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take possession and secondly, because and it has therefore made her rich. But it spends so little of the national fortune she must be more than rich, or powerful, on either army or navy, because it refuses or even free, before America can hope to to maintain order in any Asiatic depen- change the half-awestruck admiration of dency, because it looks on the struggles the world at her material prosperity, into of the Old World with the half-amused cordial liking for herself without her rich glance of an indifferent spectator. It surroundings. has the strongest, the freest, and the most prosperous of peoples within its borders; but no nation in bonds looks upward to the great republic for aid, no struggling

From The Spectator. people turns to her fleet with longing, no perishing race so much as hopes that the Western rifle will drive away the oppress- In the exquisite little sketch which Mr.

One American shell would liberate Myers has given of Wordsworth, in Mr. the Armenians, but it will not be fired. Jolin Morley's series of “ Men of LetThe world may die of despair, for Wash- ters,” *— as a piece of English at least, ington. The most generous individually the gen, we venture to say, of the whole of races will collectively strike no blow series, the only thing which, in the for foreign freedom, send no fleet, issue perfect candor and singularly chastened even no command. There is a legend truthfulness of the essay, we are disposed current, which we have never been able to think has been a little inadequately to trace fully, that America once inter- rendered, is the effect of personal force vened in the most decided way to save which Wordsworth produced upon all Switzerland from an invasion; but unless who were competent to understand him that be truc, we know of no great service at all. Mr. Myers has told us what De she has done to mankind, except in offer- Quincey had preconceived Wordsworth, ing the distressed a bome — and that from a knowledge of his poetry; namely,

Yet, with her necessary that he “prefigured the image of Wordsdisinterestedness, and her magnificent re-worth,” to what he called his own “plansources, and her detached policy, the et-struck eyes,” as one before which his Union might often be the best of arbiters, faculties would quail, as before "Elijah might arrest a war, and hurry on a work or St. Paul.” But in his explanation how of mercy to mankind like the erasure of this profound homage to Wordsworth the Sultanet. She, however, does noth- was possible on the part of such a master ing, even on her own continent, where of the secrets of literature as De QuinState after State is rotting down or falling cey, Mr. Myers, though he dwells very back from civilization, unaided, unguided, justly and appropriately on Wordswortlı’s and uncontrolled by the mighty people claim to be in a sense the poet of a new who claim to be, and are, distinctively revelation, hardly attaches enough impor" the Americans," and who endlessly ac- tance, we think, to the general intensity cumulate the strength they use politically and rugged power of the man. He has only for themselves. The Union does not not quoted the impression formed of even insist on order in Mexico, will not Wordsworth by a much harder and less keep forces sufficient to secure full free impressionable man than De Quincey, dom to her own black citizens, and allows and one not at all disposed to receive wars to go on in the southern continent humbly Wordsworth's “revelation.” Hazwhich she could stop with a word. It litt, perhaps the most cynical critic who will not, we believe, always be so. We ever had an omnivorous appetite for what do not conceive it possible for so great a was good in literature however unique its State always to remain isolated, as if in kind, early formed a very strong impres. another planet, or to refuse to bear its sion of Wordsworth's power and has left share in the burden imposed by nine hun- a sketch of him as he was in his earliest dred millions upon less than two hundred; poetic epoch; that is, about the age of but up to to-day, America has sought and twenty-five years, for Wordsworth ripened gained her own happiness by indiffere late, and was hardly a poet at all till he to that of the inhabitants of the remain. was a mature man. “ He answered in der of the world. That policy has ena- some degree,” says Hazlilt, “to his bled her to dispense with fleets and friend's [Coleridge's] description of him, armies, to avoid ihe costly burden of a but was more gaunt and Don Quixoteforeign policy, and to maintain her organ. ization without administrative services,

