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thing appalling; for though thousands of What with the sound of lamentations, the their countrywomen at home had been greetings of friends who had supposed each busy making up loose cloaks, coats, trou. Other shot or frozen to death, the shouts of sers and waistcoats of flannel

, the prince inquiry for this or that troop, etc., etc., the assured Captain Woodford with great

scene was altogether simply indescribable. concern that not a single article had ever clare, had a great-coat. Many had a worn-out

None of our men, not one, I truthfully dereached the army.

Moreover, the En- blanket skewered across their shoulders. I glish bad a concealed enemy in every saw not one man with whole shoes; all had town and village; no one was willing to scarcely a shoe left; numbers had their toes do them any service and, “ Nothing for frozen off, numbers their noses ; exhaustion the Englishman was the general cry: was universal. The march continued all day

It must have been after the fearful night and all night, for three days, every creature of the 16th of January, when such nuin. asking in what direction stood the town of bers perished, that Prince Ernest reached Deventer,

Our valet and the Hussar-courier were sent the captain's cottage at Loo.

the next day to Deventer for provisions, and He came in to us half frozen, clothed all on their arrival found all the bakers' shops over in thick flannel, praying for a cup of hot closed, as well as most others, from the dread

He was so buttoned up, we were not of pillage. The soldiers roared out to the aware of the dignity of our frozen, balf-starved bakers that if they refused any longer to furvisitor. As the tea was preparing, he told us nish them bread, they would set fire to their he had lost his way on Deventer Common, that houses. From the windows the alarmed bakers prodigious waste, and had been seventeen promised to have a large batch ready by midday. hours on horseback, neither he nor his horse The hurly-burly in the streets was terrific. baving had any sort of refreshment. He told Twelve o'clock came; the doors were opened, us that when daylight appeared he beheld a when a furious rush was made to seize the hot most heart-breaking sight, 800 men, women, bread and devour it. Those who were in and children frozen to death, and covering the could not get out for the rush and pressure snow two or three feet deep. The following

outside. Confusion indescribable followed. night, 900 lives were lost in the same way. No Those who got the bread devoured it voraroute had been given to the retreating army. ciously, and many, very many, soon died in Few officers were with them; the men were consequence. led by sergeants only; all they knew was that To clear the way and open a passage, bread they were to fly eastward. No man of the was thrown out, which caused a riotous scramarmy or commissariat knew of Deventer Com-ble. In a few minutes all the bread was car.

ried off, and the bakers, to save pillage, enThe prince gradually unfastened his coats, gaged to make more as fast as it was possible. when we discovered a British star on his

It was about this time, or perhaps rather breast, and our soldiers hinted who our guest earlier, that the young artist was de

Soon after his arrival, the troops came crowding up to our cottage. So exhausted spatched alone to Amsterdam, probably were the women and children, so famished, so

on some business connected with the cold, that, what with them and the men of all “Emigrant Corps.” sorts calling to each other, women weeping

He travelled by the canal, the ice of and imploring for food and tea, few, if any, which, though broken by the frequent scenes could surpass it. Orders had been passage of barges, had been frozen togiven to our Hussar and valet to scour the gether again, and was now tossed and scattered village and buy all the tobacco-pipes piled up in the most fantastic manner to be had, and all the tobacco, which cost the

possible. captain £20. Others of our men hauled by ropes several he travelled was most terrific, as it crashed

The noise made by the barge in which loose trunks of trees and made a vast pile, with heaps of faggots, straw, etc., and shortly through the ice, and resembled “ten thoua blazing fire was made and soon surrounded. sand roaring claps of thunder all at once, A distribution was made of the pipes and with now and then a roar of cannon.” tobacco, which to numbers was equal to food. This noise continued all the way, and

Hussars and Hulans marched past us, their as it grew dark the barge came more fre. horses' noses all frozen, and long icicles hang. quently in collision with huge masses of ing from their chins. Every trooper had his ice, which seemed to threaten instant whiskers and moustachios frozen thick from destruction. their breath.

