to the rep

the junction of the two offices of Governor spirits as the best in the colony, to be proand High Conmissioner, perhaps in the tected at all hazards. Their customers person of a military man, was intelligible. are the unfortunate colored classes. Cape . Now this junction is almost unintelligible, Town itself has never acted up and, speaking at Kimberley, November utation of being the metropolis of South 1884, Sir Hercules Robinson himself made Africa. The town is conspicuous for its the best commentary of the inherent diffi- sordid municipal spirit and petty haggling culties of the double office. He was re- economy, visible in the management of its ported to say : “ The difficulties of a con- public institutions, especially the Botanistitntional Governor are greatly increased cal Gardens. Quite recently we had a telby the office being held in conjunction with ling exhibition of this sordid spirit, so conthat of Her Majesty's High Commissioner trary to the liberality which should be a for South Africa. In that capacity there civic virtue, in the animated discussions are personal duties to be performed outside on the paltry sums of money to be devotthe Cape Colony wbich extend over the ed to the entertainment and reception of whole of South Africa. These duties are the new governor, Sir Henry Loch. Apof an Imperial, as distinguished from a parently the Cape Town press is powerless Colonial character ; and their peculiarity to reform the narrow and illiberal views of is that while they exist to carry out a pol- those whose fortune, or misfortune, it is icy determined by the Imperial Govern- to live within sight of Table Mountain. ment, they must be made to harmonize Nature has done a great deal for Table with those which exist to carry out a policy Bay, at little or nothing. This is the determined by the Parliament of the Cape. commonplace of every traveller who sets The task of reconciling the sometimes con- foot


the quay• flicting policies is often one of peculiar It is true also that of all the prominent anxiety and difficulty, so much so that it politicians who have appeared in the Cape has at times been suggested that the two Assemblies the majority have come from offices should be separated ; but the dual the east, insomuch that it may almost be duties dovetail, as it were, into each other accepted as a truism that “the wise men to such an extent as to render it almost there have come from the east. It has indispensable that they should centre. In been reserved for a writer in Blackwood to my capacity as Her Majesty's High Com- stir up public feeling in Cape Town itself missioner, I have had, ever since my ar- on the leper question, and the liquor traffic rival in South Africa, to attend to a con- in the vicinity of the metropolis bas still stant succession of anxious duties, among to be dealt with by some trenchant pen. which I may specify the Basuto Award, In the town itself sanitary science has made the Pretoria Convention, the resumption but slow and feeble progress, and there of Basutoland by the Imperial Goverument, are no vital statistics to be relied upon, the Convention of London, and the estab. In fact, it is a speaking and most danning lishment of a Protectorate in Bechuana- fact against the Cape Colony that there

These words were spoken more have been no census summaries since 1875 ! than five years ago, and if then there were It is hoped that in 1891 Sir Henry Loch strong reasons for separating the offices,' will use his utmost endeavors to procure a there are tenfold stronger reasons at the statement of the population, wealth, and present moment, and the reasons grow industries, etc., of the Cape Colony, as stronger every day.

they are the basis of all reasoning. The influence of Cape Town and of the With regard to the industries of the Western Province of the Cape Colony country, it is a well-known fact that all upon the general policy of South Africa the most paying of these have been develhas been far from an unmixed good, the oped in the enterprising divisions of the Dutch ivfluences in the immediate neigh- eastern province. The best herds and borhood being too prominent. In political flocks of the country have always been science the Vignerons of the Paarl and found in the east ; the Angora goat has Stelbenbosch are distinctly backward. On been grown in the east ; the ostrich inmore than one occasion they have proved dustry was developed in the east, and an to be protectionists in the smallest sense Albany farmer has generally been generaof the word, and regard their own indus- tions ahead of a Malmesbury agriculturist. try of making bad wine and unwholesome The wine industry, which westerns might


The part

have developed, they have frittered and other, and it is at places like the Mis. wasted away. Generally speaking, they sionary Training Institute at Lovedale or have been purveyors of bad wine and un- Blythewood, or in the midst of the Tranwholesome spirits to degraded natives. skei magistracies, and in Basutoland, the At one time it was thought that there was Switzerland of the Cape Colony, that the a kind of magic influence between western attempts to solve the native difficulty, the agriculturists and the up-country Boers of great difficulty after all in South Africa, the Free State and Transvaal, such an in- can be best seen and appreciated. fluence, in fact, as would affect politics The three portions of South Africa, degenerally. The whole thing is a bugbear. fined geographically in the opening pages There is little real sympathy between the of this paper, are linked together in a smug and prosperous wine grower, who is common history, not very intelligible in happy among his wine vats, and the nomad all its circumstances, as all of us who know Boer, who certainly would be unhappy South Africa fully understand. there, and would soon lose his distinctive which each centre of population and incharacter.