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like. He was quaintly dressed (accord- ously thought of offering himself as a ing to the costume of that unconstrained Girondist leader, and was only prevented period), in a brown sustian jacket and by his English friends stopping his allowstriped pantaloons. There was some- ance, so that he had to return home to thing of a roll or lounge in his gait, not find the means of living. Even after his unlike his own Peter Bell. There was a return, his mind long dwelt with the most severe, worn pressure of thought about brooding melancholy on the future of the his temples, a fire in his eye (as if he saw Revolution, of which he had formed such something in objects more than the out- passionate hopes. For months and even ward appearance), an intense, high, nar- years he says that the French collapse row forehead, a Roman nose, cheeks fur. haunted him so that his nights were full rowed by strong purpose and feeling, a of horrible dreams. He dreamed of dunconvulsive inclination to laughter about geons, massacres, and guillotines. He the mouth a good deal at variance with dreamed long speeches which he was the solemn, stately expression of the rest pleading before unjust tribunals on behalf of the face. Chantrey's bust wants the of accused patriots. He dreamed of marking traits, but he was teased into treachery, desertion, and that last sense making it regular and heavy. Haydon's of utter desolation, when the last strength head of him, introduced into the .En ebbs even from the soul of the dreamer. trance of Christ into Jerusalem,' is the After this he fell into the state in which most like the drooping weight of thought nothing is credited without the most am. and expression. He sat down and talked ple and formal demonstration, nothing very naturally and freely, with a mixture held true unless it is warranted by the of clear, gushing accents in his voice, a

But even at this time, moody deep, guttural intonation, and a strong and fitful as Wordsworth's life had been, mixture of the northern burr, like the Mr. Myers says that even at a later crust on wine.” That, coming from Haz- period he might not unfairly have been litt, describes a man of no ordinary pow. taken for “a rough and somewhat stuber; for it must be remembered that Haz- born young man, who in nearly thirty litt was by no means a disciple of Words- years of life had seemed alternately to worth's, though he was a great admirer of idle without grace, and to study without his. He hated Wordsworth for having advantage,” — he was in no sense the given up his first Radicalism. He re- mere egoist Hazlitt wanted to make of him. ferred all Wordsworth’s finest poetry to His sister compared her two brothers his egotism, and asserted that Words- thus : “ Christopher is steady and sincere worth's strength was virtually due to in his attachments. William has both “excess of weakness.”

Nevertheless, these virtues in an eminent degree, and a when he was describing him as he had sort of violence of affection, if I may so first seen him, Hazlitt was far too intelli- term it, which demonstrates itself every gent a critic to describe a man in whom moment of the day, when the objects of his weakness was the key to strength. On affection are present with him, in a thouthe contrary, he described the is severe, sand almost imperceptible attentions to worn pressure of thought about his tem- their wishes, in a sort of restless watchples," and the fire in his eye as of one fulness which I know not how to describe, who saw something in objects beyond a tenderness that never sleeps, and at the their outward appearance. And every same time such a delicacy of manner as thing we know of Wordsworth confirms I have observed in few men.” And this this. His mother, who died when he was passionate tenderness he showed in many but eight years old, said that the only one relations of life. When his brother, the of her children about whose future life captain of the East Indiaman, went down she was anxious was William, and that with his ship off the Bill of Portland, he would be remarkable either for good Wordsworth's grief and suffering were or for evil. And Wordsworth himself far beyond the measure of ordinary men. explains this by saying that he was of a Mr. De Vere says that nearly forty years

stiff, moody, and violent temper,” and after Wordsworth had lost two of his once as a child had gone into one of his children, “ he described the details of grandfather's rooms to find a foil with their illnesses with an exactness and an which to destroy himself, because he impetuosity of troubled excitement such thought he had been unjustly punished. as might have been expected if the beWhen abroad at the time of the French reavement had taken place but a few Revolution, though not at all a perfect weeks before.” master of the French language, he seri- This is not the picture of an egotist.

