when the investigation involves:
(1) A criminal offense punishable, under the United States Code or Uniform Code of Military Justice, by death or confinement for 1 year or more; or
(2) A telephone call involving obscenity, harassment, extortion, bribery, bomb threat, or threat of bodily harm that has been made to a person authorized to use the telephone of a subscriber-user on an installation, building, or portion thereof, under Department of Defense jurisdiction or control, and when the subscriber-user has also consented to the interception.
(f) The prohibitions and restrictions of this part apply regardless of the official use or dissemination of the intercepted information. Any questions as to whether the use of a particular device may involve prohibited wire or oral interception shall be submitted with supporting facts through channels to the general counsel of the Department of Defense for resolution.
(g) No otherwise privileged wire or oral communication intercepted in accordance with this part shall lose its privileged character.
$ 42.4 Waivers.
Waivers of the requirements enunciated in this part will be authorized on a case-by-case basis only when directed in writing by the Secretary of Defense. Waivers will be authorized only under the most limited circumstances and when consistent with applicable law.
$ 42.5 Responsibilities.
(a) The Department of Defense General counsel or a single designee, shall:
(1) Determine whether to approve or deny requests for authorization to conduct nonconsensual interceptions under this part (§ 42.7(a)(1) (i) and (ii)).
(2) Determine whether to seek Attorney General authorization for emergency nonconsensual interceptions ($ 42.7(a)(1)(iii)).
(3) In the absence of the Secretary of the military department concerned, or a designee, determine whether to approve or deny requests to conduct consensual interceptions (8 42.7(a)(2)(i)).
(4) Provide overall policy guidance for the implementation of this part.
(b) The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) (ASD(C), or a designee, shall:
(1) In consultation with the DoD General Counsel, act for the Secretary of Defense to insure compliance with the provisions of this part.
(2) Receive, process, and transmit to the DoD General Counsel all requests from the heads of the DoD components, or their designees, for authority to conduct nonconsensual interception of wire and oral communications.
(3) Furnish to the Attorney General those reports required by $42.7(f)(1) and provide a copy of such reports to the DoD General Counsel.
(4) Receive those reports required by $42.7(f)(1) and provide a copy of such reports to the DoD General Counsel.
(c) The head of each DoD component or a designee shall insure compliance with the policies and procedures set forth or referenced in this part.
(d) The secretary of each military department, or a designee, shall:
(1) Determine whether to approve or deny requests to conduct consensual interceptions (8 42.7(a)(2)(i)). This approval authority shall not be delegated to an official below the level of assistant secretary or assistant to the secretary of the military department.
(2) Review requests for nonconsensual interception of wire or oral communications (42.7(a)(1)).
(3) Designate a control point of contact and so advise the DoD General Counsel and the ASD(C) for:
(i) Interception activities and related applications covered by this part.
(ii) Compilation of reports and forwarding other submissions to the ASD(C) as required by the provisions of this part.
(iii) Maintaining a file of information regarding all interceptions of wire and oral communications by any element of the Department.
(4) Furnish to the ASD(C) the reports required by $42.7(f)(2).
(e) The judge advocate general of each military department shall assign military judges, certified in accordance with the provisions of article 26(b) of the Uniform Code of Military Justice, 10 U.S.C. 826(b):
(1) To receive applications for intercept authorization orders and to determine whether to issue such orders in accordance with $42.7(a)(1)(ii)(A). The authorization of such military judges to issue intercept authorization orders shall be limited to interceptions occurring abroad and targeted against persons subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice.
(2) To receive applications to conduct pen register operations and to issue orders authorizing such operations in accordance with $42.7(b)(1). The authority of such military judges to issue orders authorizing pen register operations shall be limited to operations conducted on a military installation and targeted against persons subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice.
(a) Abroad. Outside the United States. An interception takes place abroad when the interception device is located and operated outside the United States and the target of the interception is located outside the United States.
(b) Application for court order. A document containing specified information prepared for and forwarded to a judge of the U.S. district court or the U.S. court of appeals, or a military judge.
(c) Consensual interception. An interception of a wire or oral communication after verbal or written consent for the interception is given by one or more of the parties to the communication.
(d) Court order. An order issued by a judge of a U.S. district court or a U.S. court of appeals or by a military judge (k) United States person. For purposes of this part the term “U.S. person" means a United States citizen, an alien admitted to the United States for permanent residence, a corporation incorporated in the United States, an unincorporated association organized in the United States and substantially composed of United States citizens or aliens admitted to the United States for permanent residence.