dustry will take in the great task of civilizAll facts, therefore, seem to point to ing and regenerating the whole is not apthe conclusion that the days of Cape Town parent. There may in the future be a as the seat of Government in South Africa great clashing of interests and a confusion are numbered. In that Federal Dominion, of sounds, and Central Africa may provide which Sir Hercules alludes to, it is certain battle-fields for European against European that Cape Town would not be the govern- instead of giving all opportunities for coming centre, and it is contrary to all rea- bining for common enterprises and labors. son that she should expect it. In the But England's position is clear, and her judgment of those who have known both duty plain. She cannot draw back from the eastern and the western provinces, South African responsibilities, and must there must be a conviction that there are go forward. It is unwise to haygle over inherent differences between the two prov. small sums to be spent in native aduinisinces which it is impossible to ignore. tration, when this outlay in the future will There was, and still is, a great deal of repay itself a hundredfold. Moreover, truth in the late Mr. Paterson's theory (the the experiment has been made, and proof member for Port Elizabeth), that there upon proof has been afforded, in the was a distinct line of cleavage between Transkei magistracies and in Basutoland, east and west. The histories of the two that native territories can, by means of a provinces are entirely different. Sir Henry hut-tax and small imposts willingly given Loch will evidently be struck, like other by Kailirs, pay for their own government. travellers before bim, with the differences In the distant interior there is a market between east and west. The native prob- for manufactured goods, second to none lem alone differentiates the one from the in the world.-National Review,



[In the January number of this Review * is the goal of progress—a goal ever to be (page 126), I made the incidental state- recognized, though it cannot be actually ment that “ should I be able to complete reached.' These chapters were written Part IV. of the Principles of Ethics, treat- nearly a year ago : the fourth, not quite ing of Justice,' of which the first chap- finished, having been untouched since May ters only are at present written, I hope to last. In view of the possibility that the deal adequately with these relations be- division of which they form part may tween the ethics of the progressive condi- never be completed, or otherwise that it's tion and the ethics of that condition which completion may be long delayed, it has

occurred to me that as the topic dealt with * See article “ Absolute Political Ethics," in is now being discussed, these first chapters March number of THE ECLECTIC.

may, perhaps with advantage, be published forth with. The editor having kindly as- Thus then it is clear that acts which are sented to my proposal to issue them in this conducive to preservation of offspring or Review, I here append the first three : re- of the individual we consider as good relaserving two others, conveniently separable tively to the species, and conversely. in subject-matter, for another article.] The two classes of cases of altruistic and

egoistic acts of animals just given, exemI. ANIMAL-ETHICS.

plify the two cardinal and opposed princiThose who have not read the first divi. ples of animal-ethics. sion of this work* will be surprised by the

During immaturity benefits received above title. But the chapters on "Con- must be inversely proportionate to capaci- . duct in General” and “The Evolution of ties possessed. Within the family-group Conduct” will have shown to those who most must be given where least is dehave read them that something which may served, if desert is measured by worth. be regarded as animal-ethics is implied.

Contrariwise, after maturity is reached, It was there shown that the conduct benefits must vary directly as worth : worth which Ethics treats of is not separable being measured by fitness to the conditions froin conduct at large ; that the highest

of existence. The ill fitted must suffer the conduct is that which conduces to the evils of unfitness, and the well fitted profit greatest length, breadth, and completeness by their fitness. of life; and that by implication there is

These are the two laws which a species a conduct proper to each species of ani- must conform to if it is to be preserved. mal, which is the relatively good conduct Limiting the proposition to the higher -a conduct which stands toward that types (for in the lower types, parents give species as the conduct we morally approve to offspring no other aid than that of laystands toward the human species.

ing up a small amount of nutriment with Most people regard the subject matter the germ : the result being that an enorof Ethics as being conduct considered as

mous mortality has to be balanced by calling forth approbation or reprobation. an enormous fertility)—thus limiting the But the primary subject-matter of Ethics proposition, I say, it is clear that if, among is conduct considered objectively as pro- the young, benefit were proportioned to ducing good or bad results to self or others efficiency, the species would disappear or both.