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Nor do we suppose that any complainting medium in the world, - a totally alien would ever have been made of Words- method of regarding things, from that of worth's egotism if it had been limited to the wondering and observing world. that fitfulness, occasional gustiness, or Other great poets have generally had a even moodiness of mind to which, in much higher command than the rest of some form or other, almost every great mankind of those same feelings and poet has been subject, and which, in many thoughts and fancies, of which all of us cases at least, has contributed rather to have some command. But it was hardly enhance than to diminish a poet's fame. so with Wordsworth. That he had the Wordsworth's picture of himself, quoted deepest human sympathies and affections, by Mr. Myers, in the lines written in we have seen, and that he had the keenest Thomson's'“ Castle of Indolence,” is not and most hungry eye for all that was a picture which would ever have made beautiful in nature, we know too; but his him unpopular:

poetic mode of treating his own feelings,

whether those due to human beings or Full many a time, upon a stormy night, His voice came to us from the neighboring to the method of the mass of mankind.

those due to nature, was altogether alien height: Oft did we see him driving full in view

Instead of finding direct expression for At midday when the sun was shining bright; the feeling, whatever it was, his inward What ill was on him, what he had to do, genius led him to resist its inimediate A mighty wonder bred among our quiet crew. drift, to put it at a distance from him, to Ah! piteous sight it was to see this man

muse upon it, to see whether, if it were When he came back to us a withered flower,

painful, more profit could not be made of Or like a sinful creature, pale and wan.

it by enduring, subunitting to, and reflectDown would he sit; and without strength or ing upon the pain, than by expressing it; power

and if it were joyful, whether more could Look at the common grass from hour to hour : not be made of it by husbanding and deAnd oftentimes, how long I fear to say, ferring the joy, than by exhausting it. He Where apple-trees in blossom made a bower, was warned by some inward instinct Retired in that sunshiny shade he lay; always to restrain emotion, however And, like a naked Indian, slept himself away.

strong and stormy, till he could find a Great wonder to our gentle tribe it was

peaceful and lucid reflection of it in the Whenever from our valley he withdrew; mirror of a quiet mind. His mind, like For happier soul no living creature has Michael's, was “keen, intense, and fruThan he had, being here the long day through. gal,” but his temperament was far, inSome thought he was a lover, and did woo; deed, from cool. He told a friend that he Some thought far worse of him, and judged had never written love poetry because he him wrong;

dared not, it would have been too passionBut Verse was what he had been wedded to;

ate. The truth is that his naivre and And his own mind did like a tempest strong, Come to him thus, and drove the weary wight genius were averse to direct expression. along.

They made him wait till he could gain a

reflex image of feeling in the deep, cool That is a perfectly true picture no doubt, wells of thought. And this habit of his and gives us a better conception of the was so strange to the world that it set the hidden fire in Wordsworth than anything world against him; and when the world else which his poems contain. But it is was set against him, he set himself, of not moodiness, still less is it fire, which course, against the world; and being well ever gains for a poet the reputation of aware of his own genius, became a little egotism, and Wordsworth certainly has too much absorbed in its ideas, and a gained that reputation more than any little too deaf to other ideas which were great English poet who ever lived. outside the interests of his life. Mr. What has given Wordsworth the repu- Myers accounts for a good part of Wordstation of an egotist, and made that part worth's stiffness by his unpopularity. of the world which does not care for his “ The sense of humor is apt to be the first poetry depreciate him as a man, is the grace which is lost under persecution; peculiarly inward turn which his mind and much of Wordsworth's heaviness and took, so that, instead of multiplying his stiff exposition of commonplaces is to be points of relation with the world at large, traced to a feeling which he could scarcely as a poetic temperament usually does avoid, that all day long he had listed up multiply them, Wordsworth’s genius ap- his voice to a perverse and gainsaying genpeared rather to shut him up in himself, eration.” But we doubt the explanation. and to separate him by the inost separat- . If Wordsworth had had humor, persecu



