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them like cattle, while they were fighting whole, had been the anti slavery party, against the oppression of the mother

coun- and even that it had made great sacrifices try and boasting of the Rights of Man. for that cause. Surely this was a practiWhy then concede to them virtues which cal reason, not perhaps for identifying they did not possess ?” The idea of himself with the party, but for supporting amending the Constitution in an anti-sla- it against its adversary all along. very sense he relegated to limbo. To tear The moral movement and the political it up and repeal the Union was henceforth movement, however, went on in their his fixed aini, and he carried most of his different planes. The overbearing domifollowers with him. He disenfranchised nation of the slave owners, and especially himself and refused to vote in elections. the challenge which they were indiscreet His movement was to be purely moral. enough to fling to the Northern conscience He at the same time embraced the most in the Fugitive Slave law, provoked politextreme doctrine of non-resistance and of ical resistance, which gradually became opposition to all war. This, no doubt, instinct with the moral sentiment; so that was a clear moral position, but it assumed the two forces began to be blended. Gareither that slavery was, like murder, a rison found himself receiving orations and crime not to be tolerated for a moment, placed in the seat of honor, where before or that all hopes of gradual and peaceful he had been mobbed, pelted, and dragged abolition were gone. Moreover, by cut- out to be hanged. Meantime the march ting the South adrift the negro would have of events was quickened. Judge Taney, been abandoned to his fate.

with an abominable frankness, defined slaTo declare war against the Union and very in terms which brought its iniquity against the Constitution was to dash your- home to every mind and stabbed the pubself against a sentiment which though not lic conscience to the quick. John Brown, absolutely moral or deserving to be laid in with fevered brain, fired what proved to the moral balance against a strictly moral be the first shot of civil war.

Then came principle, was at all events a good deal the election of Lincoln, which the slaveinore respectable than the sordid servility owner with good reason took as a proof of Wall Street or the passions of an Irish that his peculiar institution" mob. The feeling of the Americans for longer safe in the Union. Garrison's the Union was perhaps as high and as biographers have honestly recounted the worthy of tender treatment as anything ignominious efforts made by Congress at connected with self-aggrandizement can the last moment to lure the South back be. About the strength of the feeling into the Union by tendering increased sethere can be no doubt. It bas bad force curities for slavery. They and all reasonsince the war to reconcile those who fought able Americans must see that the English on opposite sides in that long and desper- or any other foreigners could hardly be ate struggle and to bring the soldiers of expected to look behind these acts of Lee and Meade together as brethren on Congress and to regulate their sympathies the field of Gettysburg.

on the hypothesis that people who declared A certain portion of the anti-slavery their willingness to establish slavery immen refused to follow Garrison's lead and mutably and forever were really in arms continued as the “ Liberty Party” to com

for abolition. However, the firing on bine moral with political action. No Fort Sumter ended parley, and there was doubt in their relations with the regular civil war. political parties they were awkwardly What was Garrison, the repealer of the placed, and the practical result of their Union, the anathematizer of the Constimovement was small ; but it seems to us tution, the non-resistance man,

and preachthat there was more reason in their course er against all war, to do in face of war, than Garrison's biographers are willing to and of a war professedly undertaken to reallow. We find it difficult to convince store the Union and maintain the Constiourselves that in any circumstances a man tution? As might have been expected, can be justified in renouncing his charac- his theoretic principles gave way to practi. ter as a citizen and refuse to give his coun- cal policy. He said that when he had detry the benefit of his conscientious vote. clared the Constitution to be A covenant When the time came Garrison had to ad- with death and an agreement with hell,” mit that the Republican party, on the he never thought that death and hell would

was no

66

secede from the Constitution. 1. And as to his integrity of p

bis integrity of purpose through all the fighting, he said that those who did it clouds thrownto

over them by the necessities were not upon the plane of Jesus, but only of an equivocal position, perhaps also by capon that of Moses and Gideon, winking the ingrained habits of the politician ; and hard for the time at the difference between be cordially supported Lincoln's re-electhe two dispensations. His practical good tion. In this he formed a contrast to Wensense told him that at any rate it was a dell Phillips, whose fiery spirit would brook battle between a Slave Power and a Free no delay, and whose eloquence was greater Power in which he ought to be on the side than his judgment. 180

