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rocking-stones. The finger of Cupid, boy as he is painted, could put her feelings in motion ; but the power of Hercules could not have destroyed their equilibrium.”
10. The following is a summary of the chief of the abovestatements : 1. A Figure of Speech employs a vivid or striking image
of something without to express a feeling or idea
within. 2. A Simile uses an external image with the word like. 3. A Metaphor uses the same image without the word like. 4. A Personification is a metaphor taken from a person or
living being 5. An allegory is a continuous personification.
1. Paraphrasing is a kind of exercise that is not without its uses.
These uses are chiefly two: (i) to bind the learner's attention closely to every word and phrase, meaning and shade of meaning; and (ii) to enable the teacher to see whether the learner has accurately and fully understood the passage. But no one can hope to improve on the style of a poem by turning the words and phrases of the poet into other language; the change made is always-or almost always—a change for the
2. Passages from good prose writers are sometimes given out to paraphrase, but most often passages from poetical writers. The reason of this is that poetry is in general much more highly compressed than prose, and hence the meaning is sometimes obscure, for want of a little more expansion. The following lines by Sir Henry Wotton, the Provost of Eton College, are a good example of much thought compressed within a little space:
THE HAPPY LIFE.
1. How happy is he born and taught
That serveth not another's will-
And simple truth his utmost skill !
Whose soul is still prepared for death-
3. Who envies none that chance doth raise,
Or vice; who never understood
4. Who hath his life from humours freed,
Whose conscience is his strong retreat ;
5. Who God doth late and early pray
More of His grace than gifts to lend ;
6. This man is freed from servile bands
Of hope to rise, or fear to fall-
3. Let us try now to paraphrase these lines—that is, to develop the thought by the aid of more words. But, though we are obliged to use more words, we must do our utmost to find and to employ the most fitting. We must not merely throw down a mass of words and phrases, and leave the reader to make his own selection and to grope among them for the meaning.
1. How happy, by birth as well as by education, is the man who is not obliged to be a slave to the will of another—whose only armour is his honesty and simple goodness, whose best and utmost skill lies in plain straightforwardness.
2. How happy is the man who is not the slave of his own passions, whose soul is always prepared for death, who is not tied to the world or the world's opinion by anxiety about his public reputation or the tattle of individuals.
3. Happy, too, because he envies no man who has been raised to rank by accident or by vicious means; because he never understood the sneer that stabs while it seems to praise ; because he cares nothing for rules of expediency or of policy, but thinks only of what is good and right.
4. Who has freed himself from obedience to humours and to whims, whose conscience is his sure stronghold ; whose rank is not exalted enough to draw flatterers, or to tempt accusers to build their own greatness upon his fall.
5. Who, night and morning, asks God for grace, and not for gifts ; and fills his day with the study of a good book or conversation with a thoughtful friend.
6. This man is freed from the slavery of hope and fear—the hope of rising, the fear of falling-lord, not of lands, but of himself; and though without wealth or possessions, yet having all that the heart of man need desire.
THE GRAMMAR OF VERSE, OR PROSODY.
1. Verse is the form of poetry; and Prosody is the part of Grammar which deals with the laws and nature of verse.
(i) Verge comes from the Latin versa, turned. Oratio versa was turned speech ”—that is, when the line came to an end, the reader or writer or printer had to begin a new line. It is opposed to oratio prorsa, which means “straight-on speech”—whence our word prose. A line in prose may be of any length ; a line in verse must be of the length which the poet gives to it. (ii) It is of importance for us to become acquainted with the laws of
First, because it enables us to enjoy poetry more. Secondly, it enables us to read poetry better--and to avoid putting an emphasis on a syllable, merely because it is accented. Thirdly, it shows us how to write verse ; and the writing of verse is very good practice in composition -as it compels us to choose the right phrase, and makes us draw upon our store of words to substitute and to improve here or there.
2. Verse differs from prose in two things : (i) in the regular recurrence of accents; and (ii) in the proportion of unaccented to accented syllables. (i) Thus, in the line
In an'swer nought' could An'gus speak', the accent occurs regularly in every second syllable.
(ii) But, in the line
Mer'rily, mer'rily, shall' we live now', the accent not only comes first, but there are two unaccented syllables for every one that is accented (except in the last foot).
3. Every English word of more than one syllable has an accent on one of its syllables.
(i) Begin', commend', attack' have the accent on the last syllable. (ii) Hap'py, la'dy, welcome have the accent on the first syllable.
4. English verse is made up of lines; each line of verse contains a fixed number of accents; each accent has a fixed number of unaccented syllables attached to it.
(i) Let us take these lines from ‘Marmion' (canto v.) :
Who loves' | not more' | the night' of June
Than dull' | Decem' | ber's gloom' | of noon'? Each line here contains four accents ; the accented syllable comes last; each accented syllable has one unaccented attached to it. (ii) Now let us compare these lines from T. Hood's" Bridge of Sighs":
Touch' her not | scorn'fully,
Think' of her | mourn'fully. Each line here contains two accents ; the accented syllable comes first; and each accented syllable has two unaccented syllables attached to it.
5. One accented syllable + one or two unaccented, taken together, is called a foot. A foot is the unit of metre.
Let x stand for an unaccented, and a for an accented syllable.
6. One accented preceded by one unaccented syllable is called an Iambus. Its formula is xa. -One accented syllable followed by one unaccented is called a Trochee. Its formula
(i) The following are iambuses : Perhaps'; condemn'; compel' ; without'; career'.
(ii) The following are trochees : Gen'tle ; river; la'dy ; ra'ven ; tum'ble.
(iii) The following verse is made up of four iambuses—that is, it is iambic verse :
"Twere long', / and need' | less, here' | to tell
(iv) The following verse is made up of four trochees—that is, it is trochaic :-
In' his / cham'ber, I weak' and | dy'ing
Was the Norman baron lying.
(vi) Tro'chee | trips' from long' to short' - 1. 7. One accented syllable preceded by two unaccented is called an Anapæst.
Its formula is xxa. -One accented syllable followed by two unaccented is called a Dactyl. Its formula is axx.
(i) The following are anapæsts : Serenade'; disappear'; comprehend' ; intercede'.
(ii) The following are dactyls : Happily; merrily; sim'ilar; bil’lowy. (iii) The following lines are in anapæstic verse :
I am mon' | arch of all' | I survey',
My right there is none to dispute.
Can'non to I right of them |
Can'non to | left' of them l. (a) The word dactyl comes from the Greek daktŭlos, a finger. For a finger has one long and two short joints.
(8) The word anapoest comes from two Greek ords: paio, I strike, and ana, back ; because it is the reverse of a dactyl.
8. The Anapæst belongs to the same kind or system of verse as the Iambus ; because the accented syllable in each comes last. -The Dactyl belongs to the same kind or system of verse as the Trochee; because the accented syllable in each comes first.
(i) Hence anapæsts and iambuses may be mixed (as in “My right' | there is none' | to dispute' | "); and so may dactyls and trochees (as in “ Hark' to the sum'mons / ").
(ii) But we very seldom see a trochee introduced into an iambic line ; or an iambus into a trochaic.
9. An accented syllable with one unaccented syllable on each side of it is called an Amphibrach. Its formula is xax.
The word amphibrach comes from two Greek words : amphi, on both sides; and brachus, short. (Compare amphibious.)