in Egypt (compare 2 Chron. ix. 17, 18; xviii. 2 Kings i. 12, 14. Is. lxvi. 16). A sulphury 18. Esther iii. l. Jer. xvii. 12. Joseph. smell was ascribed to lightning by the clasJ. W. ii, 1, 1).

sics (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 15). Remarkable Thrones were sometimes, as seen in the natural phenomena were conceived to be the preceding Egyptian view, a chair, often with natural instruments and ministers of Jehoarms, having a stool on which rested the vah (Ps. civ. 4): monarch's foot, whence are illustrated Isaial's

Who makest winds thy messengers, words,

Flaming fire thy servant'"The heaven my throne,

a passage which in later times was accounted The earth my footstool,'

to refer to the spiritual beings termed angels denoting the universality of the Divine power (Heb. i. 7). A similar passage is found in and rule. Near the throne were placed seats Xenophon's Memorabilia (iv. 3, 14). or inferior thrones for members of the royal Speaking of the valley in which was the family (1 Kings ii. 19. Ps. cxxii. 5) or dis- camp of Israel when the law was given, tinguished servants (Esther iii.). The right Miss Martineau (' Eastern Life,' ii. 252) obhand was the place of pre-eminence (1 Kings serves, 'Still and sweet as was the scene, the ii. 19. Ps. xvi. 8, 11 ; xlv. 9 ; cx. 1). Hence air being hazy with moonlight in this rocky the man at a king's right hand was his basin, there was something oppressive in chief minister (Ps. lxxx. 17. Luke xx. 42. the nearness of the precipices, and I could Zech. iii. 1. Mark xiv. 62; xvi. 19. Acts ii.

not but wonder what state of nerve one 33; v. 31); so that Jesus is at God's right would be in during summer and in seasons hand (Rom. viii. 34. Eph. i. 20. Col. iii. of storm. The lightning must fill this space 1). The left hand of a king was also a like a flood, and the thunder must die hard place of dignity; and an Eastern mouarch, among the echoes of these steep barriers.' when he sat on the throne of his glory' (Ps. Burckhardt was informed that a thundering xlvii. 8. Jer. xiv. 31. Matt. xxv. 31), had the noise, like repeated charges of heavy artil. chief officers of his household ranged in order lery, is heard at times in these mountains. on his right hand and on his left (2 Sam. xvi. “What,' adds Miss Martineau, 'must the re6. 1 Kings xxii. 19. Matt. xx. 21, 23; XXV verberating thunder have been among those 33), forming a grand court for the adminis- precipices to the Hebrews, who had scarcely tration of justice and the general govern- ever (in Egypt) seen a cloud in the sky! ment of the kingdom. This custom the THYATIRA, now Aksari, a city in Asia Jews transferred in thought to the victorious Minor, between Sardis and Pregamos, on times of the Messiah, who having subdued the river Lycus, the residence of Lydia (Acts the world, would govern it, with the represen- xvi. 14). In this place a Christian church tatives of the twelve tribes as his assessors. was early founded (Apoc, i. 11), unto the It is in allusion to this idea that our Lord representative of which John wrote (ii. 18, promised his disciples that they (twelve in seq.). number) should sit on thrones, judging (go- TIBERIAS, a celebrated city of Lower verning as his ministers) the twelve tribes Galilee, in Zebulon, lying on the western of Israel ; in other words, should, conjointly shore of the lake of Galilee (hence called with him, exert a spiritual dominion over the sea of Tiberias,' John vi. 1, 23), in a the Hebrew nation (Matt. xix. 28. Luke small fruitful plain, four honrs and a half xxii. 30).

