ing of the German filibuster. The acts of of that pation during this and probably the Peters, in establishing stations and making next generation. treaties within British territory, in plun- How unscrupulous Germany shows herdering and shooting natives who were self in her regard for the most solemn under British protection, in appropriating treaties is manifest from what has gone the goods of the British station, and in before, but the aim of Major Wissmann burning or causing to be burnt in his pres- to secure the alliance of the notorious Tipence British flags and treaty papers, are of poo Tib is calculated to place that country a character for which an account will have in an equivocal position in the eyes

of to be rendered. They were not the acts Christendom. All Powers,” says Artiof an irresponsible adventurer ; they were cle 6 of the General Act of the Conference the acts of a well-known man, despatched of Berlin, “ exercising sovereign rights or to Africa on a distinct mission, and who, influence in the aforesaid territories, bind notwithstanding the “ disavowal” of the themselves to watch over the preservation German Government, was assisted by the of the native tribes, and to care for the active support of Major Wissmann and the improvement of the conditions of their German Consul-General at Zanzibar. No- moral and material well-being, and to help body will believe that the expedition of in suppressing slavery, and especially the Dr. Peters was other than a movement slave trade. The character of Tippoo executed in concert with Major Wissmann Tib is too well known in Europe to admit for the ultimate object of cutting off Brit- of any addition to the general abhorrence ish influence from all access to the interior. with which the man is regarded by every The report that Dr. Peters is living by friend of the poor African.

Nor can plunder at Kavirondo is what was to be there be much room for doubt as to the expected, and there is no doubt that he kind of consideration which be will require has maintained himself and his party by for his assistance. What part of their anplunder since he left the Upper Tana. ticipated doinains the Germans propose to

Accounts appear in the newspapers al- assign to Tippoo Tib in return for his almost daily of the efforts being made by liance can only be conjectured, but it must Major Wissmann to start the expedition be a territory well supplied with the special to the lake under Emin Pasha. The ob. merchandise which has made the great jects which the expedition has in view slave-hunter's fortune. The German allimust be urgent, seeing that it is being de- ance with Tippoo may be left to the critispatched in such haste at the most unfa- cism of the civilized world, and to the vorable season of the year. As to what special consideration of the signatory Powthey are, our German friends themselves ers of the Berlin Act. Great Britain can do not leave us in doubt. Simultaneously take no part in such an alliance ; and with the receipt of intelligence by Major sooner than she should be so false to her Wissmann of the arrival of his colleague traditions, let her abandon the task of Peters at Kavirondo (the point on the creating an East African Empire. Victoria Nyanza Lake at which the two The German Government, in view of the spheres of influence meet), operations on alarm and suspicion aroused in this counthe coast are hastily brought to an end, so try by the preparations for Emin Pasha's as to enable the commissioner to concen- expedition, has once more

" disavowed'' trate all his resources on this expedition. any intention of trespassing on the British It is first to join hands with Dr. Peters, sphere. We regret, however, that and afterward, with bis co-operation, to cannot point to a single act of Germany proceed round the lake by the south and or the Germans in East Africa calculated west, establishing German influence up to to give us confidence in the sincerity of Uganda, and doing what it can to annex such professions. The record all points Emin's late province to the African empire the other way. As we write, a report of Germany. It has several difficulties in appears in the newspapers that Germany its way, not the least of which should be is endeavoring to acquire the interest of the firm determination of Great Britain the King of the Belgians in the Congo that German enterprise shall confine itself Free State, with the obvious design to to its own legitimate sphere, -where, it establish an African empire extending may be remarked, there is already suffi- from one ocean to the other. She has, cient scope for all the colonizing energies however, inconvenient rivals to deal witb


day she

on both sides of the continent, and some returning with treaties having relation respec

may find that, after all, the game tively to Uganda and Unyoro. That would was not worth the candle. But matters

be, at this moment especially, a great service,

Let us exclude the English, but let us not be being as they are, the time has come for enclosed by them." fixing finally, in a manner that will provide a guarantee against future misunder- One or two further press extracts bear, standing, the territorial limits of British ing on the intentions of Germany behind and German interests in the Lake regions. the British sphere will repay perúsal. As already pointed out, a delimitation in

" In official circles,” says the “ Vossische general terms is embodied in the corre- Zeitung'' of February 27th, “ the rumor that spondence between the two Governments Emin Pasha is going to return to Wadelai, and in July 1887. Germany, as Baron von

with German help to acquire the province and

to make it over to the Germans, is not believed. Plessen laid down, was to have a free hand Wadelai is considered to lie within the Engin the countries lying to the south of the lish sphere of interest, and the personages in Victoria Nyanza Lake and to the east of Berlin who direct affairs were last year not Lakes Nyassa and Tanganyika ; and the inclined to concur in the suggestions of Dr. territories north of this were recognized to annex the Equatorial Provinces.