V of the Free Power. - He cast in his lot, in ya The war began as a constitutional strugeffect, heartily with the Republican party gle for the restoration of the Union, the and with the war. 6. John Bright, a moral object of abolishing slavery being Quaker, o opposed in principle to all war, thrown into the background or actually took the same line. 950-hasijalo to atasi abjared. But, as the conflict went on, the Bi He did not at first give his full confi- progress of opinion, and still more of feeldence to Lincoln, nor was he, or any one ing, conspired with the necessities of war but a blind partisan, called upon to do so. to make it a struggle for emancipation. Lincoln was a Western politician who had In the end, Garrison and the moral moverisen by the same arts as the rest of his ment rode in the care of victory into class, and had been nominated not so much Charlestown. “One of the most impressive for his merits as because he had the Illi- scenes, says one who was there, I have nois vote. He turned out infinitely better witnessed was Wm. Lloyd Garrison standthan those who brought him forward bad ing at the grave of John C. Calhoun.”' any right to expect. His character proved The tomb was a great marble slab, with admirable, and was most useful in giving the name of the great statesman of slavery tone to the nation during the struggle. as the sole and sufficient epitaph. i 71 445 But his ability after all was chiefly shown ji Garrison stands almost alone among in keeping that touch with popular senti- agitators in having closed not only his agiinent, the cultivation of which is the su- tation but his public career when the obpreme study of the politician. The writ- ject of bis movement was gained, showing ers of these volumes have to admit that decisively thereby that he had been anihis plans for dealing with the slavery ques- mated not by restless ambition but by detion in the Border States by means of in- votion to his cause. Wendell Phillips indemnities were mistaken and almost fatu- sisted on going on, and go on he did from ous.

s. Nor can it be said that the war was one agitation to another to the end of his ably administered while the management passionate and stormy life. Garrison bewas in his bands. 10 The great service which haved to Phillips on the occasion with Grant rendered was that of taking the war perfect generosity, nor did Philips fail to out of the bands of all the civilians and respond. 10" In my experience,” he said, grasping it in his own. Of finance Lin- “ of well-nigh thirty years I have never coln was ignorant, and the story was cred- met the anti-slavery man or woman who ible which made him, when told that had struck any effectual blow at the slave funds ran low, ask whether the printing system of this country whose action was machine had given out. How he would not born out of the heart and conscience of have dealt with the most difficult problem Wm. Lloyd Garrison.” So in spite of the of all, that of Reconstruction, nobody efforts of mischief-makers to stir up rivalry, knows. Lincoln's martyrdom to the great Paul and Barnabas parted in peace. At cause, combined with the pride felt in ex- - At the close of the year 1865, Garrison alting an American" railsplitter above set with his own hands the final paragraph all the statesmanship of the Old World, to the Valedictory in the last number of have, we cannot help thinking, led the The Liberator, the little group in the Anericans to raise Lincoln to an unap- printing office standing silently round and proachable pinnacle of glory as a statesman witnessing the closing act. A more solon which, when the final judgment of his- emn moment there could hardly be in any tory is pronounced, he will hardly remain. life. After this, there came only congratAmerica may perhaps yet produce a great- ulations and orations, which Garrison acer man. Garrison, however, soon recog- cepted with frank delight and without un nized the worth of Lincoln's character and due elation. He accepted also 1 without

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any affected reluctance the very moderate no misgiving as to the measure of gratiprovision which public gratitude made for tude due to the overthrowers of slavery. his old age. In an address of thanks for There lies before me a copy of the City a watch presented to him as a testimonial, Ordinances of Atlanta, which fell into the he said that if it had been a rotten egg he hands of the captors when Sherman's should have felt more at home in acknowl. army entered the city. it It is a hideous edging it. A man who has been long in. monument of the system and dissipates at ured to abuse may really be disconcerted once any idea that the institution was edby praise. It may even at first produce ucational or could have for its object or an unpleasant sensation as something effect the gradual elevation of the negro. strange and suspicious. Tot709

otrofning To keep the negro down; to prevent him Garrison lived on to 1879 in quiet re- from plying even any little industry which tirement, but still taking an interest in might raise his condition and give hiin a public affairs and writing about them in taste of independence ; to keep him at a journals. Among other things he vigor- level barely above that of a brute beast, is ously denounced Mr. Blaine, who was bid- evidently the object of the legislators. ding for the presidency by advocating the The book is instinct with the spirit of a exclusion of the Chinese. We should have Reign of Terror which must have been as liked to hear more, and it is curious that deadly to the character of the white as to we do not hear more, of his opinions that of the slave himself. And by economabout Reconstruction and of the future of ical necessity, as well as by temper, slathe negro at the South. From one pas- very was not stationary ; it was propagansage we should gather that he recognized dist and aggressive. OTT ouw boutsid the political inferiority of the negroes and b. Even the incidents reproduced in this had some misgivings, as well he might brief notice are enough to show that Garhave, with regard to their capacity for in- rison was not without his weak points. mediate enfranchisement. When was it We can understand that to people of cool ever known," he says in reply to one who temperament and strong political tendenhad complained of Lincoln's hesitation, cies, even if they were not slave-owners, " that liberation from bondage was ac- he may have appeared fanatical. He companied by a recognition of political never takes a historical view of the quesequality! Chattels personal may be in- tion, nor does he distinguish between stantly translated from the auction-block household slavery, which, in the household into freemen ; but when were they ever of a Virginian gentleman such as Washingtaken at the same time to the ballot-box ton, was probably not intolerable, and and invested with all political rights and plantation slavery, with its Legrees, which immunities ? According to the laws of was the real abomination. The particular development and progress it is not practi- evil against which he fought was in his

