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and that "it every where agreed with are no ways helpful towards the gainitself as to articles of faith."

ing of salvation, and what is yet worse This learned inquirer, had he been they say that good works are downimpartial, could not have failed to right sins." P. 25. These charges are discover many instances of disugree- sustained by the following sentiments ment, even before the Jesuits and Jan- from Luther. “ Si bonum operarentur senists convinced the world, in spite propter regnum obtinendum, nuof Bossuet's eloquence and acuteness, quam obtinerent. Opus bonum opthat cariations were not peculiar to time factum, est veniale peccatum.”3 Protestant churches. Nor ought he V. ii. fol. 453 and 110. to hase been ignorant or to have for- The writer of the following pasgotten that predestination, in its most 'sages might have been supposed to rigorous form, with its systematic ac- rank among those whom the Procompanyments of original or birth-sin testant church calls heretics, rather réprobation, satisfaction, &c. had been than to be returning to the Motheradvocated in the Roman church long Church of the orthodox faith. before the names of Protestant or Cal- • The abettors of the pretended vin had any existence. Yet in his Reformation, among other errors, eighteenth consideration he quotes, as teach that all sins are equal-an idle opposed by the Protestant to the Pa- word then, according to the doctrine pal church the following sentiments of our innovators, must be of equal from Calvin and Luther. “ Nec ab- enormity with any other sin.-But surdum videri debet quod dico, Deum our Saviour (Mat. v. 22,) has given non modo primi hominis casum et in us a very different information, toucheo posteriorum ruinam, prævidisse; ing the punishment and pardon of sed arbitrio quoque suo dispensasse." í sins.” P. 17. The author thus proCalvin Instit. 1. 3. cap. 28. n.7. “Di- ceeds, in the sixteenth and seventeenth cimus Deum in nobis operari bona et Considerations: mala, nosque; merà necessitate passiva “ According to the same Sectaries, subjici Dei operanti.—Hic est fidei all good works are sins, and all sins summus gradus, credere [Deum) jus- are equally grievous, so that in their tum, qui, syâ voluntate, nos necessario principles every good work must have damnabiles facit.”. Luther de Serv. in itself the enormity of all sins whatsoArbit. V. ii. Fol. 429 and 454. On ever. Consequently to pray to God the contrary, my author maintains is a crime of as black a dye as blasthat “it were a repugnancy to God's phemy, to give an alms to a poor sovereign goodness, before he had person is no better than robbing him foreseen a man's demerits, to destine of what he has, and to restore ill-gotten and condemn him to everlasting fire goods to the right owner, is as blamand even to create him for that fatal able as to keep them against bis will. end." P. 16. In another place he What a pretence is this ! complains that “ these religions (of To press this argument a little Luther and Calvin) are so far from farther, I would gladly know what teaching us to decline evil by the ob- any of their preachers would advise a servance of God's commandments, man to do, that should ask him, whethat, on the contrary, they declare it a ther or no he were obliged in the last thing impossible to observe them. case above-mentioned to restitution? And instead of exhorting us to well. If he answers in the affirmative, the doing, they teach us that good works unjust possessor may ask him again ;

whether it be a good work to restore

another's goods ? If he say, it is, the Nor onght what I say to appear extra. other may reply unto him, you hold gant, that God not only foresaw the fall of the first man and in him the ruin of his pos- that all good works are sins; and again, terity, but also determined it by his sove that all sins are equal in themselves, reign pleasure.

so that, whether I restore or retain my We say that God works good and evil neighbour's goods, it is all one, as to ip us, and that we are subjected to this operation of God by a mere passive necessity. This is the highest attainment of 3 If a good work is performed, to obtain faith, to believe that God is just who made the kingdom, (of heaven) it shall never be us, by his own will, necessarily, in a state obtained.

The most righteous action is a of damnation.

venial sin.

the guilt of sin; I will therefore keep spirit, the Arians and Anabaptists will for my own use and benefit, what I require them to point out in express hold to the prejudice of my neigh- terms this their interpretation in the bour."