Schweinfurth that Germany should endeavor

The as within the sphere of exclusive British

view that England possesses better claims to influence. The delimitation seems a ju- the Equatorial Provinces than Germany is diciously chosen one from a political point strongly opposed by the Germans in East of view, as it avoids the anomaly of cut

Africa. Peters's expedition wus sent out entirely

to operate againsl English interests in that region. ing through the middle of tribal districts

Forming part of the country east of Lake by separating Uganda and Unyoro, and Tanganyika are the two negro kingdoms of the subsidiary kingdoms south of them, Uganda and Unyoro, which are important for from the rest of the country with which

the German coast, as caravans must pass they have neither tribal nor political affin- through them from the interior”– ity. Nevertheless, more suo, Germany that is, caravans from the Equatorial Provmakes deliberate arrangements for annex. inces, assuming the German coast to be ing the country west of Victoria Nyanza, their objective direction. It need not be with as much nonchalance as if the under- pointed out, to any person with the slightstanding of July 1887 had no existence or est knowledge of the map of Africa, that ineaning. A " colonial politician of the the kingdoms of Unyoro and Uganda lie first authority'' recently communicated to between the Albert and Victoria Nyanza a German newspaper a manifesto which Lakes, entirely within the sphere assigned was widely reprinted in the press of the by Baron von Plessen to British influence, empire, and which, from its general and and some hundreds of miles north of the cordial acceptance, may be taken as re- northernmost point of Lake Tanganyika. flecting German views on the question of On the same date the Berlin correspondEast African extension. The substance ent of the “St. Petersburg Zeitung" of this declaration of policy is einbodied wrote regarding Emin Pasha's employin the following extracts from it :

ment :“If we are to remain victors, we cannot " When Major Liebert, with a large staff, make too much haste to push energetically left for Zanzibar not very long ago, it was forward. The Congo State to the west, the stated in colonial circles with some certainty, Southern Soudan in the north-these are the although somewhat secretly, that Major Lieboundaries without which East Africa would bert was not only sent out to see whut the Im. have hardly any lasting economic value for perial Commissioner, Wissmann, bad done,

And, as already said, there is need of but that he had received the still more im. urgency, if one morning we are not to be sur- portant mission of communicating, on bebalf prised by the news that the English have fore. of the Emperor William, with Emin Pasha, stalled us.

who was said to be anxious, with German help,

to fetch his ivory which had been left behind, The writer's anxiety refers to those re

and to establish a German protectorate over gions behind the British sphere wbich the

his former province. Now we receive, by way

of London, a confirmation of these rumors, in arrangement of July 1887 recognized as

which it is reported that Emin had declined being reserved exclusively for British in- the offer of the Khedive to appoint him as fluence.

Governor of the Eastern Soudan at Suakim,

because of his negotiations with the German It is to be wished," be adds, " that Peters, Government regarding the outfit of an expe. who is, we hope, still alive, will surprise us by dition preparatory to his return to Wadelai.”


The correspondent remarks that he thinks pany, it remains of course for the Comthe information is only an echo of the pany itself to justify the position which it rumors which had been current in Berlin occupies. Strongly supported as it is by for weeks. It was thought of great im- capital and influence, and by the zcal of portance to be assured whether the“ Chris- its officials, which we should be sorry to tian King Mwanga” (of Uganda) would consider as inferior to that of Germans, it co-operate with them, and there was- ought to be able to face even such adverse

circumstances as those which it has had ' A strong desire to secure Emin for German

We have no undertakings in East Africa, and with his help at the outset to encounter. to unite the back country (Hinterland) with doubt the Company is doing all that it the German coast zone, On the other hand,

can to fight its way, but it must be admitit must be remembered that the chance of se. curing large votes for new colonial enterprises been so remarkable as to excite enthusiasm

ted that its achievements have not yet is an extremely remote one, with the Reich. stag constituted like the one that has just been at home. It can scarcely be expected that elected. Perhaps the Crown itself will give the Governinent is to carve out its paths financial help, although already it has shared

for it, or to secure for it the reversion of to the extent of half a million marks in Dr. Peters's settlement."