Attention to the laws of develop- eyes the sum of all evils, and its abolition ment and progress inight perhaps have was to bring new heavens and a new earth. modified his language, even about slavery This is only saying that he was a moral itself, though it need not have changed crusader. But we repeat that of the moral his practical course. But ino reason is crusader he is an excellent type. We see given us for doubting that he heartily ac- no trace in his life of the selfishness of cepted the measure when it came. His vanity or leadership any more than of selmind, however, was not that of a states- fishness of any other kind. Nor amidst man, nor had be the ken which pierces all his hard fighting and his

s vehemence, faturity. He was simply an organ of pub- which under persecution and calumny was lic morality and the soul of a revolt against sometimes pardonably excessive, does he a great domination of wrong. !: V out of seem even to have become imbittered. In

Out of the grave of slavery has arisen his Valedictory he expresses his pleasure the terrible problem of the races, and a at finding himself no longer in conflict with dark cloud hangs over the future of the the mass of bis fellow-countrymen, and we Sonthern States. Some may have begun have no doubt that he spoke from his to doubt whether Garrison's original policy heart. As a private citizen be more than of repealing the Union might not after all fulfilled all righteousness, and his home have been the best for the North. But life seems to have been altogether virtuwbatever may be the issue, there need be ous, affectionate and sweet. Tow art busine

cable.

The scale of the first two volumes, which the archives of the Anti-Slavery Movement threatened portentous length, has not been which their custodians have no doubt done kept up, and four portly volumes comprise right in placing in the nupiment room of the whole. But four portly volumes are history. Now let them give the world a at least three volumes and a half too much short life of the leader of that movement. for a Life of Garrison which is to be read - Macmillan's Magazine. and to keep his memory alive. These are

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LITERARY NOTICES.

-] time!! had tas All THE VOYAGE OF H. M. S. BEAGLE.

and was absent five years. On the publicaJOURNAL OF RESEARCHES INTO NATURAL HISTORY tion of his book he soon became acknowledged AND GEOLOGY OF THE COUNTRIES VISITED DUR

as one of the most promising of the younger ING THE VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD OF H, M. scientists of Great Britain. It was during this LS. BEAGLE, UNDER THE COMMAND OF CAPTAIN expedition that Darwin conceived the germinal

Fitz Roy, R. N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., thought which never left him till it Aowered F.R.S., author of " Origin of Species," etc.

into the theory of the origin of species by A new edition. With illustrations by R. T.

natural selection ; and it was also at this time Prichett of Places Visited and Objects De. that he formulated the theory of coral formascribed. New York: D. Appleton & Company. tion, which was his earliest title to the recog.

nition of science as a great naturalist. The publication of this record first lifted the The thought that coral reefs are formed illustrious Darwin into distinction as a natur. through subsidence and not elevation crossed alist. The pertness and originality of the all the current views of Darwin's contempowriter's views, the greatness of the genius for raries. Dana, the American geologist, with research displayed, and the simple and viva- his theory of coral formation by elevation, had cious style of his descriptions at once fastened converted all the leading scientific men. Sir attention on the young historiographer of Charles Lyell, foremost of geologists, had acthe Beagle expedition. The readers of Dar- cepted it, and even re-written portions of his win's Life and Letters," published a few years masterpiece of work to embody this view. since, will remember the circumstances under Darwin, therefore, astonished the world by which he accepted the post of naturalist. Dar- his new theory, which, however, made speedy .win, not long out of Canıbridge, and animat- headway. Lyell finally indorsed it; and ed with the keenest passion for the study of Dana, with great magoanimity and justice, natural history, was still undecided as to promptly fell in accord with the new facts and whether be should not yield to the wish of his proofs furnished by Darwin and the Beagle family, who desired him to study medicine, expedition, though the opposing view, for for which he had a strong repugnance. It which he had been first responsible, had large. was at this juncture that some of his scientific ly contributed to his fame. It may be regard. friends, who appreciated the bent of his gen- ed now, in passing, as a somewhat singular ius, secured him an offer to take part in the fact that Darwin's theory of coral formation, expedition under Captain Fitz Roy, the objects which supplanted Dana's, is beginning to of which were to complete the surveys of Pat- suffer discredit at the hands of scientific men, agonia and Terra del Fuego, begun under Cap. who rather turn again to the early Dana view tain King from 1826 to 1830, to survey the as a more complete explanation of all the phe. coasts of Chili, Peru, and of some islands in nomena of the problem. the Pacific, and to carry a chain of chrono- Darwin's account of the Beagle expedimetrical measurements around the world. tion is graphic and lively, and even the nonThe study of natural history was a very sub- scientific reader can hardly fail to be interest. sidiary purpose in the expedition, but, as it ed. Scientific facts are presented in a style so happens, it was Darwin's connection with the simple and untechnical that no one need fear enterprise which now gives it its chief value in attacking the subject; and the sketches of the eyes of the scientific world, The

