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inner sanctuary of the Christian tem- the bishops and presbyters of the ple: and there, as the saved ones, Church, the earthly operators of their received with psalmody, in anticipa- supposed salvation. The sealed ones, tion of the ending of their pilgrimage. on the other hand, are here symNor ought I to omit in the parallel, bolized as the real saved ones; and how, as the year rolled round, they like the palm-bearing Israelites at the were wont in palm-bearing processions feast of Tabernacles, celebrating, to resort to the churches on the although not till after a long interval festival substituted in the Christian of tribulation, the actual triumphant Church for the feast of Tabernacles ; accomplishment of their earthly piland, -not without similar anticipa- grimage, then as received into the tions of personal salvation and tri- heavenly presence amidst the hymnumph, -to place their palms, that ings of angels, and rendering their symbolized it, on the altar, and hymn hosannahs of salvation alone to their their hosannahs, to give greeting to Saviour, God, and the Lamb.
THE VINDICATION OF IGNATIUS FROM ARROGANCY. In the last number of this periodical, copal government, as at least generally an attempt, and we hope a successful prevailing in the Churches, against attempt, was made to vindicate Igna- that spirit of opposition to such adtius from the charge of prelatical ministration as is now unhappily exarrogance, with which spurious writ- tending itself, from the abuse of the ings, passed under his revered name, episcopal office, and the misconduct have branded his character and re- of too many who are invested with it. putation in the Church of God.
It is owing to either the interIt was then shewn that there is polation of the Epistles of Ignatius, or good ground for believing that the the actual fabrication of some by hands number of epistles written by him on of a later age and far different school, his way from Antioch to Rome, to that such a prejudice has been felt seal his testimony to Jesus with his and manifested by many at different blood, was only three; and that these times, not only against the Bishop of three are much shorter than those Antioch himself, but also against the contained in the Greek MSS.
office which he bore. The love of pre-eminence and dic- Archbishop Ussher admits the justatorial authority disappears, and tice of the complaints to which some earnest love for the Saviour and zeal of the extravagant expressions in the for the spiritual welfare of the interpolated or spurious epistles have Churches alone remain.
given birth :- such for instance as The design of the writer in intro- the following,—“Do nothing without ducing this subject to the readers of the bishop, of those things which perthe “Christian Guardian,” is however tain to the Church;" “ It is necessary rather to vindicate episcopacy than therefore that whatever you do, you Ignatius. But the former could not should do nothing without the bibe done without the latter; for the shop;" “ Bishops are to be honoured reputed writings of that venerable, as the conclave of God and the band but much wronged and misrepre- of the Apostles;" "Revere your bisented bishop, have ever been the shop as Christ;" and, as a final specistore-house of those who have laid men of this, (as Ussher calls it,) "hyclaim to an extravagant and unscrip- perbolical exaggeration” of episcopal tural authority on behalf of the epis- authority,—whereas Tertullian says, copal office. This has been the ar- “We honour the emperor next to God, moury from which have been furnished and as inferior to God alone,”— the their most formidable weapons. Epistle to the Smyrnæans contains the
Your correspondent would main- following, “Honour,' says he (i.e. tain the scriptural and earliest pa- Solomon), my son, God and the tristic proof of the existence of epis- king;' but I say ” (a true progenitor of Tractarianism) “honour God in- instrumentality of Mr. Tattam, Archdeed as the cause and Lord of all, deacon of Bedford, who visited Egypt but the bishop as high priest, bearing in the years 1838 and 1839. But it the image of God, -of God in his was in the year 1843, and as the regovernment, of Christ in his priestly sult of the Archdeacon's second visit office; and after him, it behoves you to the monks of St. Mary Deipara, to honour also the king.” [See in the Nitrian Desert, which he kindly Proverbs xxiv. 21, and a longer re- undertook in the hope of being able cension of the Epistle to the Smyr- to purchase more of the valuable næans, ch. xi. : which the Arch- Syriac manuscripts, that the eyes of bishop of Armagh condemns as the Mr. Cureton were gladdened by the work of “the depraver or interpolator arrival of four hundred additional of the Ignatian Epistle to the Smyr- volumes in the British Museum. No næans, laying claim moreover to the time was lost; and soon Mr. Cureton authority of even Solomon himself.”] enjoyed, as he writes, “ the rare satisThus was the pontificale set above faction” of having his hopes realized the regale; just that which Roman- by finding amongst them not only izing and Practarian bishops and several additional passages quoted by clergy have attempted and are at- various authors, but also three entire tempting to do now.