forthwith ; and if, among adults, benefit Even those who think of Ethics as con- were proportioned to inefficiency the cerned only with conduct which deserves species would disappear by decay in a few praise or blame, tacitly recognize an ani- generations (see Principles of Sociology, mal-ethics ; for certain acts of animals ex- § 322). cite in them antipathy or synipathy. A

What is the ethical aspect of these bird which feeds its mate while she is principles ! In the first place, animal life sitting is regarded with a sentiment of

of all but the lowest kinds has been main

approval. For a hen which refuses to sit tained by virtue of them. Excluding the upon her eggs there is a feeling of aver- Protozoa, among which their operation is sion ; while one which fights in defence of scarcely discernible, we see that without her chickens is admired.

gratis benefits to offspring, and earned Egoistic acts, as well as altruistic acts, benefits to adults, life could not have conin animals are classed as good or bad. A

tinued. squirrel which lays up a store of food for

In the second place, by virtue of them the winter is thought of as duing that life has gradually evolved into higher which a squirrel ought to do; and, con

forms. By care of offspring which has trariwise, one which idly makes no provi- become greater with advancing organizasion and dies of starvation, is thought of tion, and by survival of the fittest in the as properly paying the penalty of improvi- competition among adults which has bedence. A dog which surrenders its bone

come kecner with advancing organization, to another without a struggle, and runs superiority has been perpetually fostered, away, we call a coward- a word of

and further advances caused.


On the other hand, it is true that to this

self-sacrificing care for the young and this * Reference is here made to the Data of struggle for existence among adults, bas Ethics.

been due the carnage the

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starvation which have characterized the shall be directly proportionate to merits evolution of life from the beginning. It possessed : merits being measured by is also true that the processes consequent power of self-sustentation. For, otheron conformity to these principles are re- wise, the species must suffer in two ways. sponsible for the production of torturing It must suffer immediately by sacrifice of parasites, which outnumber in their kinds superior to inferior, which entails a genall other creatures.

eral diminution of welfare ; and it must To those who take a pessimist view of suffer remotely by furthering increase of animal-life in general, contemplation of the inferior and, by implication, hindering these principles can of course yield only increase of the superior, and by a consedissatisfaction. But to those who take an quent general deterioration which, if conoptimist view, or a meliorist view, of life tinued, must end in extinction. in general, and who accept the postulate Second, that during early life, before of hedonism, contemplation of these princi- self-sustentation has become possible, and ples must yield greater or less satisfaction, also while it can be but partial, the aid and fulfilment of them must be ethically given must be the greatest where the worth approved.

shown is the smallest-benefits received Otherwise considered, these principles must be inversely proportionate to merits are either, according to the current belief, possessed : merits being measured by expressions of the Divine will, or, accord- power of self-sustentation. Unless there ing to the agnostic belief, indicate the are gratis benefits to offspring, unqualified mode in which works the Unknowable at first and afterward qualified by decrease Power throughout the Universe ; and in as maturity is approached, the species must either case they have the warrant hence disappear by extinction of its young. derived.

There is, of course, necessitated a proporBut here, leaving aside the ultimate con- tionate self-subordination of adults. troversy of pessimism versus optimism, it Third, to this self-subordination entailed will suffice for present purposes to set out by parenthood has, in certain cases, to be with a hypothetical postulate, and to limit added a further self-subordination. If the it to a single species. If the preservation constitution of the species and its condiand prosperity of such species is to be de- tions of existence are such that sacrifices, sired, there inevitably emerge one most partial or complete, of some of its individgeneral conclusion and from it three less uals, so subserve the welfare of the species general conclusions.

that its numbers are better maintained than The most general conclusion is that, in they would otherwise be, then there results order of obligation, the preservation of the a justification for such sacrifices. species takes precedence of the preserva- Such are the laws by conformity to tion of the individual. It is true that the which a species is naintained ; and if we species has no existence save as an aggre- assume that the preservation of a particular gate of individuals ; and it is true that species is a desideratum, there arises in it therefore, the welfare of the species is an an obligation to conform to these laws, end to be subserved only as subserving the which we may call, according to the case welfares of individuals. But since disap- in question, quasi-ethical or ethical. pearance of the species, implying disap