from Nazareth and 120 stadia north of ScyTHUNDER struck the attention and ex- thopolis. It was built by the tetrarch Herod cited the imagination of the Biblical writers Antipas, and made the capital of Galilee, in an extraordinary manner, confirming their receiving its name in honour of the emperor conception of the immediate presence and Tiberias. Its, for the most part foreign, instant operation of God in what, in bad population were put into possession of many philosophy and worse religion, is in modern privileges. The fishing trade conducted on days termed the works of Nature.' Hence, the lake was a source of considerable income with as much poetry as trath, they called to the town (xxi. 1,6). After the destruction

thunder the voice of God' (Ps. xviii. 13), of Jerusalem, Tiberias became the chief seat who, when it thundered, “uttered his voice' of Jewish learning. Hither went the Sanhe(xlvi. 6; Ixviii. 33). A fine description of drim from Sephoris, and thence proceeded a thunder-storm is found in xxix. 3, seq; the Mishnah. comp. Hab. iii.

The town of Tiberias now offers a ruined Lightning was graphically spoken of as appearance, it having been overwhelmed in the breaker through. It is also termed the 1837, when nearly one-third of its 3000 in. thunder's light or rays (Job xxviii. 26), beams habitants perished. In the place is what proceeding from God's hands (Hab. iii. 4), is called a college for imparting instruction God's arrows (9, 11), burning coals (Ps. xi. in the higher branches of Hebrew literature. 0; xviii. 8, cxl. 10). Some have thought The Christians show the alleged house of that brimstone and fire' is a poetic phrase Peter, now a church built close to the water for thunder and lightning (Genesis xix. 24; at the north-east extremity of the inhabited comp. Ps. xi. 6. Ezek. xxxviii. 22; compare portion of the city. The ancient Tiberias

was situated immediately south of the pre- (ii. 4), where a word is used, rendered unsent city. From the extent and character covered the roof, but which would be more of the ruins it may be inferred that, though correctly given as 'drew back the covering. small, it was well built, and contained se- Jesus was teaching in the midst,' that is in veral large and costly structures. South of the large inner court (see House), surthe ruins, and distant from them probably a rounded by so great a crowd, that those who quarter of a mile, are some mineral springs. bore the palsied man could not get access to Four sources spring up near each other and him. They, therefore, from without or from run off towards the sea in as many streams, the next house, ascended to the top of one which send up clouds of steam that indicate of the wings of the edifice, and withdrawing the high temperature of the water, and con- the awning which extended to the opposite vert the atmosphere into a tolerable vapour- side of the quadrangle, and so formed a bath. Buckingham found the temperature covering over the open space in the midst, of the water 130 deg. Its taste is disgust- let down the sick man while lying in his ingly bitter and salt, and it emits a strong couch, and in this manner drew toward. smell of sulphur. There are two bathing. him the benevolent eye of the Great Physician houses a little north of the fountains.

(comp. 2 Kings i. 2). The word rendered of a view seen near Tiberias, Olin thus through,' dia, may mean by the side of," speaks: We were upon the brow of what as in Acts ix. 25, by the wall; and in 2 Cor. must appear to a spectator at its base a lofty xi. 33, ‘by the wall. The awning which we mountain, which bounds the deep basin of have mentioned is common in Palestine. the sea of Galilee, and forms the last step in Speaking of Hebron, Oliu says, 'The bazaars the descent from the very elevated plain are to a considerable extent either covered over which we had journeyed during the by some kind of awning, or arches springing long day. The sun had just set bebind us from the top of the houses and spanning in a blaze of red light, which filled the the street. They are thus secured from the western sky for many degrees above the effects of summer heats, and to some exten horizon, and was slightly reflected from the against rains.' smooth, glassy surface of the beautiful lake, One word used in Mark creates a difficultywhose opposite shore was visible for many erorurantes ; in the common version, when miles on the right and left, rising abruptly they had broken it up; rendered by the out of the water into an immense and con- Layman,' 'and having opened it;' by Wake. tinuous bulwark, several hundred feet in field, 'by forcing open the door" (that is, to height, grand and massive, but softened by get to the roof). Campbell evades the difgraceful undulations, and covered