(1) Wire communication. Any communication made in whole or in part through the use of facilities for the transmission of communications by the aid of wire, cable, or other like connection between the point of origin and the point of reception furnished or operated by any person engaged as a common carrier in providing or operating such facilities for the transmission of interstate or foreign communications. 18 U.S.C. 2510(1).
authorizing a wire or oral interception or a pen register operation.
(e) Electronic, mechanical, or other device. Any device or apparatus that can be used to intercept a wire or oral communication other than any telephone equipment furnished to the subscriber or user by a communications common carrier in the ordinary course of its business and used by the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of its business or used by an investigative or law enforcement officer in the ordinary course of duty (18 U.S.C. 2510(5)).
(f) Interception. The aural acquisition of the contents of any wire or oral communication through the use of any electronic, mechanical, or other device (18 U.S.C. 2510(4)). The term "contents” includes any information concerning the identity of the parties to such communication the existence, substance, purport, or meaning of that communication (18 U.S.C. 2510(8)).
(g) Oral communication. Any oral communication uttered by a person exhibiting an expectation that such communication is not subject to interception, under circumstances justifying such expectation (18 U.S.C. 2510(2)).
(h) Pen register. A device connected to a telephone instrument or line that permits the recording of telephone numbers dialed from a particular telephone instrument. “Pen register" also includes decoder devices used to record the numbers dialed from a touch-tone telephone. “Pen register" does not include equipment used to record the numbers dialed for and duration of long-distance telephone calls when the equipment is used to make such records for an entire telephone system and for billing or communications management purposes.
(i) Telephone tracing. A technique or procedure to determine the origin, by telephone number and location, of a telephone call made to a known telephone instrument. The terms “lockout” and “trapping" may also be used to describe this technique.
(j) United States. For the purposes of this part, the term “United States” includes the 50 States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States.
8 42.7 Procedures, record administra
tion and reports. (a) Procedures governing interception of wire and oral communications (1) Nonconsensual interception–(i) Nonconsensual interception in the United States. When an interception is deemed necessary for a criminal investigation, the following procedures are applicable:
(A) The requesting component shall prepare and forward through channels a “request for authorization” to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), or an official designated by the ASD(C). This application shall be transmitted by expeditious means and protected to preclude unauthorized access or any danger to the officials or other persons cooperating in the case. Each request for authorization will contain the following information:
(1) The identity of the DoD investigative or law enforcement official making the application;
(2) A complete description of the facts and circumstances relied upon by the applicant to justify the intended interception, including:
(i) The particular offense that has been, is being, or is about to be committed;
(ii) A description of the nature and location of the facilities from which or the place where the communication is to be intercepted;
(iii) A description of the type of communication sought to be intercepted with a statement of the relevance of that communication to the investigation; and
(iv) The identity of the person, if known, committing the offense and whose communications are to be intercepted;
(3) A statement as to whether other investigative procedures have been tried and failed or why they reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be too dangerous;
(4) An identification of the type of equipment to be used to make the interception;
(5) A statement of the period of time for which the interception is required to be maintained. If the nature of the investigation is such that the interception will not terminate automatically when the described type of communication has been first obtained, a description of the facts establishing probable cause to believe that additional communications of the same type will occur thereafter;
(6) The procedures to minimize the acquisition, retention, and dissemination of information unrelated to the purpose of the interception;
(7) A complete statement of the facts concerning each previous application for approval of interceptions of wire or oral communications known to the applicant and involving any of the same persons, facilities or places specified in the application and the action taken thereon; and
(8) When the application is for an extension of an order, a statement setting forth the results thus far obtained from the interception, or an explanation of the failure to obtain such results.
(B) The ASD(C), or an official designated by the ASD(C), will recommend to the DoD General Counsel that the request be approved or disapproved. Approval or disapproval of all requests for authorization will be made in writing by the DoD General Counsel, or a single designee.
(C) If the request is approved by the DoD General Counsel, the official making the request will coordinate directly with an attorney from the Department of Justice or from a U.S. Attorney's of
fice for preparation of documents necessary to obtain a court order in accordance with 18 U.S.C. 2518. These documents will be forwarded by the Department of Justice attorney to the Attorney General, or to the designated Assistant Attorney General, for approval in accordance with 18 U.S.C. 2516.