Reaching Amsterdam after nine hours' Suddenly a violent scream of joy was uttered by a soldier's wife, who had an infant in her travelling, he set out in search of the

A son of hers, one of our drummers, hotel or tavern to which he was instructed supposed to have been shot three weeks before, to go, and after running about all over the had wandered with the flying soldiers, and city for two hours, found it. Though stood at our door.



situated in one of the principal streets, it


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seemed that “no one had ever heard oftened two hollow brass pans of large size, it.”

like cyınbals, the noise of which, added to The sun shone brightly the next morn. all the rest, seems to have driven the uning, and Mr. Reinagle was out early and fortunate artist well-nigh distracted, and went down to the canal, where his atten- completely baffled all his powers of detion was arrested by a very shocking scription. spectacle. A poor old woman had missed He was told that these brass pans were her way in the darkness, and had fallen only allowed to “posting-wagons," and over the edge of the street into the canal. were intended to warn other travellers of

At that time it was the law in Amster- their approach, and he writes: dam that when any case of drowning was

I feel sure that we inside could not have discovered, the person who first found the heard a cannon had it been fired close to us ; body should tie a rope round one of the and so this maddening mass of noises conwrists and raise it half out of the water, tinued all night. as close to the parapet as possible. Hav- I who was in vigorous health and naturally ing tied the rope to the nearest tree or strong, was so weakened and made so feeble pile, he was immediately to go to the bos. that I literally could not walk ; such were the pital and give information; then the au- effects of jolting, twisting, turning, together thorities would send for the unfortunate with the intensely cold wind whirling round person, who would be taken to the in my head. My inside was so shaken, that I was firmary, and the informer would receive a

in severe pain, had violent headache, and was

so feeble that when seated in a chair I was rix.dollar (about 45. 4d.). If the body quite unable to rise agaiu. should be claimed by relations or friends, it would be given up to them on payment

Matters being now arranged with the of twelve guilders (about a guinea).

Prince of Waldeck, the travellers once No one dared take the drowned person more set out on their terrible journey. out of the canal until the hospital authori.

“Here,” says Mr. Reinagle, ties had been communicated with, unless English army sent to protect Holland it was evident that life was not extinct. which never waited to be fired on. No

In that case any one might act, and the wonder we were despised, scoffed at, and owners of the nearest hotel were obliged scouted."* instantly to warm a bed, in a room with a

| These unfortunate, ragged troops, not fire, and keep the body warm until the a man of whom had a great-coat, had to arrival of the nearest surgeon, who was march in the teeth of a furious northbound to come with all possible speed and easterly gale, which made the cold more do his utmost to restore animation. Such intense, and wbirled the dry, powdery were the police regulations ninety years snow and sand aloft in dense clouds, ago; and accordingly when Mr. Reinagle sweeping the ground almost bare in some saw the poor woman mentioned above, places, and piling up drists from ten to she was tied by the arm to a tree, the per- twenty feet deep in others. Snow fell for son who had found her being gone to give several days together, or rather hardly information.

seemed to fall at all, owing to the fierceOn bis retu journey, Mr. Reinagleness of the wind, though the air was filled travelled by land in a post-chariot, so with it. Women and children were screamcalled, which was “nothing so good as a ing from the intense cold and want of light wagon - one of the most infernal food, and the miserable troops, after baltmachines ever inade by man, and the very best to overturn his senses." He had

This is hardly a correct statement. As mentioned

above, General Dundas drove the French back across hired “what was called the roof or best the Waal on December 30th. Pichegru with seventy seat,” which exposed the passenger to all thousand men attacked the English forces between

Nimeguen and Arnheim early in January, and as the the inclemency of the weather except latter were greatly outnumbered, they had no alternadownright rain, against which the tar. tive but to retreat, which they did on the 14th. They paulin covering offered some protection. reached Deventer on the 27th, having, with the utmost

courage and perseverance, succeeded in conveying “ The day was cloudless, the air all glit- thither all the ammunition, artillery, and military tering;” and they travelled against the stores, as it was impossible to carry them fara wind, which seemed to extract every par- the hands of the enemy;. The retreating army was

ther, were then destroyed to save them from falling into ticle of heat from their bodies. The car- pursued at all speed by fifty thousand of the French, riage was open at both ends, and the who hoped to compel it to surrender. After a two

months' march, during wbich the men were frequently wind whistled round them fiercely. “ All up to the middle in ice, snow, mud, and water, Bremen was loose and rattling, as if no one part'

was reached at the end of March, and the unfortunate

troops were received and entertained with the utmost of the vehicle were firmly joined to an- kindness by the inhabitants, whose conduct formed a other. Under the wooden axle were fas marked contrast with that of the Dutch.