further spheres of enterprise until satisfied

that it is making the most of its present In view of the undisguised designs of concessions. As before pointed out, GerGermany in the interior, England onght many now enjoys, without having made to take immediate steps for protecting her compensation or acknowledgment, the rerights. Africa is large enough for the sults of the travels of our explorers, the Germans and English to work in harmony, labors of our missionaries, the expenditure but as the former do not share this opin- of our philanthropists, the comniercial enion, we must act accordingly; In the terprise of our fellow subjects ; she also first place, the delimitation of the spheres claims, on the same terms, the well-known westward must be laid down with incon- “Stevenson Road'' from Nyassa to Tantestable precision and without delay, on ganyika, —a grand public work, built by the lines indicated in the correspondence Scotch philanthropists with Scotch money of 1887. That is, the Germans will have and Scotch muscle. The design of our to restrict their sphere of influence to“ the friends to confine us to the coast is one territories south of the Victoria Nyanza which they are so little likely to realize, Lake.” Lord Salisbury has given Ger- that they would be wiser to address their many many proofs in East Africa of his energies to their legitimate work. If the desire to act in barmony with her-so friendly co-operation of Great Britain is many indeed, and some so striking, that worth anything to Germany in her colonial a friendly feeling may have been mistaken enterprises, she had better recognize the for weakness. We do not feel called upon fact at once that neither the British public to make further demonstrations of the nor the British Government will bear with kind, nor are we likely to put up with the any more of the high-handed

66 filibusterexecution of any of those schemes of an- ing” kind of policy which has been dinexation west of Victoria Nyanza to which rected against British interests in Africa German energies are at present so actively for the past eighteen months. addressed. We have no special knowl- quite willing to admit that the Berlin edge of what the British East Africa Com. Government, while it must still be held pany may be doing to secure its rights, directly responsible for the aggressions of but its responsibilities are very clear, and its officers, may to some extent be having it will be expected to show adequate its hands forced by its representatives on promptness and vigor in acting up to the spot. The excessive zeal and ambithein. Arduous and harassing the Com- tion of the German officials have, on several pany's task undoubtedly is, in the une- occasions, been pressed so far as to allow qual contest which it is compelled to wage their Government no choice between supfor British interests against the unscrupu- porting and repudiating their action--the lous officials and agents of a Power which latter always an ungrateful task. But the backs them with its public resources. German emperor has not far to look for a While the sympathies of the British pub- warning of the discredit which the mislic and the support of the Government will chievous activity of his officials in East undoubtedly follow the East African Com- Africa is calculated to bring upon his Gov

We are

ernment. The Germans at Zanzibar are a firm hand in all other spheres of his inpractically playing the same game as the fluence, will best consult' his own credit Russian officers played in Central Asia, by not allowing himself to relax his auwith the result that the good faith of Rus- thority over those of his subjects who in sia fell to a lower discount than the parch- East Africa are now attracting unfavorable ment which pledged it. The Emperor attention throughout Europe and the East. William, wbo seems disposed to rule with Blackwood's Magazine.



ual old age.

FIFTY-THREE years after the curtain bad noted great physical force and energy, fallen on Edward Trelawny in Mrs. Julian which was the more surprising after all Marshall's fascinating “Life of Mary Woll- that he had suffered in his youth. I take stonecraft Shelley," I was introduced to it for granted that the reader of this paper that extraordinary man. I never met any is acquainted with Mrs. Julian Marshall's one with a more decided objection to be- Life of Mary Shelley, a work which brings ing “interviewed," and I should never Trelawny vividly before us. have known him, never have enjoyed his After a close and steady friendship of friendship, bad he not chosen to regard fifteen years, Trelawny, early in 1837, me in the light of an enthusiast.

disappears from the Life of Mary Shelley. Trelawny, as most people are by this Whether they ever met after that date is time aware, bad been enthusiastic in his uncertain. We

may, I think, take it for youth, and had a decided liking for a granted that a coolness sprang up between. kindred weakness.

them, owing probably to the fact that When I first met him, in 1875, he was Trelawny bad, with even more than his a splendid type of vigorous and intellect- usual candor, reproached Mary Shelley for

His mind was clear, and his declining to write a life of Godwin. Be memory astounding. As he stood before that as it may, the last letter which Mary me and extended the band that drew Shelley wrote to Trelawny was dated 27th Shelley's heart from out the burning, I January, 1837. There is a remarkable felt as though drawn by some mysterious sentence in that letter, which may possiagency backward through the mists of bly have given great offence : Time, toward those immortal poets who once were proud to call this man their friend, kindness, it has not been from Liberals ; to

One thing I will add-if I have ever found Trelawny's rough, unstudied manners, and disengage myself from them was the first act his strong, unmodulated voice, were not of my freedom. The consequence was that I unpleasing. It was the manner that had gained peace and civil usage, which they deimpressed Byron, and the voice that had nied me; more I do not ask ; of Fate I only

ask a grave.” delighted the Shelleys. As I glanced at Trelawny, I thought that Mary's descrip- When we consider who wrote those tion of him, in February 1822, had lost words, and to whom they were written, but little force througb the stress of time. they read like an avowal of heresy and Surely fifty-three years had never laid a ingratitude. For Shelley's widow to tell lighter band on any human frame. His Trelawny that if ever she experienced kind. intellect appeared to be as keen as that of ness it was not at the hands of Liberals most men of sixty, and I afterward discov- was, to say the least of it, insulting. Treered that he persisted in a course of read- lawny was proud of being a Liberal in pol. ing which would have been trying to most itics ; and, with all his faults of manner men of his age. I was much struck by and temper, he had made enormous sacri