culty, thus rendering, 'uncovered the place carpet of luxuriant vegetation from the sum- where Jesus was, and through the opening let mit quite down to the water's edge. Beyond down the couch. The term, which literally the lake stretched out a vast, and to our signifies 'having dug out,' may mean 'having eyes & boundless region, filled up with a cleared away' (impediments), that is the awncountless number of beautiful, rounded hills, ing and terrace wall-has occasioned much all clad in verdure, which at this moment trouble, scarcely seems necessary to the was invested with a peculiar richness of sense, and is omitted in the Cambridge colouring. In the remote distance, though Manuscript, and not regarded in the Syriae full in our view, the snowy top of Mount and some other versions' (Shaw's · Travels, Yermon was still glittering and basking in 212; see also Griesbach in loc.). the beams of the sun, while a chaste, cool TIME_The following article on Chronodrapery of white, fleecy clouds hung around logy we extract, with the aathor's kind per. its base. The green, graceful form of Mount mission, from the Rev. Dr. Mackay's work, Tabor rose behind us, while over the broad entitled 'Facts and Dates,' or the leading and well-cultivated plain, the numerous fields events in sacred and profane history, and the of wheat, now of a dark luxuriant green, principal facts in the various physical sciences. contrasted very strongly and strangely with The Doctor is no mean authority on this subintervening tracts of red, freshly-ploughed ject, which he has long and enthusiastically ground. Independent of sacred associations, studied, and the fruits of which study he has this was altogether a scene of rare and unique given to the world in the exceedingly useful beauty-nay, of splendid magnificence.'

volume noted above. TIGLATH-PILESER. See AssyRIA.

In regard to the chronology of the AnteTILING, from the French tuile, and that diluvian period, and especially the point of from the Latin tegula (tego, tectum), denot.

time at which human bistory commences, ing properly a covering, whatever the kind, the Book of Genesis is our only guide. Instands in Lukc v. 19, for the Greek keramos, valuable as this most precious record is, which strictly signifies a cover made of clay, there are many points of the deepest interest

. but derivatively had the general meaning of on which it throws but a feeble light. The a covering. That in the passage just referred absolute age of our planet, and the precise to the general acceptation was intended, point of time in that age when mag first appears from the parallel passage in Mark appeared on its surface, are left wholly unde

with a

termined; but the mighty changes through which it had passed before man was introduced, and the order of time (in relation to other species) in which that introduction took place, are indicated with sufficient clearness. Regarding the antiquity of the globe, and the moment of time when it was first peopled by living creatures, the inspired volame is silent; nor is there the least likelihood that human science shall ever satisfactorily determine what the Creator has been pleased to conceal. It will be readily perceived, however, that what is clearly indicated is of vastly greater importance to our race than what has been purposely left in the dark. In the very first sentence of the Book of Genesis we are informed that matter is not eternal; that our world had a beginning; and that it required divine energy to bring it into being. Further in, but still on the same page, we are in. formed that the planet had been in existence for an undefined period before any living thing was created on its surface ; that this creation was gradual and progressive, the humbler forms of life taking the precedence of the more highly organised ; and that the last creature that appeared on the scene was man, formed in God's own image, and so bearing His likeness that he could with propriety be called 'a son of God;' for he not only re. sembled his Creator in his moral and intel. lectual nature, but his body also-so fearfully and wonderfully made-bore the form and lineaments of that body which, in the fulness of time, the divine Son was to assume that body in which He was to give perfect obedience to God's violated law, and perfect satisfaction for the sins of His people.

