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out that Mr. Job, paper manufacturer, had Mar Forest, enough for all the purpo supplied the deceased with as much paper as sight-seeing, &c. If indiscriminate tr would make ten thousand notes. The most was permitted, any person under prete of it was seized at Alexandria, on its way to sight-seeing might purposely drive the Cairo, where Thornton had an establishment. out of bounds, where they might be kil
other people.' September 9.-At a Protectionist dinner to Mr. Newdegate, in North Warwickshire, 22.-Stranding of the Great Britain : Lord George Bentinck says he thinks it pos ship in Dundrum Bay. She left the M sible that the potato failure is an act of just about mid-day on the 21st, having on vengeance on the part of Almighty Providence 181 passengers, and a crew of 90 hands. for the impious ingratitude with which we had tain Hoskin took the north-about pa: spoken of the last year's harvest.
Through some inadvertence, never very 11.- About two hundred men armed with
explained, but most likely either in reck scythes, pitchforks, and fire-arms, proceeded
or mistaking a light, she got out of her ( to a farm held under the Court of Chancery,
and drifted in the gale on to the soft : near Clonoslee, Queen's County, Having
beach of Dundrum. The passengers in driven back the keepers in charge of the
rushed upon deck, but after some delay crops, they placed the grain on drays and
were nearly all induced to return to their cars, and drove the whole off, firing several
and wait till daylight, when they were shots in satisfaction at their success.
off in safety, the great steamship then ly
a foot or two of water. The mails and 12.—Death of Lord Metcalfe, aged 61. were also got out and sent back to Livery
14.-King Louis Philippe writes to his 23.-Fire at the Croydon Railway tern daughter, the Queen of the Belgians, ex destroying most of the buildings, and thi plaining the position of France and England railway carriages. with reference to the Spanish double marriage : “The Queen has just received a letter, or
24.–Lord Normanby delivers to M. C rather a reply from Queen Victoria to the one
a formal protest by Great Britain again: you know she had written to her, and that
contemplated marriage of the Duke de 1 reply greatly grieves me. I am inclined to
pensier with the Infanta Louisa of Spain. believe that our good little Queen was as sorry
protest was founded—first, upon the Tre: to write such a letter as I was to read it. But
Utrecht, by which the French branch o
Bourbons renounced all claim to the ti she now only sees things through the spectacles of Lord Palmerston, and these spectacles dis
of Spain ; and, secondly, upon the agree
come to between the French and Er tort and disfigure things too often. The great difference between the spectacles of the excel
ministers at the Château d'Eu, an agree lent Aberdeen and those of Lord Palmerston
the more emphatic, because, though no proceeds from the difference of their disposi
duced to writing, it was concluded bet tions. Lord Aberdeen wished to be well with
the ministers of the two states, and sancti his friends; Lord Palmerston, I fear, wishes
besides by the presence and consent of to quarrel with them. This is, my dear Louise,
respective sovereigns. A similar protest what caused my alarm respecting the main
presented by Mr. Bulwer at Madrid. tenance of our cordial understanding, when 25.—The Times Commissioner writing Lord Palmerston resumed the direction of the Ross-shire, records : “Whatever we may Foreign Office.” The original draft of the clude to be the reason of perpetual distress o letter, which covers many pages, was found in ring in the Highlands as in Ireland, wh the Tuileries, when it was sacked by the mob we attribute it to a similarity of causes or in 1848.
that is wholly apart from the fact of the exis The Duke of Leeds writes from Mar of distress. Should it really exist, Eng Lodge to the Hon. G. F. Berkeley regarding
will not watch it unfeelingly, but will be i the “malicious and false statements
in all reasonableness to share the fruits o concerning the closing of Glen Lui Beg against industry with those who, if they would the public-statements which he looked on her example, would not need to beg o with the most perfect contempt, as
bounty. ductions of a pack of curs that yelp at a dis 26.-Died at his residence, Playford: I rent the Mar Forest of Lord Fife,
Suffolk, aged 80 years, Thomas Clarkson and have done so for many years. The stock venerable champion of the freedom of of deer has always been large, and I am bound black race. in honour to the proprietor to take every care that the forest is not spoiled by the diminution
28.-Three arches give way in the wor of their number. The interests of the forest
the Aberdeen Railway, and bury a com depend on quiet, and total absence from all
of workmen engaged below. Seven were 1 disturbance. One incautious intruder might
out dead, and four much bruised. be the means of sending several hundred head 29.-Wyatt's colossal equestrian statt of the best deer out of the forest to return no the Duke of Wellington drawn in triu
There are three roads through the from the artist's premises in Harrow-ro
17.-Lord John Russell, writing to the Duke of Leinster on the duties of Government and landlords in the present Irish crisis, says: “Unless all classes co-operate, and meet the infliction of Providence with fortitude and energy, the loss of the potato will only aggravate the woes and sufferings of Ireland. They should be taught to take advantage of the favourable condition of their soil and surrounding sea ; to work patiently for themselves in their own country, as they work in London and Liverpool for their employers; to study economy, cleanliness, and the value of time; and to aim at improving the condition of themselves and their children."