Scripture; because 'tis a principle We know what Christians in our with all of them, that nothing is to be age and country have named them- believed as an article of faith, but what selves, exclusively, Evangelical. On the Scripture teaches in express, intelthat subject I will quote the third ligible and clear terms." Pp. 5, 6. Consideration entire, as a valuable ac In a review of his reasons at the knowledgment, from a well-informed conclusion of his work, the author adversary, that those Christians have thus again refers to the same subject. always proved themselves the most “ I have never been able to learn upon zealous and consistent Scripturists, on what account the Lutherans alone whom Papists and Protestants have call themselves Evangelical, or why agreed to atfix the frightful brand of the Calvinists style themselves the heresy.

reformed religion. Nor can it enter “ I am as much at a loss to know into my head why the Anabaptists, upon what principle the Lutherans the new Arians, and the Unitariuns and Calvinists exclude the Arians and may not with as good a grace assume Anabaptists out of their Evangelical to themselves the same appeHation." Communion. For these pretend an P. 72. equal right to the name, and that The following story forming the their doctrine is agreeable to the truth thirty-first Consideration, will be peof the gospel, nay, that they are more culiarly interesting to an English properly Evangelical than the Lu- Reader. therans or Calvinists are, we dont read, “ I remember that being once presay the Anabaptists, in any part of sent in my youth at a dispute of school the gospel that infants ought to be bap. divinity which was held among the tized. Jesus Christ himself says in St. Calvinists; one of the audience more Mark, He that believes and is baptized, knowing than the rest, proposed beshall be saved. (Mark xvi. 16.) There- fore all the company, in the person of fore faith must go before baptism. a Catholic, an argument which so Now faith is only to be found in the gravelled the professor, that it quite adult, therefore no one till then ought silenced him for a time. Then to get to be baptized. Consequently our clear of it as well as he could, he told doctrine is more agreeable to the gos- us that being formerly in England he pel than that of the Lutherans or Cal- had proposed the same difficulty to one vinists, who admit the baptism of in- of their doctors, who had no other anfants. And thus plead the Arians, swer to give him, than that no perour Saviour says expressly in St. tinent resolution could be made to the John's gospel, my Father is greater argument; and by consequence, that than 1. (John xiv. 28.) We fol- in this point no direct answer was to low then the gospel when we teach be given to Catholics, but the only that, as to the divine nature, the Son way was to avoid the force and dint is not equal to but inferior to his Fa- of it by some logical evasion.—So ther. We admit, not upon this text, that I judged the Sectaries took not the interpretation of the fathers, who much to heart the truth of matters will have it, that the Son is less than' concerning articles of faith.” P. 37. his Father, according to his human It cannot be read without regret, nature, but equal to him according to that this learned and pious prince his divinity; for we think the Luthe- unable to adjust the rival claims of rans and Calvinists have no right to “ the Lutheran, the Calvinist, the force upon us any such interpretation, Arian or the Anabaptist,” could not since they reject the authority of at the age of seventy-five become an fathers in the controversies that are Eclectic, or rather return to the New on foot between them and Catholics. Testament For we see no reason why their authority should be allowed in this point

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the judge that ends the strife,

Where wit and reason fail. and not in others.

“ But if the Lutherans and Cal. On the contrary, he determines “ to vinists insist upon their own authority return to the pale of the Roman Caor the interpretation of their private tholic church," among forty-nine

.

other reasons, because “ it is the of them, they are more fortunate than judgment of Protestants as well as myself. But whatever ideas they may Catholics, that salvation may be had obtain from it, I will venture to assert in the faith of the Roman church; they will not be such as Walton but none besides Protestants are of meant to convey. opinion that it may be had in another The Chaldee Paraphrase, we are religion.” Thus orthodox Protestants rightly told, was made by various auinvite to their communion those who thors, but of these no more than three otherwise, without doubt, shall perish are mentioned. Why has Philo-Bibeverlastingly! But who art thou that licus stopped short in his account, judgest another man's servant? and given no hint of the translation

The three annexed papers shall be of any other books than those of the described in the following number. law and the prophets? Must we supVERMICULUS. pose that he was deterred by the ap

pearance of difficulty in the succeedSIR. March 8th, 1815. ing sentences in his author; and that MEELING no small degree of in- he did not know the meaning of the