These infinitely important items of revealed truth, in common with many others, are in perfect harmony with the teachings of science; and though the latter cannot draw aside the veil which obstracts our view in some directions, she has opened up a very fascinating vista in others. For example, she has well nigh demonstrated--what the in. spired record had long ago clearly asserted (compare Heb. xi. 3, in the original) that between each of the days' of creation, that is, between each successive exercise of supernatural power,-an 'æon' or mighty cycle of years intervened, during which the results of the new order of things initiated by the divine Word at its commencement were left to operate, by the continuous and undisturbed routine of natural law, until the earth had thereby become adapted for a new act of supernatural power -- as, for example, the introduction of a higher type of organic life. She has shown that the order of sequence in these six periods is identical with the order so graphically detailed in the Book of Genesis. She has shown that our planet had existed for untold ages before it became inhabited by living creatures; that the forms of life that first peopled it were zoopbytes and sucoids

the very lowest types of animal and vegetable existence; that many ages then elapsed before molluscs and crustaceans peopled its waters; that whole millenniums of the world's history had passed before fishes-the lowest type of vertebrated animals, and the contemporaries of the first land-plants—were ushered into being; that reptiles—the next higher type of vertebral life---made their first appearance when the continents and islands of the globe waved with the most abundant and gigantic flora that ever adorned its surface; that all these vast changes took place during the great PALÆOZOIC age of its history; and that then some mighty, but hitherto unexplained, catastrophe occurred, which suddenly extinguished all the forms of organic life that had hitherto peopled its oceans and continents. Science further demonstrates tbat during the Triassic era--the first stage of the world's SECONDARY age- an entirely new series of plants and animals, including birds and marsupial mammals, appeared on the sorne ; that placental or true mammals come first into view near the end of the Waldean period--the period of the iguanodon and pterodactyl; that true or exogenous trees, together with quadrumanous mammals, had no existence before the Cretaceous era; that immediately after the completion of that era another tremendous cataclysm took place, which once more extinguished every species of organic life; that the third grand age of the planet's palæontological history - viz., the TERTIARY age was usbered in with myriads of new and higher forms of existence — forms more closely resembling the fauna and Aora of the present day than any that had preceded them; that notwithstanding the great cosmical revolutions that occurred during the lapse of the Tertiary era, not a few of the species that were then created continue to survive till the present day, forming a living bridge between our own times and the immeasurable ages of the past. One item more must finish this enumeration (and it is the clearest and best established of all the teachings of geology)-viz., that no trace of the existence of man is found any. where till we advance far into the present or Post-TERTIARY age of the world's history, and till this beautiful earth had received the last touches of its Creator's hand, every ani. mal and plant now inhabiting it having been already called into existence.

Such, then, are some of the beautiful harmonies that everywhere abound between Science and Revelation. The globe and the Bible are evidently two volumes by the same Author; and though in some things it is still difficult to reconcile their teachings, they no. where teach contrary lessons. The author of these remarks is a theologian by profession, and at the same time an ardent student of nature; and he takes this opportunity of affirming, in the most solemn manner of which be is capable, that at this moment he is not

ser mon power. This introdsetion is hardly felt the firmness of his or position, marked by peculiar effects; is attendent by end ras enrions to recommend what he its own evidences; is to be recognised by bad to say with all the force be conid en tokens that cannot be mistaken and that ploy. We see also in this a very patund could not have been fabricated. A