26.--The Linlithgow Town Council, by a majority of 12 to 2, vote resolutions expressive of regret at the conduct of the new directors of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway in stopping the running of a Sunday train" between those two cities.
the site over the arch at Hyde-park-corner. The car, drawn by twenty-nine strong horses, was surrounded along the route by Lise-guardsmen, and an incessant cheering kept up during its progress. The statue was elevated to the top of the arch next day.
October 1.-In consequence of the recent tumultuous assemblages in Dungarvon, Youghall, and other places, the Lord Lieutenant issues a proclamation declaring his determination to afford to provision dealers that complete se. curity which is essential for the public safety, and also that he will cause public works to be discontinued where any system of combination is indulged in against the officers of the Board of Works.
2.--Died suddenly at his residence, St. John's Wood the Baron de Bode, whose claims for compensation as a British subject
account of losses sustained during the French Revolution had been often made the subject of parliamentary discussion.
5.-A correspondent of the Freeman's Fournal, living in Tuam, writes : “I am sorry to inform you that this town is, I may say, in open rebellion. Cattle are taken away in the open day, in spite of the police and townspeople. The people cannot help the outbreak, for if they had money they cannot get bread, as the Galway dealers are not letting any of it in to us. The people are watching the batches of bread coming out of the ovens, and almost killing each other for it. One of the mills was kept going all day yesterday (Sunday), dressing and grinding whole flour, and people were engaged dividing it up to 2 o'clock this morning." The repeal rent this week amounted to 471. 135. 3d., being the lowest amount yet received.
8.- Professor Schönbein performs a series of experiments with his gun-cotton before the Chairman of the East India Company and a number of scientific persons. A rifle, charged with 545 grains of gunpowder, sent a ball through seven boards each half an inch in thickness, at a distance of forty yards; the same gun, charged with forty grains of the cotton, sent the ball into the eighth board ; and with a fresh rifle the ball was sent through the eighth board at ninety yards.
10.—The marriage of the Duke of Montpensier and the Infanta Louisa Maria takes place immediately after the espousals of the Queen of Spain with Francesco d'Assis, Duke of Cadiz, in the palace at Madrid.
11.--Destructive hurricane at Havannah. The French frigate Andromeda, of 60 guns, the Blonde, of 24 guns, and the Tonnère steamer, 10 guns, were wrecked in the harbour, along with sixty-three foreign merchantmen, and fourteen Spanish men-of-war. The town suffered great damage, upwards of one hundred people being killed by the falling of houses.
November 3.-A meeting of “Independent Electors” of West Gloucestershire held at Bristol to consult on the state of the representation in reference to the scandalous family quarrel between Earl Fitzhardinge and Mr. Grantley Berkeley, the member for this divi. sion. The latter sought to gain admittance to the meeting, but was turned back on the ground that the meeting was confined to electors. A letter was read from Earl Fitzhardinge, giving his version of the squabble. After some dis. cussion the meeting unanimously adopted a resolution expressing dissatisfaction with Mr. Berkeley's conduct on the Corn and Game Laws.
In answer to a London deputation who waited upon Lord John Russell, to press upon him the necessity of opening the ports, his lordship said that he would only consent to such a step in the event of prices rising considerably ; 3,000,000 quarts of grain had already been imported under the Act of last session.
4.–The New Philosophical Institution, Edinburgh, opened with an entertainment, in which Mr. Macaulay, M.P, Professor Wilson, and the Archbishop of Dublin took part.
- The Garrick Theatre, Goodman's-fields, London, destroyed by fire; supposed to have originated through a piece of wadding lodging in the Alies during the performance of “The Battle of Waterloo " the previous evening.
6.- Thomas Massa Alsager, the writer of the “City article" in the Times, commits suicide, by wounding himself in the throat and other parts of the body, while in a state of mental depression.