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ing for a few hours, were obliged to move in, and they dared not extinguish the fire ; on without their rations, to make room so in this plight they had to remain till for those who followed.

morning, when a party of soldiers arrived, Some officers, who were acquainted set them at liberty, and removed the with Captain Woodford and came to his straw. Not one of the peasants was to quarters one morning, half starved and be seen; but in the chimney were found nearly frozen to death, to ask for some nearly twenty hams and plenty of beef, breakfast, reported that they had passed which the starving troops did not suffer hundreds of men on the way, who had to remain there long. lain down on the snow from sheer inabil. The sun shone in full splendor as the ity to proceed any farther, and had there train once more started, but the air was perished. It was, they said, like a bloody thick with dristing snow, fine and dry as field of battle – dead men lying on all dust. The troops followed in crowds, and sides and also women and children. what with men, horses, baggage-wagons,

M. Devaux's "genius overcame all ob- forage-wagons, etc., it was difficult to find a stacles,” we are told; but notwithstanding passage; where the wind had swept away his energy and ability, dire perplexity the snow, the road was all ice. Artillery prevailed at times; orders and counter. now choked the way; and the cook's heavy orders were received, and no one knew wagon, which was like a little shop, from wliat to do.

the number and variety of the things it M. Moreau de Beauregard, one of Cap. contained, was overturned, but was got tain Woodford's secretaries, “a capital, on its wheels again with great labor and cheerful-spirited Frenchman,” chose to trouble. walk, in order to avoid the confusion At Gloor Mr. Reinagle discovered that which attended the departure from De-lhe was the only sufferer by a theit which venter, owing to some misunderstanding had been committed at some previous which obliged the rest of the party to re- halting-place on the road. The luggage trace their steps once or twice.

had all been piled in the vestibule of the Six miles beyond Deventer, it was inn; and the door being left temptingly agreed that the commissary's party should open, while every one flew to the fires to halt at two small cottages, where, how try and get a little warmth into him, some ever, they soon found that the people thief availed himself of the opportunity were unwilling to adinit them, or help and carried off the seat of the curricle, them in any way. The cook produced which chanced to be uppermost, and conhis provisions, but both bread and meat tained all the worldly goods Mr. Reinagle were frozen solid, and had to be chopped had brought with him. with an axe, so that nothing could be done with either until they were thawed, the curricle-seat - clothes, boots, shoes, shav

Everything I had [he writes) was packed in which was not for an hour or two. Foro ing tackle, letters, memoranda, and, to my tunately for themselves, they carried pro- grief, my journal, containing descriptions and visions with them, as well as all sorts of drawings of fine pictures, costumes of various cooking utensils, tea-kettles, mugs, jugs, provinces, peculiarities of divers kinds too butter and cheese, for they did not expect numerous to catalogue. I could bear with pato find anything, it seems, in “miserable tience the loss of all my effects, as I could proWestphalia.” There being no beds, cure others; but my elaborate journal nothing they slept on the floor in their clothes;

could compensate for ; and though it is now but the peasants, who had adinitted them sixty years since the loss, I have not ceased

grieving whenever it crosses my mind. quite against their will, had in the mean time climbed up to the chimney, outside Frederick the valet, a valuable servant and stuffed it up with hay or straw, and who acted as interpreter with the country had also quietly fastened the door of the people, had unfortunately been left be. room occupied by Captain Woodford's hind on the road, lookiný for his horse, party, all of whom but Mr. Reinagle were or he no doubt would have succeeded in sound asleep, and, but for his vigilance, tracking the thief and recovering the propmust have been suffocated. It was im- erty, for it was quite certain that no one possible to get out of their prison; but by could have carried the heavy curricle-seat dint of great effort, they succeeded in far. wrenching open a window, and the smoke At Ghoor, to their joy and great surslowly escaped, but the cold wind came prise, the fugitives found the people