tion would hardly have robbed him of the less it be some narrow inland glen, from humor. We doubt much if he ever had which the ocean in its various moods any. He was a “prophet of nature," and cannot be seen. Throughout its entire as a prophet of nature he had, like the length a chain of sloping, gently.curved prophets of God, a certain rapture of his hills rises, from North Barrule (1,842 st.) own which rendered him insensible to to Snaefell (2,024 ft.), and from Snaefell to humor. As the country-side said of him, Cronk ny-Jay-Llaa (1,145 ft.), “ the hill of he went “booing about,” that is, half the rising day,” from which the sun may chanting to himself the thoughts which be seen ascending from the sea and setnature and God put into his heart, and ting to the west, beyond the dimly-defined had little or no room for that fine elasticity outlines of the Mourne Mountains. The in passing from one mood to another sea views are, in fact, perhaps more which is of the essence of all humor. He striking than in any part of the United was a man of high passion, though he Kingdom, except the north-west coast of never let the world see it except in the Scotland. But in the Isle of Man they reflex form of rapturous meditation. He are broader and almost as bold; the rug. was a man of deep affections, though he ged masses of Spanish Head, the mellow forbade to joy and sorrow their most nat. coloring of the Call, and the wide expanse ural outlets. For he was, above all, a of waters on every side, dotted by scores man of deep reserves, a man of “keen, of herring-boats, is a scene which in its intense, and frugal” nature, who had little breadth is unequalled on any of our part in the ordinary excitements and en-| coasts. The absence of trees renders the joyments of the world, and was therefore land views cold and harsh, but it is the also one in whose excitements and enjoy: general coast views, the glens and coves ments the world could find little beyond which open to the sea, which are the charfood for amazement.

acteristic and charming portion of Manx scenery; whilst the genial winters and cool summers produce some vegetation quite abnormal in this latitude. There

are dozens of cottages protected by high From The Spectator.

hedges of fuchsias one mass of bright,

hanging flowers — whilst the delicate veTHE Isle of Man is but little known to ronica flourishes in shrubs six feet in the higher classes of holiday - makers, height. But whilst the sea inay be enthough it is annually visited by many joyed in the Isle of Man in a genuine thousands of strangers. Those who flock fashion, the place is interesting as a social thither are almost all persons of the lower study. It is immaterial to go back through middle class, and operatives from the the centuries during which it has been a thickly populated towns of Lancashire semi-independent island; it is enough for and Yorkshire. They make but a short present observation to find a place within stay, they ramble over the island, and five hours' sail of Liverpool ruling itself, their loud, provincial tones are heard in and enjoying home-rule in the most comboisterous merriment. In themselves, plete sense of the word. The Tynwald these people are a study. You see the Court, or Insular Legislature, is formed best of the working class of the north of what may be called two Chambers, away from their factories and workshops, the Lower, or House of Keys, which is and though your taste may be oftentimes elected by the owners and occupiers of offended at rude jokes and noisy merri- property in the island; and the Upper; or ment, yet they are essentially an indepen-Council

, composed of the bishop, the dent and hard-working class, even in their clerk of the rolls, and other permanent amusements.

officials. But, as a matter of fact, whilst But the Isle of Man may fairly claim a the island is thus nominally self-governed, visit from persons of higher culture than many of the most important statutes which these. Regarded simply as a health-re- pass the Legislature of Great Britain are sort, there can be no question that it is soon after introduced into the Legislature the most thorough sea residence in the of the Isle of Man. The Education Act kingdom. On every side is the sea, and of 1870 was passed in almost identical from whatever quarter of the compass the form, and the Burials Act has just been wind chooses to blow it comes froin the introduced into the Manx statute-book. sea, and there is scarcely a spot in the So that, adopting great Imperial measures, thirty-three miles from the Point of Ayre the Insular Legislature becomes, in fact, to the bold cliffs of the Calf of Man, un- I little more than a local body dealing with