11.-An imperial ordinance published at Vienna announces the annexation of Cracow and its territories to Austria. An experience of sixteen years, it was alleged, had proved that Cracow did not fulfil the conditions of its
independent existence, but had been the incessant cradle of hostile intrigues against the three protecting powers.
21.–Fire at Gravesend, destroying most of the houses in West-street, and from Highstreet to King-street. Among the more important buildings consumed were the Bank the Pier Hotel, Pope's Head Inn, and the Bee-hive Tavern, The damage was estimated at 100,000l.
26.-To check the political troubles prevailing in Portugal, a British squadron, under Admiral Parker, takes up a position in the Tagus, at the request of the Queen of Portugal.
28.-Failure of Captain Warner's long range. The Master-General of the Ordnance gave the inventor a spot in the Island of Anglesey, where he might try his experiment in the presence of officers appointed by Government. The place was a valley eight miles in length, at the extreme end of which there was a single tree. This, of course, could not be seen at the distance, but the exact bearings were furnished to Mr. Warner, and he was requested to fire in that direction. The first shell fell far short of the object; and none of them reached three miles. The Committee decided that the experiment was a failure, and that it did not appear to them that the invention could be made available for the general purposes of war.
29.—John Ware writes from Boston, U.S. regarding the discovery made by Dr. Jackson and Dr. Martin of the beneficial use of ether in surgical operations : "I found on my arrival here a new thing in the medical world, or rather the application of an old thing, of which. I think, you will like to hear. It is a mode of rendering patients insensible to the pain of surgical operation by the inhalation of the vapour of the strongest sulphuric ether. They are thrown into a state nearly resembling that of complete intoxication from ardent spirits, or of narcotism from opium. This state continues but a few minutes-five to ten --but during it the patient is insensible to pain. A thigh has been amputated, a breast extirpated, and teeth drawn without the slightest suffering. The number of operations of various kinds especially those in dentistry, has been very considerable, and I believe but few persons resist the influence of the agent."
Howe, a woman of ill-fame, who had been apprehended by the Proctor of the University and lodged in the Spinning House. The coroner's jury found that she had died of rheumatic fever, caused by a violent cold caught in her confinement, and they could not separate without “expressing their abhorrence at a system which sanctions the apprehension of females when not offending against the general law of the land, and confining them in à gaol unfit for the worst of felons.” The coroner, as instructed by the jury, forwarded a report of the proceedings to the Home Secretary, who promised that further inquiry would be made.
5.–From Skibbereen the news are: “Hunger, nakedness, sickness, and mortality, almost equal to the ravages of an epidemic disease, are the prevailing features of the dwellings of
Fever afflicts hundreds of them, and dysentery produced by cold and want of nutritious food is equally common. The workhouse contains 900 paupers ; the fever hospital, built to accommodate 40 patients, contains 161. The number of deaths which took place in the infirmary during the month of November was 87." In the midst of this horrible starvation a universal mania seized the people for the purchase of fire-arms.
The Shannon steamer burnt at her moorings off Plymouth.
13.-Flixton Hall, near Bungay, the seat of Sir Shafto Adair, destroyed by fire.
18.-Public meeting in Edinburgh to consider the present destitute state of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, and to adopt such measures as might appear best calculated to give immediate relief.
22.–The Dublin Evening Post records : “ We do not know that a more disastrous summary of local events has ever appeared in this journal than that spread over our columns to-day. We cannot find room for half the details, and feel but too well how very inadequate our reports are to convey the real state of the facts. We shall not point to particular districts, not to Tipperary, where a murder has been committed in the vicinity of Cahir, within seven or eight miles of the county town, and where the whole population would seem to have turned out, partially armed, to prevent the departure of corn to Limerick. But look everywhere. It is as if we were on the brink of a wild convulsion. People seem absolutely beside themselves. They are either reduced to utter helplessness, or seem ready to band themselves in a mad warfare with the authorities, who we know are labouring night and day to avert or to mitigate the manifold evils of the country."
28.-Court Martial at Portsmouth, to try Commander Patten for the loss of H.M. sloop Osprey, at False Hokianga, New Zealand, in March last. At the close of the inquiry Capt.
December 2.–At a meeting in the Rotunda, the Young Ireland party resolve that Mr. O'Connell brought forward the New Re. solutions out of which the secession arose, not from any apprehension of physical force, but directly to produce a split, his object being to drive out of the Repeal Association men cer. tain to resist any compact with the English Government.
4.-Inquiry at Cambridge into the circumstances connected with the death of Elizabeth
Patten received back his sword, and was at the same time complimented for the exertions he made to save the ship's property after the vessel went ashore.