epistles,-to St. Polycarp, to the But enough. How opportune then Ephesians, and to the Romans, in a is the Rev. Mr. Cureton's learned volume of very considerable antiWork, coming to the aid of all mode- quity. A few years later brought the rate and scripturally-minded up- remainder of the manuscripts into the holders of episcopacy, just when possession of the British Museum, most wanted.
through the liberality of the Lords It is now about four years since M. Commissioners of Her Majesty's treaMerle d'Aubigné wrote, “ Episcopacy sury, and amongst these the learned is on its trial in England ;” and every
editor of the “ Corpus Ignatianum," day since then has proved the acute- had the happiness of discovering ness and profoundness of his judg- another copy of the three Epistles of ment and foresight. It is on its trial, Ignatius. Mr. Cureton's conviction and must be saved by its own merits, of these three Epistles being "the and early and scriptural authority, and genuine and authentic letters of the not by the extravagance and finesse of celebrated bishop and martyr of those who are arrayed in its dignity. Antioch,” will be best expressed in
An overbearing spirit in some, and his own words, “If,” he says, “the a want of light and vigilance in others arguments which I have hitherto adof our bishops, have done much to vanced, with respect to the Ignatian bring the order into discredit. Now Epistles, have appeared as forcible to then we thankfully accept Mr. Cure- my.readers upon the perusal, as they ton's labours.
have done to myself in the enquiry, These labours have been bestowed there can remain little doubt upon upon MSS., a brief account of the their minds as to the spuriousness of discovery of which we promised in those passages and epistles which are the last number.
not acknowledged by the Syriac The circumstances of their dis- version." covery are as follows:-Some manu- And here we may close, though a scripts which came into the possession few explanatory remarks upon two or of the trustees of the British Museum, three somewhat obscure passages in originally the property of the late the epistles themselves would not be Mr. Rich, the English Resident at out of place, but it is not our desire to Bagdad, led to the hope in Mr. Cure- encumber our pages with any critical ton's mind, that a copy of one at
by any display of eccleleast of the Epistles of Ignatius in siastical research. Our object is Syriac might be obtained. More practical, and we trust calculated to however than he anticipated, was compose the disturbed minds of many placed within his power through the an humble Christian in the present
day,---staggered as it may have been, sheep, who through the blood of the by either the exorbitant claims of everlasting covenant, has purchased some bishops, or the indifference and His Church; and unto whom, if we lukewarmness of others. We desire be not joined in that spiritual union, to direct the mind of our readers up- which is the work of the Holy Ghost, wards from those who exercise the and the incorruptible seed of the Word episcopacy to the institution of epis- of God ;—for “Thus," as said Bishop copacy itself
, in all its scriptural and Latimer, preaching before Edward VI. primeval characteristics of sound doc " cometh in our new birth ;'- it will trine and fatherly solicitude, affection not signify in eternity to what Church and kindness. Nay, more; we desire we have been joined in outward comto raise their hearts to Him who is munion, or under what form of Church the chief Shepherd and Bishop of government we have lived here. souls,- the Great Shepherd of the
LITURGICAL REVISION. The subjects of “Church Reform,” 5. A PRAYER SUITED TO THE PRESENT and “ Liturgical Revision,” having of
Times. late been frequently discussed in the Almighty and everliving God, by pages of the "Christian Guardian,” the whose Spirit the whole body of the following Prayer has been composed Church is governed and sanctified, we for that work, with the view of direct- humbly beseech thee most mercifully ing the attention of all “ Church Re- to receive these our prayers, which we formers” to the unspeakable import offer in thy Son's name unto thy Diance of earnest supplication at the vine Majesty; beseeching thee to inthrone of grace for the accomplish- spire continually the universal Church ment of their desires. Though it is with the spirit of truth, unity, and condesigned rather as an outline, to be cord; and to grant that all they that filled up by others, than as a prayer do confess thy holy Name may agree for general adoption, in its present in the truth of thy holy Word, and form, yet it may possibly be found of live in unity and godly love. Send some little service, even in its present down, O heavenly Father, upon all form, either in the family circle, or “ the Churches" of the saints, the at the social meetings of such christian healthful spirit of thy grace, that, as friends as are agreed in a desire for in the days of old, “walking in the Church Reform; the writer will there- fear of the Lord, and in the comfort fore here present it, with references of the HolyGhost,” they may be“multo suitable collects, which may be used tiplied,” (Acts ix. 31); and, being together with it.