terest in the credit as well as terms Hagiographu and Megilloth! the diffusion of Unitarianism, I cannot Not one half even of the little which express the mortification I experi- Walton has said in this place concernenced when I perused the paper ing the Targums, is given by his signed Philo-Biblicus (pp. 31, 32). pretended translator. Pardon me, Mr. Editor, if I hold you No one can read the last sentence not altogether blameless for admitting in the account of the Ethiopic vera communication so very imperfect sion, without supposing that in the and faulty. Your valuable Miscellany New Testament it has followed the is read and scrutinized by our adver- Vulgate, (of which, by the bye, not a saries, who will gladly take occasion word is said in this professed account from such a production (and well they of ancient versions) although Walton may, if it is to be regarded as a speci. has carefully stated that its agreement men of our attainments in biblical with the Vulgate serves only to show criticism), to deny us even the scanty that both versions followed the same portion of learning for which some Greek copies. among them, though not without re The Armenian version was but luctance, have given us credit. A little known when the London Polybrief account (I do not mean one that glott was published. Nine years afshall occupy no more than half a terwards, when Walton was no more, page) of the versions, both ancient the first edition of this version was and modern, might very properly find printed at Amsterdam. The history of a place in the Mon. Rep., and would, the version is now pretty well known, I have no doubt, be at the same time and it is only trifling with your readinteresting and useful to many of your ers, Mr. Editor, to present them with readers; but he who should under- a bad translation of a necessarily-imtake to furnish such an account ought perfect account of it, extracted from to be able to translate a Latin sen- the Prolegomena to the Polyglott. tence, and to extend his investiga- This, however, would have been more tions beyond the rapid sketch con- tolerable, had not Philo-Biblicus done tained in the 5th of the Prolegomena all in his power to injure the reputaof Walton. To this task, therefore, tion of that learned and excellent your correspondent Philo-Biblicus is man, whose words be pretends to altogether unequal. To convince you translate, by ascribing to him such a of this, to put you upon your guard remark as the following : “ without against any future communications the assistance of another copy, they” under that signature, upon such sub. (i. e. the Arminian gospels in his posjects, and to show that such igno- session)" could not be engraven on rance as he has betrayed will not pass types.Whoever heard of such encurrent amongst Unitarians, 1 submit graving? or who could suppose it to you the following remarks. possible for any one to undertake to

The whole history of the Septua- write about the ancient versions of gint is comprized in two short sen- the Bible, who cannot properly ren. tences, and if any of your readers can der the simple phrase, typis imprimi! gain any distinct ideas from the last Walton, studying brevity in his 5th

Prolegomenon, which Philo-Biblicus Yet I could not help suspecting that has ventured to mangle, has not the fault would not be found to lie given a full and clear account of the with Walton, and under this impreslabours of Origen; but our translatorsion I had recourse to him again. has been very solicitous to misrepre- Sure enough, he has written ut consent his text, and to make bad worse. jicit Athanas., and Athanas, as every When he tells us that Origen arranged body knows, stands for Athanasius; the Greek versions of Aquila, Theo- but fortunately for our great Prolegodotion and Symmachus, iv his Tetra: menist, though most unfortunately for pla and Hexapla, he closely copies the credit of his translator, Athanas. Walton ; the confusion is not charge- is immediately followed by these imable upon him, though the addition portant words, Kircherus in Prodr. of a word or two might have rendered Coptico. The mystery was at once all plain and intelligible; but when solved. Of Athanasius, Philo-Biblicus he goes on to say that he added a had heard or read something, as every fifth and sixth with the Hebrew text, one has who can hear or read at all, whence he called these volumes Oc- but of kircher he had never either read tapla, he palms a blunder upon the or heard, and of an Athanasius Kircher truly learned editor of the Polyglott he could no more form a conception, which he has not committed. Sup- than a man born blind, of colours. posing your readers to know that the Kircherus in Prodr. Coptico has very Tetrapla was formed by the three much the air of a reference, as such Greek versions just mentioned and it passed with our sagacious transthe Septuagint, arranged in four co- lator of Walton; and since omne lumns, how can they conceive of this ignotum pro magnifico est,” the autho. becoming the Octapla by the addition rity of this unknown Kircher is deem. of three columns more? He indeed, ed by him amply sufficient to estabwho can comprehend engraving upon lish the fact, that Athanasius of Alextypes, may well be imagined to have andria conjectured concerning the date powers of conception superior to his of a version made in his own times, neighbours, and to find no difficulty for the use of the churches under his in making four and three equal to immediate jurisdiction. eight. The fact, however, seems to I beg your pardon, Mr. Editor, for be, that our scholar was unable to having extended these remarks so far; discover in the following words it is, I acknowledge very much like “ unde cum Hebræo textu literis He “ breaking a butterfly upon a wheel," bræis et Græcis exarato, Octapla no but I could not restrain my hand, unminavit hæc volumina,” the import. der a deep conviction of the important fact that Origen disposed the He ance of deterring, if possible, such brew in two columns, one in Hebrew, adventurers in biblical criticism as the other in Greek characters! I pass Pbilo-Biblicus from disgracing the over the revolt of Aquila and the pages of your Miscellany in future. strangely-confused account of Theo

I am, &c. &c. dotiou's versatility, to notice the last,

WALTONIANUS. but by no means the leust blunder of this unfortunate biblical critic.