There was a steady fire in them fices for Mary's sake. He did not ask for which, figuratively speaking, would al- gratitude, but at least he did not merit remost have gazed an eagle blind. Though proach. Perhaps Trelawny never forgave he stooped a little, he was a pian of co- these words—he certainly never forgot lossal proportions, and his movements de- them.

his eyes.


I remember one evening, while we were the last survivor of that remarkable Pisan examining the portrait of Jane Clairmont, circle, whose sayings and doings will be which hung on the left of the fireplace in remembered so long as the lives of distinhis room, he pointed to a semblance of guished poets are interesting to mankind. Mary Shelley which hung on the other In presenting to the reader a few exside, and said : She was good, but nar- tracts from my notes of conversations with row-minded and jealous." These words this extraordinary man, I am glad to be surprised me, but by the light of Mrs. able to render some justice to the memMarshall's book I think I understand himn ory of Harriet Shelley. It is not immanow. Godwin's daughter and Shelley's terial to the value of evidence to point out wife must indeed have undergone a change that the tide which threatens to overwhelm if she could bring herself to speak dispar- Harriet Shelley did not set in until Treagingly of Liberalism. Trelawny may lawny had been dead five years. It is cerhave provoked her by insinuating that in tain that these baseless calumpies could not writing a life of her father she was never have been made during his lifetime. guilty of a moral cowardice, but Mary The first disparaging note was sounded by Shelley should have discounted the vehe. Professor Dowden, and was suggested by mence of his reproaches, and have patient- Boscombe Manor, the home of the poet's ly borne the savage humor and outspoken

Professor Dowden says : frankness of the man whose good heart

“ Harriet Shelley's life, apart from that of bad never failed her.

Shelley, forms no portion of the story told in Of Miss Clairmont Trelawny seldom these volumes. There is no doubt that she spoke. It seemed to be a point of honor wandered from the ways of upright living ; with him to keep her name in the back how far she wandered we need not inquire. ground. But the necessity for silence has It would be hard to find in the whole passed with the propriety of it. Jane range of biographical literature a broader Clairmont's name has now become public evasion of the clear lines of historic truth property, and we feel we know her almost than these cruel words afford. That Haras well as though we had seen her in the riet’s life apart from Shelley should form heyday of her youth and beauty. I have no portion of the story told in Professor looked carefully through my notes of con- Dowden's volumes, we can understand. versations with Trelawny, and find but one But when we are told that “there is no mention of


Trelawny told me doubt she wandered from the ways of upthat he had recently received a letter from right living,” we are asked to believe that her, and added : “ She is always bother- the forsaken wife had been false to her ing about something or another ; but, poor marriage vow. Nothing, I believe, could woman, she is very infirm.”

be further from the truth. The charge as Although when I first met Trelawny, it stands is ambiguous, for the simple Shelley had been dead fifty-three years, reason that no evidence whatever has ever Byron years, Mary Shelley been produced against Harriet Shelley to twenty-four years, and the Contessa Guic- justify the libel. But when Professor cioli two years, there were yet living a few Dowdeo tells us that no act of Shelley's persons whose names' must forever be as- during the two years that preceded her sociated with those of Shelley and Byron. death tended to cause the rash act which Trelawny, though a striking figure, did brought her life to its close," we are not, at the time of which I am writing, prompted to inquire whether desertion by stand alone. At Constantinople lived Shelley was not in itself an act of cruelty? Julius Millingen, the doctor who witnessed It is with intent to justify Shelley's heartByron's death ; at Turin lived Hoppner, less couduct that the Boscombe clique are who was British Consul at Venice in laboring, by fair means and by foul, to Byron's time ; at Worthing lived Giovan- destroy the fair fame of his first wife, ni Battista Falcieri, better known as hoping in the long run to convince the “ Tita” the Gondolier ; at Florence lived world that Harriet was unworthy to be Clare Clairmont ; and in Greece still lin- loved. We owe a great deal of all this gered the beauteous “ Maid of Athens,' to that consuinmate poseur Thomas Jefferwho inspired one of the best-known son- son Hogg, who got muddled between his nets in our language. Five years later all liking for Harriet Shelley and his affection were dead, and Edward Trelawny became for her husband. On the subject of Har


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