* most obliging, infinitely more so than • Their anticipations were so far realized that Mr. Reinagle searched one town all over for a tooth-brush; any they had bitherto met on the whole but in vain; such an article was unknown.

route." But it was here also that they

" *



had so many proofs of the extreme sever- | who assured Captain Woodford that he ity of the weather.

would find accommodation provided for On arriving, Mr. Reinagle found that his party a league farther on. his legs were frozen, and mustered enough By this time it was quite dark, and Dutch to explain that he wanted two pails travelling was a very serious matter: for of snow and two men to rub him.

It was

a rapid thaw had set in, and the road was bitterly cold work, and the pain was in under water and in such a dangerous state tense, but after half an hour's hard rub. that the drivers of carriage, curricle, and bing circulation was restored.

wagon every moment expected some dis. The coachman, who with the grooms, astrous accident. They had indeed a Hussar, and a host of travellers, got close very narrow escape of driving over a to the fire, imprudently took off bis boots bank, which if they had done, it would to warm his feet, and in a few days lost have been impossible to rescue them till all his toes in consequence. Even the the morning; but at length they reached very brandy was frozen, and when the the village safe and sound, though it was captain attempted to write a despatch to fully double the distance they had been the War Office, not only had he first to told, and was moreover beyond the bounboil the ink, but though he and his secre- daries of Holland. The magistrate had tary sat so close into the fire that they only wanted to get rid of them, and no feared their legs and clothes would be doubt congratulated himself on his sucscorched, the ink froze before their pens cess; for the hatred to us English was reached the paper, and it was impossible universal. Every man, woman, and child to proceed. Cups washed in warin water was our bitter enemy, thanks to the pilfroze before they could be wiped; the laging, burning, and destroying of all that milk taken from a cow in a barn a hundred came in their way, practised by our troops. yards or so distant, froze solid as it was “Not a cottage within any distance” of being brought to the house. Breath froze their route was spared; for wherever the on the windows to the thickness of a inhabitants dared to resist the plunderers, crown piece, making it quite impossible their houses were fired. to see out of them. Hot tea froze the “ As to our officers being present to instant it was spilt, so that cups and sau. save the harmless country-people, none cers were firmly cemented together, and came within the range of our observation," the table, upon which was no cloth, was says Mr. Reinagle. covered instead with a sheet of ice. The Meanwhile, the quarters promised by bread, which in its frozen state was as the magistrate of Enchide of course hard as a stone, took half an hour to thaw proved a myth, and the people of the close to the fire, and it was three-quarters post-house wanted to send the unfortunate of an hour before it could be made fit to travellers still farther on, declaring that

Beards, moustachios, and even eye they had no accommodation at all either lashes were decorated with lumps of ice; for them or their horses. There was and horses which arrived steaming, had nothing for it but to remain in the street, no sooner halted than they were clothed and though famishing with hunger and in a coat of mail. Numbers of men and perishing with the intense cold, they were women who travelled on foot lost noses, refused permission even to prepare a meal ears, fingers, and toes from frost-bite. of their own food. It was eight o'clock

After leaving Ghoor, the cavalcade when they first arrived, and Captain halted next at a wretched, poverty-stricken Woodfurd, who had remained at Enchide little place, where the houses were built with the Duc de Castries, on rejoining with conical roofs in place of chimneys, them some two hours later, found them and had absolutely no windows. The up still without shelter. He too was refused per half of each hovel was of wood, and admission, and the people made as much the appearance of the village altogether disturbance as if they expected every soul was such that the travellers felt as if they 10 be murdered and every house pillaged; had left Europe for some barbarous, un- which, poor things, perhaps they did. known land, and wondered dismally what However it was impossible to remain in experiences might be in store for them as the streets all night, and at last, losing pathey advanced farther. After travelling tience, the captain seized a pair of pisall day at a foot's pace they reached En- tols, his secretary a sabre, and Frederick chide, but it was impossible to stop there, the valet, dismounting from his horse, for the troops had come up with them drew his sword and uttered a volley of again, and all available lodgings were as. " Dutch thunder" in so vehement a man. signed to them by the chief magistrate, ner, that presently room was found for all

