eyes at all events. It is a progress towards of Augustus. They are too English and a huge Social Science Association, embrac- too masculine to put up with the “Uniing in itself all the Exeter Halls that ever versum” of Strauss, or the organized rewere born or thought of. From such a ligion of humanity of the Positivists. religion of humanity I can only say in the Blank Atheism has no attraction whatever deepest tones of alarm and horror, “Good for them. Rather in a gloomy and deLord, deliver us !""

spondent way, while refusing belief to anyA very startling, suggestive, and in thing which cannot be tested by the methods many respects, I believe, truthful, diagno- of their science and measured by their sis of our condition, and forecast of what is plumb-line, with a sort of half hope which coming upon us. I should think most per- they will scarcely admit to themselves, they sons when they put it down must have seem to recognize the travail of their own asked themselves, What then! Freedom, time with thoughts too big for utterance equality, brotherhood, a mockery and de- hitherto, and to look, with a dull, dim kind lusion the passionate struggle of three of hope, for the gradual rise out of the generations to realize them ending in a chaos of a new faith, which shall fuse huge Exeter Hall millennium! The writer again and give expression to the scattered exclaims scornfully, “Good Lord, deliver thoughts and aspirations of mankind, and us!" and passes on in his strength—but stand out as a revelation of God suited to we cannot. For us, then, what outlook! these new times, which have been driven in what escape! Who shall deliver us from sheer despair to abandon the old revelation. the body of this death!. I have not come A curious echo-if that can be called an here, 400 miles from home, my friends, to echo which is set in an entirely different speak to you on the problems of civiliza- key—comes back to these broodings from tion and to shirk the most difficult and the the New World. There, too, the foremost most interesting of them all—the one, in thinkers recognize the prevailing anarchy, fact, which underlies and overshadows all and many look for a new revelation, but others—I mean, of course, this religious in a cheerful and hopeful spirit, such as problem. Do not start in alarm, or sup- befits a new country, and rather as pose for a moment that I am about to tres- supplement to, than a substitution for, the pass on or lead you into the tangled paths Christianity which they too believe to have of religious polemics. The party wres.

spent its force, and to be inadequate to the ting matches and janglings of the various new time. Let Mr. Emerson, their ablest Churches and sects which go by the com- and wisest voice, speak for them. “And mon name of Christian, are to me only not now," he says, in an address—singularly wholly indifferent because they seem so em- typical of the best current thought of New inenly futile and mischievous. But the re- England—to the Senior Divinity Class at ligious problem of civilization” lies outside Harvard University, “ let us do what we of all this. For I think very few persons in- can to rekindle the smouldering, nighterested in these questions can have failed quenched fire on the altar. The evils of to remark the uneasy and mournful tone the Church that now is are manifest. The which runs through much of the serious question returns, What shall we do? I scepticism in our current literature. Of confess all attempts to project and estaflippancy and shallowness we have no blish a Cultus, with new rites and new doubt enough and to spare, but not forms, seem to me vain. Faith makes us, amongst the writers and thinkers I refer to, and not we it, and faith makes its own and from one of the ablest of whom I have forms. All attempts to contrive a new sysbeen quoting. Their feeling would seem tem are as cold as the new worship introto be rather one of sorrow that Christianity duced by the French to the Goddess of has been unable to hold its own. They re- Reason-to-day pasteboard and filagree, cognize the noble work it has done-admit and ending to-morrow in madness and that its history has been the history of murder. Rather let the breath of new life civilization-while they entirely abandon it be breathed by you through the forms alas a living power, capable of delivering us ready existing. For if once you are alive, from the moral and religious anarchy which you shall find that they become plastic and seems to them to brood over the nine- new....I look for the hour when that teenth century in as dense a cloud as over- supreme beauty which ravished the souls of shadowed the Roman world in the time tliose Eastern men, and chiefly of those

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Hebrews, and through their lips spoke the wealth is enchanted, the art is enchantoracles to all time, shall speak in the Wested, the science is enchanted; let those also. The Hebrew and Greek Scriptures who feel that they are really the better for contain immortal sentences, which have them, give us their names. been bread of life to millioris.