II. SUB-HUMAN JUSTICE. pearance of all individuals, involves absolute failure in achieving the end, whereas Of the two essential but opposed princidisappearance of individuals, though car- ples of action by pursuance of which each ried to a great extent, may leave outstand- species is preserved, we are here concerned ing such number as can, by continuance of only with the second. Passing over the the species, make subsequent fulfilment of law of the family as composed of adults the end possible ; the preservation of the and young, we have now to consider exindividual must, in a variable degree ac- clusively the law of the species as composed cording to circumstances, be subordinated of adults only. to the preservation of the species, where This law we have seen to be that indithe two conflict. The resulting corollaries viduals of most worth, as measured by are these :

their fitness to the conditions of existence, First, that among adults there must be shall have the greatest benefits, and that conformity to the law that benefits received inferior individuals shall receive smaller

benefits, or suffer greater evils, or both re- this wholesale destruction implies that the sults-a law which, under its biological species serving as prey have the relations aspect, has for its implication the survival between conduct and consequence so haof the fittest. Interpreted in ethical terins bitually broken that in but very few individit is that each individual ought to be sub- uals are they long maintained. It is true ject to the effects of its own nature and that in such cases the premature loss of life resulting conduct. Throughout sub human suffered from enemies by nearly all memlife this law holds without qualification ; bers of the species, must be considered as for there exists no agency by which, among resulting from their natures—their inabiladults, the relations between conduct and ity to contend with the destructive agencies consequence can be interfered with.

they are exposed to. But we may fitly Fully to appreciate the import of this recognize the truth that this violent ending law we may with advantage pause a mo- of the immense majority of its lives, imment to contemplate an analogous law; plies that the species is one in which jusor, rather, the same law as exhibited in tice, as above conceived, is displayed in another sphere. Besides being displayed but small measure. in the relations among members of the Sub-human justice is extremely imperspecies, as respectively well or ill sustained fect in detail, in the sense that the relaaccording to their well-adapted activities tion between conduct ard consequence is in or ill-adapted activities, it is displayed in such an immense proportion of cases broken the relations of parts of each organism to by accidents-accidents of kinds which one another.

fall indiscriminately upon inferior and suEvery muscle, every viscus, every gland, perior individuals. There are the multireceives blood in proportion to function. tudinous deaths caused by inclemencies of If it does little it is ill-fed and dwindles ; weather, which, in the great majority of if it does much it is well-fed and grows. cases, the best members of the species are By this balancing of expenditure in action liable to like the worst. There are ouher and payment in nutriment, there is, at the multitudinous deaths caused by scarcity of same time, a balancing of the relative food, which, if not wholly, still in large powers of the parts of the organisin ; so measure, carries off good and bad alike. that the organism as a whole is fitted to its Among low types, too, enemies are causes existence by having the proportions of its of death which so operate that superior as parts continuously adjusted to the require- well as inferior are sacrificed. And the ments. And clearly this principle of self- like holds with invasions by parasites, adjustment within each individual is paral- often widely fatal. These attack, and frelel to that principle of self-adjustment by quently destroy, the most perfect individwhich the species as a whole keeps itself uals as readily as the least perfect. fitted to its environment. For by the better The high rate of multiplication required nutrition and greater power of propagation to balance the immense mortality among which come to members of the species that low animals, at once shows us that among have faculties and consequent activities them long survival is not insured by subest adapted to the needs, joined with the periority ; and that thus the sub-human lower sustentation of self and offspring justice, which consists in continued receipt which accompany less adapted faculties of the results of conduct, holds individualand activities, there is caused such specially in but few cases. growth of the species as most conduces to And here we come upon a truth of great its survival in face of surrounding condi- significance—the truth that sub human tions.

justice becomes more decided as organizaThis, then, is the law of sub-human tion becomes higher. justice, that each individual shall receive Whether this or that fly is taken by a the benefits and the evils of its own nature swallow, whether among a brood of caterand its consequent conduct.

pillars an ichneumon settles on this or that, But sub-human justice is extremely im- whether out of a shoal of herrings this or perfect, alike in general and in detail. that is swallowed by a cetacean, is an event

In general, it is imperfect in the sense quite independent of individual peculiarthat there exist multitudinous species the ity: good and bad samples fare alike. sustentation of which depends on the With high types of creatures it is other. wholesale destruction of other species ; and wise. Keen senses, sagacity, agility, give

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