solicitude, and a proof, that the apostle was And obrerve the general spirit of this new a faithful and honest witness for Jesus, who moral power, as indicated in the letter of songbt to aid his own influence, not by high which we have given an analysis. Looking, and exclusive pretensions, but by such means 2x all the composition does, to Jesus Christ as lay before him; and who therefore asso as the anthor and giver of this new life, it eiated with himself two persons well known Exhibits the essentials of his system in moral to the Christian community in Thessalonien perleetion--in the love of God and the love The possession of the power of working and service of man--carried to their most miracles did not supersede, with the apos disinterested, loftiest, and most sanctifying tles, the employment of ordinary prudence. pitch. And yet, while the most elevated An additional illustration of this fact is seen spiritual excellence is required, all wears a in that our Lord himself sent forth his sober practical air. The apostle descends to messengers by two and two' (Mark vi. 7). the virtues which stand lowest in the moral So Bamabas and Paul, then Barnabas and scale, it also he ascends to those which are John Mark, and Paul and Silas, went out, near heaven itself. He enters into the ordi. each pair together, to the work of the minary concerns of life; he makes religion & nistry. The reason of this is found not work-mate with the handicraftsman-a com- merely in the Jewish law which required the panion and a monitor on the marts of corg. testimony of two men (John viii. 17), but merce. And yet this quiet tone, this tone as generally in the confirmation that a second of every-day life, which breathes through a witness gives to the statements of a first. large portion of the letter, is put forth by It was historical facts that Paul bad first to one who had only a few years before received publish, as the groundwork of all his teachinto his bosom facts and ideas of the most ings; and historical facts greatly increased rousing and exciting nature; and is addressed in credibility when attested by two competent to persons who were agitated by a conviction witnesses. that the end of the world was at hand, and This letter did not accomplish all that was who needed, under the injustice and perse. required and that the apostle wished. News cution they were suffering, every sustaining came to him which revived and in some viy aid which Christianity could afford.

augmented his solicitude. In faith and love, The tranquil and sober tone of the letter indeed, the disciples had continued to grot; shows on the part of Paul a true and earnest but their misconceptions regarding the appear. mind. We are content to pat the question ance of the Lord Jesus had become greater of his sincerity on the verdict which twelve and more operative on their lives. Hence intelligent men may give after the careful Paul was led to write the Second Epistle to perusal of this one composition. And then the Thessalonians. mark how, while the writer is gentle as a The evidence of this letter's having pronurse, he is also faithful and admonitory as ceeded from Paul is involved in the recog. a judge. There is much in this letter that nition as his of the First Epistle to the same must have given pain and might have occa- church (ii. 15). It refers to the same subsioned offence. Yet this reproof is written, jects as the First, and treats of them genethis reproof is endured. More still, the rally in a similar manner. There is, indeed, Thessalonians perpetuate the memory of a difference, but this difference favours the their own misdeeds by carefully preserving hypothesis that both proceeded from Paul. the letter in which they are spoken of and The difference to which we allude is in the blamed. Are not all these signs of reality ? tone taken in the Second letter-the tone of Do they not prove that the Thessalonians a now confirmed and rightfal authority, had undergone a great moral change, and which would seem to justify the ancients in were undergoing a greater still? Do they regarding this as the Second letter, written not show us the apostle's consciousness posterior to that which is denominated the As spotless and full of a divine peace? The First. Accordingly, his apostolic authority study of the Scriptures themselves is the is now so established that he no longer, best preventive or the most effectual cure of as in the First letter, admonishes in a subunbelief.

dued manner, but speaks in a firin and It is worthy of notice that this letter ema. decided tone, almost blaming his pupils for nated from Panl, Silvanus, and Timothy. their indocility (ii. 1, seq.). In the same This is expressly set forth (i. 1), and was, way he now, as a master, bids them to therefore, not an accidental circumstance. observe his teachings (ii. 15), and to conWe see in this fact a proof that the First duct themselves after the manner that he Epistle to the Thessalonians was an early prescribes (iii. 6, 12); nay, disregard to composition of the apostle's, who as yet his authority was to be expressly marked (iii. 14). He no longer speaks of the intro- vengeance fall on their persecutors and on duction of Christianity into Thessalonica, all who did not receive the truth; while but of its growth and diffusion (iii. 1). faithful Christians would be rewarded abun.