January 2.--A letter from Skibbereen describes the poor-house as "unable to meet the exigencies of one-fourth of those who sought admittance. I passed through it on Wednes. day, and saw three or four in the same narrow bed. In November the deaths in the infirmary were 83 ; in December, up to the 28th, 135. In the entire two preceding years there were only 86. The mortality is very great among the poor, and the aspect of the burying grounds is assuming a new form. In many cases the dead are buried without coffins, and instances are known where they are not even brought to a burial ground, but interred in the fields. This day, in a glen in a wild part of the parish, I was told in passing, that a family was in sever. I went into the cabin and found thirteen persons-five lying ill on some dirty straw in a corner, five in another place in a kind of bed, two girls recovering, and one little girl able only to hand the other a drink of water.” A voluntary subscription was now set on foot for the relief of the famishing Irish, the Queen heading the list with 2,000l. and the London bankers adding 1,000l. At the weekly repeal meeting O'Connell proposed to borrow 40,000,oool. from the English Exchequer.
5.-The vessels fitting out in British ports for the Ecuador buccaneering expedition seized by Government, and the whole scheme exposed through information given by Captain Harvey Tuckett, one of the parties engaged to raise a legion in Ireland.
13.-Ronald Gordon, secretary and accountant to the Exchange Bank of Scotland, sentenced to fifteen years' transportation for stealing various sums of money, amounting in all to 2,3531., the property of the bank.
19.--Parliament opened by the Queen in person. The first paragraph in the Royal Speech referred to the famine in Ireland and parts of Scotland. “In Ireland especially the loss of the usual food of the people has been the cause of severe suffering, of disease, and greatly increased mortality among the poorer classes. Outrages have become more frequent, chiefly directed against property, and the transit of provisions has been rendered unsafe in some parts of the country. With a view to mitigate those evils, very large numbers of men have been employed, and have received wages, in pursuance of an Act passed in the last session of Parliament. Some deviations. from that Act, which have been authorized by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in order to promote more useful employment, will, I
trust, receive your sanction.” In the course of the debate which followed, Lord John Russell stated that the number of men employed under the Act of last session was 470,000, and the weekly payment on some occasions 158,000l.
21.-Lord John Russell proposes the sus. pension of the Corn and Navigation Laws. Bills founded upon his resolutions were immediately brought in and passed through both Houses with great expedition.
At an inquest held at the Galway Work. house, on the body of a travelling vagrant, the jury found “That the deceased died from the effects of starvation and destitution caused by a want of the common necessaries of life ; and if Lord John Russell, the head of her Majesty's Government, has combined with Sir Randolph Routh to starve the Irish people, by not, as was their duty, taking measures to prevent the present truly awful condition of the country, we find that the said Lord John Russell and that the said Sir Randolph Routh are guilty of the wilful murder of said Mary Commins." The Coroner refused to receive their finding, and the jury afterwards agreed to rational verdict.
25.–Lord John Russell introduces the Government scheme for alleviating the present and improving the future condition of Ireland. The Labour Rate Act of last session was to be withdrawn, as the landlords had grossly mismanaged the working of it; the people were immediately to be taken off the roads, &c. and enabled to work on their own holdings, by being supplied with food through local relief committees acting in connexion with the Poorlaw guardians, the funds for this purpose to be supplied partly by additional subscriptions raised in England, partly by a Government grant, and partly by a temporary poor-rate ; so far as the payment of past expenses was con. cerned, the landlords were to receive a reversion of one-half of all that had been expended under the Labour Rate Act; 50,000l. to be lent to buy seed for tenants on the security of the ensuing harvest; 1,000,oool, to be devoted to the reclamation of waste lands, Government to have the power of purchasing the same; and the Poor-law to be so extended as to authorize out-door relief in food to such able-bodied applicants as could not be put to useful labour.
27,-Corn and Navigation Laws suspended.
February 4.- Lord George Bentinck introduces his scheme for lending 16,000,000l. to Irish railway enterprise, at 30 per cent., 21, to be advanced for every il. raised by themselves ; and the whole loan, with interest, to be repaid within thirty-seven years after the opening of each line.
'It was thrown out on the ibih, on the proposal for a second reading, by a majority of 214.
In the French Chamber of Deputies M. Thiers re-opens the question of the Spanish
marriages, and censures the general policy of the Guizot Ministry.
8.-Died at sea, on board the ship IVellesley, off the Cape of Good Hope, on his way home from Madras, Lieut. -Col. Sir Walter Scott, of Abbotsford, the only surviving son of the author of “Waverley."