young men, manners, and adventures so pleasantly naturalist left England the last month of 1831, interwoven with the more didactio portions,

bat, but few

W will

TOMS OF

be. 80 rivet the attention that

ceeded in retaining much of the unforced and grudge ze the ti

time so pleasantly passed. Many spontaneous quality which gives life to true editions s of this delightful book have already humor. been put on the market. The special claim His latest lucubrations paint the denizens of the present one is that it is profusely illus. of Stage Land, that country which looks so trated by an artist perfectly familiar with the splendid and glittering from the front, but matters treated and with the places visited which is so bleak, uninteresting and common. by Darwin in his notable cruise. These great place, tinsel fading into dirt and rags behind ly enhance the attraction of the book, at least the footlights. The contrast is ghastly. for the general reader, and a scientific classic Those who wish to enjoy the theatre at its will gain a new public.

best should never yield to the temptation to

go in by the stage door, unless they are comBEHIND THE FOOTLIGHTS.

pelled to enter as artists. The influence of STAGE LAND : THE CURIOUS HABITS AND Cus. profession on character and mander would be ITS INHABITANTS. Described by

an interesting study for an essayist, treated Jerome K, Jerome, author of " The Idle from a serious standpoint. Mr. Jerome views Thoughts of an Idle Fellow, " Three Men it from a funny standpoint, and presents us in a Boat," etc. With illustrations by Ber

with a series of suggestive portraits. All men

who have had much to do with histrions can. Dard Partridge. New York : Henry Holt & Company.

not fail to have noticed in most of them, ex

cept among the highest masters of the art, a The reputation of Mr. Jerome, one of the

certain artificiality and exaggeration of de. latest of the English crop of humorists, ap- meanor and talk, a disposition to carry somepears to us something more than ephemeral thing of the pomp and strut of the minic life in its possibilities. The quips and cranks, the of the stage into the life of every day, as if too jests and fun of those who labor to make the much gaslight caused them to blink and make world laugh, and sometimes sweat drops of faces in the honest light of the sun. This blood that others may be amused, have given amusing manner, often unconscious and hidto literary comedy many a sombre association, ing the honest and sincere qualities worthy of The death's head often grins in ghastly fashion cordial esteem, has often been caricatured in under the clown's mask, and perhaps it is the novels. Mr. Jerome sketches the different sense of this, stealing through the antic fools types moulded by stage habits, and the types ing of the jester, which gives some of the growing out of dramatic needs, with a lively pathos that lurks close to humor, fully as sense of the grotesque, and his raillery is so much as tbe fact that humor and pathos, in good-natured that actors themselves could the very nature of things, have their sources

only be amused by it. The stage lover, the not far apart. Mere buffoonery never pushes old man, the villain, the old woman, the heavy down more than a shallow wot, and it dies like father, the virtuous man, the chambermaid, all other folly. Newspaper wit, therefore, and other forms of professional work are haprarely attains a place in literature, however it pily dashed off with the breadth and vigor of may amuse an idle hour and relieve the leaden an impressionist painter. It is not quite a dulness of the adjoining columns. To be gallery of caricatures either; the writer is funny at a fixed price per hour is a dreary oo- obliged to use the art of exaggeration to give cupation, and even the ricbly endowed humor. emphasis to his strokes. We certainly recog. ist might well shrink from such a deadly tax nize a large element of truth and fact under on the fountain of mirth, Mr. Jerome seems the fantastic figures placed before us. The to have been a contributor to the daily and field, of course, is limited, and does not offer weekly press, and indeed the writer who does enough range for the best touches of the bu. not find a successful outlet in this direction, morist genius, but the quality is there even at least in part, has in general a desperate though the gold-foil is beaten out pretty thin. struggle before him. Mr. Jerome occasionally Mr. Jerome has done enough in the two or hints at the needs of professional duties in three books he has published to make the this line with a sort of desperate earnestness, world look for something much better. Peras if deprecating the effects of the mechani- haps nothing is more interesting in a writer cal grind imposed on him. Yet more than than the impression he gives of large reserves most who turn the crank and make the mon. of power—a vein running down into richer keys dance for the groundlings, he has suc- and deeper ore. Jerome hus this bigness of

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