The time when the letter was written was dantly and for ever. Hence the apostle rewhen Silvanus and Timothy were still with quests the prayers of his readers to aid him Paul. It must, as we have just seen, have in his work. He expresses his confidence been posterior to the First letter. Silvanus that they will be obedient to his instructions and Timothy seem to be among the brethren and wait patiently for Christ. Disorders. of whom Paul took leave on quitting Corinth too, required a remedy. In the false notion (xviii. 18). Timothy appears again in con- that the world was pear its end, some had nection with Paul only some time after, and discontinued to work, and songht their sup. Silas never (xix. 22). Therefore we seem port in the resources of others. anwhile justified in fixing the era of its composition wasting their time in goiug about in a dis. towards the termination of the period during orderly way, augmenting men's fears and which the apostle remained at Corinth. alarms. If needful, these persons were to

The immediate cause of these false views be avoided by the church, yet not as enein the minds of the Thessalonians which mies, but as brothers to be admonished. induced Paul to pen the letter, appears to Let all bear in mind Paul's own example, have lain in new persecutions which had who ate no man's bread for nought, but broken out against them, and which they wrought with labour and travail night and were led to consider as the token of the day in order not to be chargeable to any one. immediate appearance of Christ (i. 447; So let these mistaken persons work with ii. 2). The way in which the apostle sought quietness and eat their own bread, and if to correct these false notions will appear in any one obeyed not Paul's word as commuthe summary we are about to give of the nicated by this Epistle, note that man and contents of the Epistle.

have no company with him, that he may be After greeting his readers, the apostle ex ashamed. Finally, he prayed that the church presses his gratitude to God for the increase at large might not be weary in well-doing, of their faith and their mutual love; in but have peace always of the Lord. And consequence of which they were regarded in order that no forged letter might be im. by him as his glory, knowing, as he did, posed on the church, he wrote the salutation how firm and patient they were under the with his own hand, and intimated that this persecutions which they were then enduring. was to be accounted the token of his authorThese sufferings were to be regarded as a ship in every succeeding Epistle. token of God's being well pleased with them, This conclusion would seem to imply since what they endured prepared them for that the apostle contemplated the possibility what they would shortly enjoy in the kingdom of his sending other letters to Thessalonică of God; and so would they be recompensed Whether he did so or not we are not infor their tribulation, while wrath awaited formed. If he sent other letters, they have their persecutors, who would receive terrible perished. punishment at the manifestation of the Lord. Various are the opinions as to what the

This retributory recompence is the general man of sin' (ii. 3—12) was of which the idea of the letter. Its application in parti apostle speaks. It is styled the 'apostacy' cular cases follows (i.).

or falling away, that is, from the gospel. Paul Having established this retribution as a gives the marks by which it was to be known fact, the writer begs his pupils, by their when it appeared. These marks have all been belief in that appearance of Christ which signally verified in the Roman apostacy, and would occasion it, not to be troubled in in it alone, their minds as if the event were near. Some THEUDAS is by Gamaliel (Acts v. 34, persons had been endeavouring to make & seq.) described as one who, boasting himself wrong use of the fact. They had misin- to be somebody, rose up before the census terpreted the apostle's words. They had by Cyrenius (cir. A.D. 7), and, gathering even brought forward a letter as if from around him a band of four hundred men, Paul. Thus had they tried to deceive the was slain, and his associates put to flight. church. But an event wbich had not taken Josephus (Antiq. xx. 5, 1) mentions an place must first happen, of which the apostle, insurgent by the name of Theudas, who was when with the Thessalonians, had given put down under Fadus, procurator of Judea them information ; namely, an evil power, (cir. 44 A.D.). But this cannot be the perthe mystery of iniquity, which claimed di- son of whom Gamaliel spoke in probably vine honours, but which was now re- A.D. 33. Another person it was to whom strained, would, ere the coming of the Lord, Gamaliel referred, and who, under the name rise into influence and seduce even believers: of Matthew (the Hebrew form of Theodotos, when this wicked one should have been re- which in Aramaic is Thcudas, each signifying vealed, Jesus would come and consume him given of God'), raised, in the latter days of with the spirit of his mouth. Then woald Herod the Great, a band of his scholars, in

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