(D) Upon approval by the Attorney General, or the designated Assistant Attorney General, formal application for a court order will be made by the appropriate attorney from the Department of Justice, assisted by the appropriate military lawyer.
(ii) Nonconsensual interceptions abroad. Unless otherwise authorized by direction of the President or the Attorney General, the following procedures are applicable to interceptions for law enforement purposes when the interception takes place abroad and when a DoD component, or members thereof, conduct or participate in the interception; or when the interception takes place abroad, is targeted against a U.S. person, and is conducted pursuant to a request by a DoD component:
(A) When the target of the interception is a person subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice under Article 2, U.S.C. 802.
(1) The request for authorization shall include the information required by paragraph (a)(1)(i)(A) of this section, and shall be forwarded through channels to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), or the ASD(C)'s, designee. The ASD(C), or a designee, shall recommend to the DoD General Counsel that the request be approved
disapproved. Approval or disapproval of all Requests for Authorization shall be made in writing by the DOD General Counsel, or a single designee.
(2) Upon written approval of the DoD General Counsel, the DoD investigative or law enforcement officer shall prepare a formal application for a court order in accordance with the procedures of 18 U.S.C. 2518(1). The application shall be submitted to a military judge assigned to consider such applications pursuant to $ 42.5(e).
(3) Only military judges assigned by the Judge Advocate General of their service to receive applications for
intercept authorization orders shall have the authority to issue such orders. The authority of military judges to issue intercept authorization orders shall be limited to interceptions conducted abroad and targeted against persons subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice.
(i) A military judge shall be ineligible to issue an order authorizing an interception if, at the time of application, the judge (A) is involved in any investigation under Article 32 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice, 10 U.S.C. 832; or (B) is engaged in any other investigative or prosecutorial function in connection with any case; or if the judge has previously been involved in any investigative or prosecutorial activities in connection with the case for which the intercept authorization order is sought.
(ii) No military judge who has issued an order authorizing interceptions may act as the accuser, be a witness for the prosecution, or participate in any investigative or prosecutorial activities in the case for which the order was issued. A military judge who has issued an order authorizing interceptions is not disqualified from presiding over the trial in the same case.
(iii) A military judge otherwise qualified under $ 42.7(a)(1)(ii)(C)(i) and (ii) enclosure shall not be disqualified from issuing orders authorizing interceptions because the judge is a member for a service different from that of the target of the interception or from that of the investigative or law enforcement officers applying for the order.
(4) The military judge may enter an ex parte order, as requested or as modified, authorizing or approving an interception of wire or oral communications if the judge determines on the basis of the facts submitted by the applicant that:
(i) There is probable cause to believe that a person subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice is committing, has committed, or is about to commit a particular offense enumerated in $42.3(a)(2);
(ii) There is probable cause to believe that particular communications concerning that offense will be obtained through such interception;
(iii) Normal investigative procedures have been tried and have failed or reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be too dangerous;
(iv) There is probable cause to believe that the facilities from which, or the place where, the wire or oral communications are to be intercepted are being used, or are about to be used, in connection with the commission of such offense, or are leased to, listed in the name of, or commonly used by such person; and
(v) The interception will not violate the relevant status of forces agreement or the applicable domestic law of the host nation.
(5) Each order authorizing an interception shall specify:
(i) The identity of the person, if known, whose communications are to be intercepted;
(ii) The nature and location of the communications facilities as to which, or the place where, authority to intercept is granted;
(iii) A particular description of the type of communication sought to be intercepted, and a statement of the particular offense to which it relates;
(iv) The identity of the agency authorized to intercept the communications, and of the person authorizing the application; and
(V) The period of time during which such interception is authorized, including a statement as to whether the interception shall terminate automatically when the described communication has been first obtained.
(6) Every order and extension thereof shall contain a provision that the authorization to intercept shall be executed as soon as practicable, shall be conducted in such a way as to minimize the interception of communications not otherwise subject to interception under this part, and shall be terminated upon attainment of the authorized objective.
(7) No order entered by a military judge may authorize an interception for any period longer than is necessary to achieve the objective of the authorization, nor in any event longer than 60 days. Extensions of an order may be granted, but only upon application for an extension made in accordance with the procedures of 18 U.S.C. 2518(1), and