local wants. Thus both town and rural | Manx fisherman seems to be to buy a districts in the Isle of Man are governed plot of ground, and to erect on it a subby representatives of their own, whereas stantial, two-storied, stone cottage. In a in England local representative govern- fairly good season, the Kinsale inackerelment is confined to the towns. An in- fishing and the Manx herring-fishing in stance of the effectual way in which this the summer and autumn will together local representation acts may be seen in bring in about £40 a man; and as a boat the question of Sunday.closing, which, in and nets cost about £600, the average of regard to Wales, at any rate, is likely to seven who man and own a boat will often give active employment next session to in three years pay the preliminary cost, the Imperial Legislature. Sunday-clos- and a fisherman can then begin to lay by ing was adopted in the Isle of Man some money, or to take shares in other boats. twenty years ago, though a person who Therefore, when we hear the complaints has travelled four miles can be supplied of Irish politicians, that the Irish fisherwith drink. But Sunday.closing in prin- men cannot succeed because they get no ciple has been successfully introduced and help from the Imperial funds, they may fairly received, and has continued for a fairly be asked to look at the Manx fishconsiderable period of time, during which ermen, who, solely by their own efforts, drunkenness has undoubtedly decreased have created a prosperous trade, and are and been apparently reduced to a trifling as fine and independent a body of men as evil, so that this is certainly an example exist in the United Kingdom, and, unlike which is not without value to those who most seamen, are not only unusually would introduce this system into England. temperate, but in an increasing propor

Again, it is distinctly of interest to find tion, total abstainers from intoxicating a place where a poor-law does not exist. drinks. But this Utopia of local option,

The object of the reformers of the poor county boards for the principles which law in England may, in brief, be said to underlie these systems are present in the be the working of it with as little harın to Isle of Man - and absence of poor-laws, the population as possible. Here, how has a reverse side, when we notice the ever, we have a place which in 1871 had legal procedure which exists in this island. a population of more than fifty-three thou- The judicial work is chiefly performed by sand, without the machinery of the poor two judges, or deemsters, but the prolaw. Paupers, of course, there are, but cedure of the courts is many years behind they are obliged to seek private relief, or that of England. Both in the civil and to obtain assistance from the clergy and criminal courts, the procedure is of the wardens of the Established Church in the most cumbrous kind, and litigation berural districts, or from the committees comes protracted to a most unfortunate which in the towns, give out the relief degree, and the time of the court is often voluntarily bestowed by the more pros: occupied by formal questions as to pleadperous inhabitants of the island. “Anding and procedure which should never the successful working of the voluntary come into open court. The introduction system may perhaps be regarded as show- of the machinery, of the County Court ing that a system of State relief is vicious Acts, and of a Probate and Divorce Court, in principle and a failure in practice. is a legal reform which would be easy and Much of the prosperity of the island and beneficial to the people. With Sir Henry the absence of paupérism is, do doubt, Loch as constitutional sovereign, prime owing to the active and enterprising spirit minister, and Cabinet, in one, a small of the people. The surplus population community such as that which exists in leaves the island, and only sufficient re. the Isle of Man presents an admirable mains for fishing, for agricultural, and field for the introduction of an expeditious other employment. Of course, large num- and cheap legal procedure. bers seek work in England, but very many When once we begin to study the social will without hesitation try their fortunes babits of a people who have for centuries in America and the colonies, and the been an isolated community, various Manxman, like the inhabitant of the quaint customs are sure to be noticed. Grisons, does not hesitate to find the em- Such is the mheillea, or cutting of the ployment in other countries which his last handful of corn, which used to be own does not supply. When, too, we bound with ribbons and wild-flowers, and look into the condition of the people a carried by the queen of the mheillea, a little more minutely, we find them to be favorite of the harvest-field, to the farm. undoubtedly flourishing. Take the fish. Here a supper and dance would take ermen, for example. The object of the place, so that it became a kind of harvest


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