“ established in the faith,” may “in
crease in number daily,” (xvi. 5). We Form or PRAYER, &c.
beseech thee also, most merciful FaTrust in the Lord with all thine ther, favourably to regard the suppliheart; and lean not unto thine own cations of us thine unworthy servants, understanding. In all thy ways ac who humbly entreat thee, of thy great knowledge Him, and He shall direct goodness, especially to look down in thy paths, Prov. iii. 5, 6.—See also
mercy upon the united Church of Ps. xxxvii. 4, 5.
England and Ireland, established in 1. Collect, “ Prevent us, O Lord, this realm, now grievously disturbed
in all our doings,” &c. by intestine strifes, and miserably 2. Collect, for the Seventh Sunday distracted by the unhappy divisions after Trinity.
and angry contentions at this time so 3. Collect, for the Nineteenth Sun- fearfully prevalent among its minisday after Trinity.
ters and members. Look down, O 4. The Prayer for Unity,” in the Lord, in mercy, pardon our offences;
Service for the Sovereign's Ac- and heal our unhappy divisions. Pour cession.
out of thy Spirit upon the whole
Church, and upon every member of thou, who hast the hearts of all men the same, from the highest unto the in thy control, sincerely to desire a lowest. Send down upon all our bi- sound and scriptural reform of all shops and our clergy the blessed in- practical abuses and defects in the fluences of thy Holy Spirit în rich working of our ecclesiastical system, abundance, to preserve them from and a wise and timely revision of our every error, to guide them into all public services, to be in all respects truth, to make them all of one heart conducted on sound and scriptural and of one mind in the belief of thy principles; and give them grace and heavenly truth, and to enable them strength to bring the same to good with one mouth faithfully to proclaim effect. Raise up among us faithful the same.
Grant also to all thy peo- and able men, well qualified by thee ple grace so to hear and receive what
to accomplish these important works, they shall deliver out of thy most in such a manner as to promote thy holy Word, or agreeable to the same, glory, and the best interests of thy that they may in all things obey thy whole Church. Hear us, O Lord, acblessed will, in holiness and righteous- cording to thy gracious promise, given ness before thee, through the power unto us by thy blessed Son, that when of the Holy Ghost. Give also, we two or three are gathered together in most humbly beseech thee, to our His name, thou wilt grant their regracious Queen, to the great council quests; and grant that those things of the nation, to the archbishops and which we have faithfully asked, acbishops, and to all our rulers, both in cording to thy will, may effectually Church and State, such heavenly be obtained, to the relief of our neceslight and understanding, and sound sities, and to the setting forth of thy scriptural wisdom, that they may be glory ; through Jesus Christ our Lord, all enabled so to perform the various to whom with thee and the Holy duties of their respective stations, as Ghost, be all honour and glory, world to promote the glory of thy great without end. Amen. Name, and the temporal and eternal 6. Lord's Prayer. good of their fellow-men. Graciously 7. “ The grace of our Lord Jesus dispose and incline their hearts, o Christ,” &c.
PRINCIPLES OF CHURCH REFORM ILLUSTRATED.