12.-Wreck of the Tweed, West India Mail Steamer. She left Havannah for Vera Cruz on the 9th, having on board sixty-two passengers, a crew numbering eighty-nine, the mails for England, a quantity of quicksilver valued at 18,0001., and a supply of coal for a Queen's steamer at Cadiz. About half-past three this morning, when off the coast of Yucatan, while the commander was on deck, and the ship under full steam with the sails set, one of the look-out men exclaimed, “ Breakers ahead.” Capt. Parsons immediately ordered the engines to be stopped and reversed, but it was too late, and the vessel struck at alınost full speed on the reef known as the Alcranes. The cylinder of one engine was forced upwards a considerable distance, and the engineer compelled to abandon the engine-room. The ship then struck a second time with great violence, and in a few minutes parted in two, the frantic passengers having hardly had time to realize the nature of the calamity. The total number drowned in their berths, or swept off the wreck, was thirty-one passengers, including the whole of the females, and forty-two of the crew. Ten of the remainder were saved in a small boat, and sixty-nine contrived to keep afloat on a raft for three days till they were rescued by the daring humanity of Bernardius Camp, commander of the Spanish brig Emilio. Besides a munificent sum collected at Havannah, which Capt. Camp wished to hand over to the suffering survivors, Lloyd's Committee voted him an honorary medal in silver, and another in bronze, with a sum of money to the mate of the Emilio, Don Villa Verde. The British Government, in conformity with a proposal made by Lord John Russell, on the 16th of April, voted him a medal and a sum of 500l.
The Bideford and Torrington omnibus upset over the quay, and ten out of the twelve passengers drownech
13.-Died at Winchmore Hill, aged 79, Sharon Turner, author of a “History of the Anglo-Saxons” and other kindred works.
15.--Died at Madrid, Don Palafox-y-Melzi, the renowned defender of Saragossa against the French in 1808-9.
17.-“Day by day," writes the Dublin Evening Post, “the accounts that reach us are becoming more horrifying. There is scarcely a county in Ireland-unless Kildare may be an exception in which the people are not dying of starvation. Within one week there have been no less than ninety-five deaths in the union workhouse of Lurgan, being nearly an eighth part of the entire inmates. In Fermanagh destitution is rapidly extending, and, we are sorry to
add, crime has greatly increased. In Sligo so rapid has been the mortality, that the Coroners are totally unable to perform their duties ; in one place, Margharow, there were forty dead bodies waiting inquests. A correspondent from Drogheda writes that wretched women and children were to be seen on the decks of steamers striving to appease their hunger with the turnips half-eaten by the cattle on board. So far as can be ascertained, the work house mortality in Ireland for the first week of January was 1,405 out of 108,500 receiving relief, and in the second week 1,493 out of 110, 561.
17.-Died at London, aged 59, William Collins, R.A.
20.–The Peninsular and Oriental Company's steamer Tiber wrecked on the coast of Spain.
21.- The Brechin Castle wrecked off Swan. sea with an Australian mail, and all on board) drowned.
22.-Disturbances at Wick, Thurso, and other places in the Highlands, in consequence of the shipment of grain.
27.-Prince Albert elected Chancellor of Cambridge University, by a majority of 112 over Earl Powis. The number polled was 1,790, being the highest on record. In accepting the honour, his Royal Highness informed the senate : -"I have been influenced by a respectful deference to the wishes of a majority of its members, by a great unwillingness to involve the University in the probable necessity of another contest, but above all by an earnest hope that, through a zealous and impartial discharge of the trust which I undertake, I shall succeed in establishing a claim on the confi. dence and good will of the whole academical body."
March 1.–At the bidding for the new eight million loan the houses of Baring and Rothschild unite their interests, and offer at the rate of 89! Three per Cent. Consol Stock, which was accepted by the Chancellor of the Exchequer.
2.--Mr. Bouverie, by a majority of 89 to 61, obtains the appointment of a select committee to inquire Whether, and in what circumstances, large numbers of her Majesty's subjects had been deprived of the means of reli. gious worship by the refusal of certain proprietors to grant them sites for the erection of churches.'
3,--First Exhibition of British Manufactures opened at Society of Arts, Adelphi.
4.-Robert Kerr, commander of the barque Levenside, sentenced at the Criminal Court to seven years' transportation, for stealing a quantity of diamonds entrusted to his charge at Bahia,
Mr. Hume moves a series of resolutions expressive of the alarm and indignation felt