But they

But the philosopher of Concord (Emerhave no epical integrity—are not shown son) has touched the very centre of the in their order to the intellect. I look for matter. A new Teacher, he tells us, is the new teacher, who shall follow so far needed; a new Gospel will make the these shining laws that he shall see them progress of civilization wholly beneficent. come full circle ; shall see their rounding, The great West (at least, all that is noblest complete grace; shall see the world to be in it) is looking for such a man, for such a the mirror of the soul; shall see the iden- message. Vain outlook! the “shining tity of the law of gravitation with purity of laws” would come full circle fast enough, heart; and shall show that the Ought, have been ready to do so any time these that Duty, is one with science, with beauty, eighteen hundred years, if men would only and with joy."

let them. The Teacher who has spoken Surely, my friends, there is something the last and highest word to mankind, is singularly inspiring in this Transatlantic asking of our age, as He asked of the men voice. Its first ring is like that of a bugle of His own day, as He has asked of the in front of a forming battalion. The call sixty generations of our fathers who have to the best heart and head in young Ameri- come and gone since His day, the question ca to throw to the winds all attempts to which goes to the root of all “ problems of establish a new cult, new rites, new forms; civilization”-of all problems of human life to rekindle the smouldering fire on the altar —“What think ye of Christ ?” The time by themselves breathing new life into the is upon us when that question must be anforms already existing, till they become swered by this nation, and can no longer plastic and ready to fit the new times, be thrust aside, while we go, one to his farm, and express the new thoughts—is to my and another to his merchandise. Is this mind full of hope, for the Old World as life the model of what human life must well as for the New. But look again, become—is He the Son of God, dwelling listen again, and the jubilant voice falters; with men now and always, and inspiring the sound of the bugle grows wandering, hem with power to live that life—not at uncertain, and passes away in a few wild small section of them here and there, but notes, to me at least as empty of hope as the whole race, big, various, and disagreeathat wail of the Old World. The voice ble as it is to most of us ? Upon the anthat spoke to those old Hebrews has not swer England gives to that question dethen, as yet, spoken in the West: a new pends our future—whether we shall flounTeacher is needed there too, who shall der on under the weight of increasing riches, bring with him some further good news for till our vaunted civilization has brought us men. Without such, the shining laws can- to utter anarchy, and so to the loss of not come full circle—the pure of heart can- courage, trustfulness, simplicity, manliness not see God.

—of everything that makes life endurable Great is the controversy—full of the for men or nations; or whether we shall most absorbing interest for every human rise up in new strength, casting out the soul, and great the issues which the civili- spirit of Mammon in the Name which zation of our day is forcing on a world broke in pieces the Roman Empire, subbent on enjoyment of all kinds—sensual, dued the wild tribes which flooded that artistic, intellectual—and on shutting its empire in her decay, and founded a Chrisears to all voices from the height and from tendom on the ruins—which in our own the depth. And more and more clearly it land has destroyed feudalism, abolished seems to me, at least, is the voice, calmer slavery, and given us an inheritance such than silence, sounding from the height and as has been given to no people on this from the depth; and more and more vain earth before us; and so build up a stronger, grows the world's effort to enjoy any of its gentler, nobler national life, in which all good things, until it hears and answers. problems of civilization shall find their true As Carlyle said scornfully thirty years ago, solution.—Macmillan's Magazine.



WHEN Hotspur treads the stage with the first lay proprietor of the forfeited propassionate grace, the spectator hardly perty was a Sir Thomas Cawarden. It dreams of the fact that the princely was soon after acquired by Henry Howard, original lived, paid taxes, and was an active Earl of Northampton, son of the first Earl man of his parish, in Aldersgate Street. of Surrey. Howard, early in the reign of There, however, stood the first Northum- James the First, erected on the site of St. berland House. By the ill-fortune of Mary's Hospital a brick mansion which, Percy it fell to the conquering side in the under various names, has developed into serious conflict in which Hotspur was en- that third and present Northumberland gaged; and Henry the Fourth made a House which is about to fall under prespresent of it to his queen, Jane. Thence sure of circumstances, the great need of it got the name of the Queen's Wardrobe. London, and the argument of half a milSubsequently it was converted into a

lion of money. printing office; and, in the course of time, Thus the last nobleman who has clung the first Northumberland House disap- to the Strand, which, on its south side, was peared altogether.

once a line of palaces, is about to leave it In Fenchurch Street, not now a place for ever. The bishops were the first to wherein to look for nobles, the great Earls reside on that river-bank outside the City of Northumberland were grandly housed walls. Nine episcopal palaces were once in the time of Henry the Sixth ; but vulgar mirrored in the then clear waters of the citizenship elbowed the earls too closely, Thames. The lay nobles followed, when and they ultimately withdrew from the they felt themselves as safe in that fresh City. The deserted mansion and grounds and healthy air as the prelates. The were taken possession of by the roysterers. chapel of the Savoy is still a royal chapel, Dice were for ever rattling in the stately and the memories of time-honored Lansaloons. Winners shouted for joy, and caster and of John, the honest King of blasphemy was considered a virtue by the France, still dignify the place. But the losers. As for the once exquisite gardens, last nobleman who resided so far from the they were converted into bowling-greens, now recognised quarters of fashion is titanic billiards, at which sport the gayer about to leave what has been the seat of City sparks breathed themselves for hours the Howards and Percys for nearly three in the summer time. There was no place centuries, and the Strand will be able no of entertainment so fashionably frequented longer to boast of a duke. It will still, as this second Northumberland House; however, possess an English earl; but he but dice and bowls were at length to be is only a modest lodger in Norfolk Street. enjoyed in more vulgar places, and the When the Duke of Northumberland old seat of the Percys was deserted by goes from the Strand, there goes with him fashion.” On the site of mansion and a shield with very nearly nine hundred gardens, houses and cottages were erected, quarterings; and among them are the and the place knew its old glory no more. arms of Henry the Seventh, of the soveSo ended the second Northumberland reign houses of France, Castile, Leon, and House.