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the horses in a church, which had lately At Steinfurt they fell in with the Marbeen used as a place of confinement for quis d'Auticham, who was under immedisome French prisoners. Also a single ate orders to march his emigrant regiroom was allotted to them at the burgoment to Pyrmont, and, as the Hessian master's, and being made warm and com- baggage-train with the sick had now come fortable, it was an exquisite delight to up, Captain Woodford hastened to leave the wayworo party, after travelling a the place, in order that he might keep whole day, exposed to such cold as the ahead of them all. English in general can form no idea of. Before they could muster their train,

The cook did his best with the provis- however, the soldiery were in advance of ions, cleaving both bread and meat with a them, and they took another road, which, batchet, and they found, as they had often though less direct, gave them the advandone before, that rough as the cookery tage of being able to proceed at somenecessarily was, anything made eatable thing more than a foot-pace, their usual was a perfect feast, for they felt as cold rate of progress when preceded by the inside as out.

troops. There were two beds for the three, and The frost was still most severe, the air amazingly uncomfortable " they found glittering with frozen particles. Münster them;

for instead of warm blankets, they was reached at 2 P.M. had no covering but a feather-bed. It was their first experience of this variety

The Westphalians [remarks Mr. Reinagle] of bedclothes ; and as there was no con

are very very ugly, and the clumsiest people trivance to keep this “balloon" in its we had seen in our wandering travels ; to us place, every " hasty turn whisked it off." they appeared like ugly cows dressed out in all Mr. Reinagle seems also to have been times long passed by.

sorts of colored ribbons, on a May-day of further disconcerted by a malicious sug. gestion of the captain's that the travellers On the day following tlieir arrival in they had seen below were presently com- Münster, a sudden and rapid thaw set in, ing up to take their places on the top of making rivers of water, and mud more the said feather-beds.

than ankle-deep in all directions; and the All through Westphalia, until they wind from having been bitter in the exreached Pyrmont, the beds, whenever treme, now veered to the south and was they had any, were of this kind. Coun. as warm as if it had been blowing from tl:e terpanes there were none, and blankets mouth of an oven. The change was so were a rarity.

seemingly instantaneous as to cause gen. The next morning the procession eral illness, and nearly every one caughta started again and steered for Steinfurt, severe cold as if by magic. At nightfall, along a wretched, winding.road, filled with however, there was another change; snow ruts iwo feet deep, and large hidden holes began to fall, and the frost returned. full of snow, slush, and broken ice. The After a couple of days' rest, the train Westphalian roads were, too, often so started again, and travelled along wornnarrowv, besides being bounded on either out, deeply-rutted roads, beset with holes side by banks of earth, that it was impos- and half-frozen pools, where they were in sible for two vehicles to pass one another. constant peril from the masses of ice Moreover, the axles of the English car- through which horses and vehicles had to riages were wider than those of the coun. break their way. The baggage waggon try and gave infinite trouble; one side succumbed at last, the axle-tree being of each carriage was always up and the broken in two by a sudden descent into other down, and as they changed places an unsuspected hole full of water and ice. every two or three minutes, the occupants This happened at dusk, when they were were rocked to and fro and bounced about just a league from their last halting place, to such a degree that they were in mo. Warendorf, and had still a league to travel mentary expectation of being upset or at before they should reach Nieukerk. Unleast of having axles and traces broken. der these circumstances there was no al

They passed no village on the way, but ternative for them but to retrace their the country was dotted with farmhouses, steps, leaving the wagon to be repaired barns, and cottages, a pleasant sight after by a blacksmith and carpenter, who were the barren, sandy waste through which fortunately within reach, and by dint of they had lately passed, where the only working all night, succeeded in inaking "view" was a dark streak on the hori- the vehicle fit for use the next day. zon, indicating that there were a few trees On their way back to Warendorf they or bushes some six or eight miles off. fell in with other travellers, baffled like

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