[Continued from p. 126.] II. The principles we have hitherto in the liturgical services we employ; considered, are more immediately ap- and these two topics may be briefly plicable to what are termed the tem. named constitutional and liturgical poralities of a Church; although of reforms. course, indirectly, they have a very 1. Of CONSTITUTIONAL REFORMS :powerful influence on its spiritual i. The first principle that we have efficacy. Those we have now to treat now to speak of, is one that immeof, however, are directly of a spiritual diately and appropriately follows the nature, and their bearing, whether for observations with which we concluded good or evil, is immediately upon the our last paper, arising, in fact, out of due and effectual exercise of those them, and serving, therefore, both to functions, which are the proper attri- illustrate and to enforce them. This butes of the ministers of the Church principle is the necessity for the emanof Christ. In dealing with these, it cipation of the Church from the secuwill be useful to divide our subject in larizing influence of the State. Our such a manner as to discuss, sepa- statesmen and lawyers have imbibed rately and distinctly, the constitution the notion, and maintain it as a truism, of our Church, and the reforms needed that the power of appointment to therein; and afterwards, the changes bishoprics, deaneries, and even some and improvements that are requisite other benefices, is an inherent prero
gative of the Crown. Thus, only as appointed, not by regal power, but lately as on the 30th of March last
, by popular and clerical election. Thus Lord John Russell, the first minister Bingham, writing of the election of of the Crown, in a speech on the re- bishops, says, “ If any one made use cent insolently aggressive policy of of the secular powers to gain a promothe Pope of Rome, is reported to have tion in the Church, by a rule of the said, " I think nothing is more fairly Apostolical canons, he was to be deproved than this, that the circum- posed; and all that communicated scription of dioceses must be con with him were to be suspended from sented to by the sovereign authority; christian communion," vol. vi. p. 396. and that the appointment of bishops is And again, after fully treating of, not spiritual but temporal. The con and proving the mutual and equal secration of bishops, Dr. Twiss fairly right of people and clergy, not merely considers a spiritual matter; but that to bear testimony, but to give their bishops can be appointed without the votes, at and for the election of a biconsent of the sovereign authority, and shop, up to the time of the Council an express agreement that the Pope, of Chalcedon, A.D. 451; that is, 126 or some other authority, shall have years after the Council of Nicæum, the power to appoint them, is A.D. 325; when some assert that there what I think all good authorities was a change, Bingham thus conon this subject would deny, - and cludes :-"I shall say no more upon they would deny it in common with this head, but only allege a canon of the public law of Europe, and in the furth Council of Carthage, which common with the practice of every comprises the whole practice of the country in Europe.” So again, while Church, in relation to this matter; commenting upon, and explaining the decreeing, that the ordination of a case of Lalor, in Ireland, which Sir bishop should always be by the conJames Graham had just cited, Lord sent of four parties--the clergy, the J. Russell says, “He had exercised, laity, the provincial bishops, and the by appointments to benefices, in ma Metropolitan, whose presence or autrimonial causes, dispensations, and thority was principally necessary in other matters, jurisdiction appertain- all such cases. . This seems to ing to the episcopal office, to the detri- have been the most common and orment of the authority, dignity, and re- dinary practice of the Church," vol. i. gality of the Crown.
424-451, and vi. 391–393. Thus proceeded against, in point of fact, for there cannot be the slightest question having usurped episcopal jurisdiction ; or doubt as to the fact, that in all the not for doing anything, by direct earliest ages of the Church, not only means, against the authority, or tem was the exercise of secular power to poral power, or regality of the Crown, aid promotion eschewed, but the but for exercising episcopal jurisdiction, choice of the bishop, his election, and the right appertaining to and vested and appointment, were vested in the in the Crown.' Now it may be all Church itself, that is, in the people very well for lawyers, whose antiquity and clergy united; and it was only is bounded by the reign of our Rich- after long contentions and strife beard I., and who account all the ages tween the people and their spiritual preceding that as periods whereunto rulers, that the former lost their rights the memory of man extendeth not, to the latter, from whom eventually to ignore the preceding history of the they were wrested by the temporal Church, and to disregard its state in powers. the primitive times; but from the be It is easy to shew how the tempoginning it was not so; and if we traceral jurisdiction, which is now regarded back the original of these things, so as an indefeasible right, originated : as to see what they were in the ear -- The last quotation from Bingham liest ages, and what Scripture itself informs us, that one of the parties, shews to have been the first custom whose concurrence and consent were in the Church, we shall find that in necessary in the appointment of bithose primitive times, bishops were shops, was the Metropolitan. This