Scotland, and of the ducal houses of While the above mansions or palaces Normandy and Brittany! Nunquam minus were the pride of all Londoners and the solus quam cum solus, might be a fitting envy of many, there stood on the strand motto for a nobleman who, when he stands of the Thames, at the bend of the river, before a glass, may see therein, not only near Charing Cross, a hospital and chapel, the Duke, but also the Earl of Northumwhose founder, William Marshal, Earl of berland, Earl Percy, Earl of Beverley, Pembroke, had dedicated it to St. Mary, Baron Lovaine of Alnwick, Sir Algernon and made it an appanage to the Priory of Percy, Bart., two doctors (LL.D. and Roncesvalle, in Navarre. Hence the D.C.L.), a colonel, several presidents, and hospital on our river strand was known by the patron of two-and-twenty livings. the name of “ St. Mary Rouncivall.” The As a man who deals with the merits of estate went the way of such property at a book is little or nothing concerned with the dissolution of the monasteries; and the binding thereof, with the water-marks, or with the printing, but is altogether con- of Northumberland, who married his son, cerned with the life that is within, that is, came of a noble but ill-fated race, especialwith the author, his thoughts, and his ex- ly after the thirteenth Baron Percy was pression of them, so, in treating of North- created Earl of Northumberland in 1377. umberland House, we care much less for Indeed, the latter title had been borne by notices of the building than of its in- eleven persons before it was given to a habitants-less for the outward aspect than Percy, and by far the greater proportion of for what has been said or done beneath its the whole of them came to grief. Of one roof. If we look with interest at a mere of them it is stated that he (Alberic) was wall which screens from sight the stage of appointed Earl in 1080, but that, proving some glorious or some terrible act, it is not unfit for the dignity, he was displaced, and for the sake of the wall or its builders : our a Norman bishop named in his stead! The interest is in the drama and its actors. idea of turning out from high estate those Who cares, in speaking of Shakespeare and who were unworthy or incapable is one Hamlet, to know the name of the stage that might suggest many reflections, if it carpenter at the Globe or the Blackfriars ? were not scandalum magnatum to make Suffice it to say, that Lord Howard, who them. was an amateur architect of some merit, is In the chapel at Alnwick Castle there supposed to have had a hand in designing is displayed a genealogical tree. At the the old house in the Strand, and that root of the Percy branches is “CharleGerard Christmas and Bernard Jansen are magne”; and there is a sermon in the said to have been his “builders.” Between whole, much more likely to scourge pride that brick house and the present there is than to stimulate it, if the thing be rightly as much sameness as in the legendary considered. However this may be, the knife which, after having had a new handle, Percys find their root in Karloman, the subsequently received in addition a new Emperor, through Joscelin of Louvain, in blade. The old house occupied three this way: Agires de Percy was, in the sides of a square. The fourth side, towards twelfth century, the sole heiress of her the river, was completed in the middle of house. Immensely rich, she had many the seventeenth century. The portal re- suitors. Among these was Joscelin, brotains something of the old work, but so ther of Godfrey, sovereign Duke of Bralittle as to be scarcely recognisable, except bant, and of Adelicia, Queen Consort of to professional eyes.

Henry the First of England. Joscelin held From the date of its erection till 1614 it that estate at Petworth which has not since bore the name of Northampton House. gone out of the hands of his descendants. In that year it passed by will from Hen- This princely suitor of the heiress Agnes ry Howard, Lord Northampton, to his was only accepted by her as husband on nephew, Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, condition of his assuming the Percy name. from whom it was called Suffolk House. In Joscelin consented; but he added the arms 1642, Elizabeth, daughter of Theophilus, of Brabant and Louvain to the Percy second Earl of Suffolk, married Alger- shield, in order that, if succession to those non Percy, tenth Earl of Northumberland, titles and possessions should ever be stopand the new master gave his name to the ped for want of an heir, his claim might be old mansion. The above-named Lord kept in remembrance. Now, this Joscelin Northampton was the man who has been was lineally descended from “ Charledescribed as foolish when young, infamous magne," and, therefore, that greater name when old, an encourager, at threescore lies at the root of the Percy pedigree, years and ten, of his niece, the infamous which glitters in gold on the walls of the Countess of Essex; and who, had he lived ducal chapel in the castle at Alnwick. a few months longer, would probably have Very rarely indeed did the Percys, who been hanged for his share, with that niece were the earlier Earls of Northumberland, and others, in the mysterious murder of Sir die in their beds. The first of them, Thomas Overbury. Thus, the founder of Henry, was slain (1407) in the fight on the house was noble only in name ; his suc- Bramham Moor. The second, another cessor and nephew has not lest a much Henry (whose father, Hotspur, was killed more brilliant reputation. He was con- in the hot affair near Shrewsbury), lies within nected, with his wife, in frauds upon the St. Alban's Abbey Church, having poured King, and was fined heavily. The heiress out his lifeblood in another Battle of the