Sir,

Feb. 26, 1815. “ The Coptic or Egyptian, as PERCEIVE that your learne Athanasius conjectures, was made correspondent, Mr. Frend (pp. about the time of the Council of 32, 3S), avows that there is a differNice.” As Athanasius conjectures ! ence between himself and other Unithought I to myself, when I read this tarians on the subject of the atoneextraordinary sentence, as Athana- ment. Having read with much sasius conjectures! Passing strange! that tisfaction and profit several of the Athanasius, a native of Alexandria, publications of this gentleman, which and who succeeded to the see of that indeed years ago helped me on the city in the very year after that in road to Unitarianism, I should be which the Council of Nice was held, particularly obliged if he would conshould conjecture about such an in- descend to explain, through the meteresting fact as the translation of the dium of your pages, what are his scriptures into his native tongue! views upon this subject. I cannot What has Walton been about? “ Ali- learn thein from the communication quando bonus dormitat Homerus." to which I have referred. To me it

appears, at present, that there is no Christ must have been a punishment, middle scheme between the hypothe- and therefore this hypothesis labours sis that Christ was the procuring cause under nearly the same objections as of salvation, and the hypothesis that the popular system. he was simply its revealer and minis Other moderate men consider the ter. If he were the procuring cause salvation of mankind as the reward, on of salvation, he must, I should think, the part of the Father, of Christ's obebe equal to God from whom he ob- dience to death; but are we at liberty tained this great gift, and in this case to believe that if Christ had not provgoodness appears to belong to him ra- ed pre-eminently virtuous, all God's ther than to the Father: if he were other children would have been lost in simply the revealer and minister of sal- death for ever? That Christ is exalted vation, he needed not to be more than to be Lord of all, in reward of his virman, nor is there any thing in this tuous sufferings, the New Testament supposition which every Unitarian clearly asserts; but does it not at the writer that I am acquainted with does same time represent that his reward is not acknowledge or assert. All Uni- not so much the salvation of the sons of tarians, I believe, hold the resurrec- men, as his own appointment to be the tion of Jesus Christ to be the earnest minister of that salvation. The unof an universal resurrection, and con- changeable, exuberant goodness of sider him as appointed by the Father God is thus provided for, whilst also, to raise the dead. What more than allowance is made for the merit of this can your correspondent intend? Christ, the efficacy of his death and Can so good a reasoner content him- the importance of his mediation. self with high-sounding words wbich

R. BROOK. convey no distinct ideas? Writing solely for the sake of in

LETTER II. formation, I am,

Sır. Harlow, March 1, 1815. An Inquiring Unitarian.

correspondent, in the first numSir.

Feb. 25, 1815. ber of the present volume (p. 33), I.

A

I a

portion of Christians of the pre- to consider the Jewish sacrifices, that sent day hold the doctrine of atone- Inay clear the encumbered way, obtain ment without any definite ideas upon a nearer approach to the doctrine of the subject. They attach to the death the atonement, and view it in the unobof Christ a certain mysterious efficacy, structed light of common sense and which they are not anxious to ex- scriptural truth. But I would first plain, and which indeed they do not invite your readers' attention to that understand. This is a convenient institute which is called the Passover; scheme, for it allows its advocates to “ For Christ our passover was slain disown the objectionable principles of for us.” That solemn festival was not substitution and satisfaction, and at the a sacrifice, though it has been called same time to use the popular phrase- so, to serve a system. The appointology, and so to pass themselves off ment of this Mosaic rite is recorded in for sound believers. But do the scrip- Exodus xii., and its allusion evidently tures represent that there is any mystc- was, to the deliverance of the Israelry in the redemption by Jesus Christ, ites from slavery and oppression. any mystery at least which is not now They were to partake of this supper made known? If there be a mystery with “ their loins girded, their sandals in it, how can it be understood, how on their feet, and their staff in their can it be believed? And wherein con- hand;" thus they declared themselves sists the practical efficacy of a doc- pilgrims, sojourners and strangers in trine into which the understanding ihe land of Egypt, as their fathers cannot penetrate?

were before them. Pharaoh and his Men laying claim to moderation, people had broken all the laws of hosthough the virtue of moderation pitality with regard to these strangers, where truth and error are concerned they had oppressed, they had enslaved is surely equivocal, sometimes repre- them. The Hebrews were about to sent the death of Christ as necessary quit a country where they had enjoyas a display of the divine indignation ed little good and experienced much against sin: but then the death of evil; they had been long under the

VOL. X.

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