Roses, fought near that town named after to pay a fine of thirty thousand pounds. the saint. The blood of the third Earl The Earl ultimately got off with fifteen helped to color the roses, which are said to years' imprisonment and a fine of twenty have grown redder from the gore of the thousand pounds. He was popularly slain on Towton's hard-fought field. The known as the Wizard Earl, because he was forfeited title was transferred, in 1465, to a studious recluse, companying only with Lord John Nevill Montagu, great War- grave scholars (of whom there were three, wick's brother; but Montagu soon lay known as “ Percy's Magi”), and finding among the dead in the battle near Barnet. relaxation in writing rhymed satires against The tital was restored to another Henry the Scots. Percy, and that unhappy Earl was mur- There was a stone walk in the Tower dered, in 1489, at his house, Cocklodge, which, having been paved by the Earl, near Thirsk. In that fifteenth century was known during many years as “My there was not a single Earl of Northumber- Lord of Northumberland's Walk.” At land who died a peaceful and natural one end was an iron shield of his arms; death.

and holes in which he put a peg at every In the succeeding century the first line turn he made in his dreary exercise. of Earls, consisting of six Henry Percys, One would suppose that the Wizard came to an end in that childless noble Earl would have been very grateful to whom Anne Boleyn called “the Thriftless the man who restored him to liberty. Lord." He died childless in 1537. He Lord Hayes (Viscount Doncaster) was had, indeed, two brothers, the elder of the man. He had married Northumberwhom might have succeeded to the title land's daughter, Lucy. The marriage had and estates; but both brothers, Sir Thomas excited the Earl's anger, as a low match, and Sir Ingram, had taken up arms in the and the proud captive could not “sto

Pilgrimage of Grace.” Attainder and for- mach” a benefit for which he was indebted feiture were the consequences; and in 1551 to a son-in-law on whom he looked down. Northumberland was the title of the duke- This proud Earl died in 1632. Just ten dom conferred on John Dudley, Earl of years after, his son, Algernon Percy, went Warwick, who lost the dignity when his a-wooing at Suffolk House, in the Strand. head was struck off at the block, two years It was then inhabited by Elizabeth, the later.

daughter and heiress of Theophilus, Earl Then the old title, Earl of Northumber- of Suffolk, who had died two years previland, was restored in 1557, to Thomas, son ously, in 1640. Algernon Percy and Eliof that attainted Thomas who had joined zabeth Howard made a merry and magnithe “ Pilgrimage of Grace.” Ill-luck still ficent wedding of it, and from the time followed these Percys. Thomas was be- they were joined together the house of the headed—the last of his house who fell bride has been known by the bridegroom's by the hands of the executioner—in 1572. territorial title of Northumberland. His brother and heir died in the Tower in The street close to the house of the 1585

Percys, which we now know as NorthumNone of these Percys had yet come into berland Street, was then a road leading the Strand. The brick house there, which down to the Thames, and called Hartswas to be their own through marriage with horn Lane. Its earlier name was Chrisan heiress, was built in the lifetime of the topher Alley. At the bottom of the lane Earl, whose father, as jus mentioned, died the luckless Sir Edmundsbury Godfrey in the Tower in 1585. The son, too, was had a stately house, from which he walked long a prisoner in that gloomy palace and many a time and oft to his great wood prison. While Lord Northampton was wharf on the river.

wharf on the river. But the glory of laying the foundations of the future Lon- Hartshorn Lane was and is Ben Jonson. don house of the Percys in 1605, Henry No one can say where rare Ben was born, Percy, Earl of Northumberland, was being save that the posthumous child first saw carried into durance. There was a Percy, the light in Westminster. “Though," kinsman to the Earl, who was mixed up in says Fuller, “I cannot, with all my industhe Gunpowder Plot. For no other reason trious inquiry, find him in his cradle, I than relationship with the conspiring Percy can fetch him from his long coats. When the Earl was shut up in the tower for life, a little child he lived in Hartshorn Lane, as his sentence ran, and he was condemned Charing Cross, where his mother married

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