nas 28. 2d., and of Jesus 23. ; which was color of Judas's hair and beard was red, also the sum paid to each actor in the as also was the beard of the devil. He parts of bis executioners. The tariff varies was furnished with wings, sprouting from for acting the character of God; soine- a black buckram or leathern dress trimmed times it is 28., at other times, as in the with feathers and hair, and with claws for Drapers' Pageant of “Doomsday at the hands and feet.

Doomsday” at the hands and feet. Items of outlay, as Coventry, “hym that playeth Goddes of 8d. to “Wattis for dressyng of the parte” had 38. 4d. Pilate has as much devell’s hede,'' show that some pains were as 48., his wife (Dame Procula) 28., the bestowed on the headgear. But the heaviDevil and Judas 1s. 6d, each.

Peter was

est expense was incurred over the dress paid 1s. 4d., the two damsels 12d., while and appointments of Herod, who wore a Fauston, the hangman of Judas, receives gilt and silvered helmet, and was attired 5d., and for cock-crowing, 4d.

like a Saracen, his face being covered by As ju the case of the earliest recorded a mask, as shown by the item,“ payd to performance of a Miracle Play, “Ludus a peynter for peyntyng and mendyng of de St. Katharina," at Dunstable, about herodes heed, 4d.1110, when the players borrowed their The Cornish plays were performed withdresses from the sacristan of St. Albans, in stone circles, but elsewhere the stage ecclesiastical vestments were obtained from was erected on fixed scaffolding, or more the abbeys and churches for the use of often, as the term pageant indicates-a the actors of sacerdotal characters. Ulti- term which became applied to the plays mately the clergy refused to lend their themselves—it was borne upon a vehicle, vestments to the guilds, who were obliged and thus conveyed to the different parts of to provide the costumes and“ properties, the town. It bad an upper and a lower the poorer fraternities hiring ihe pageants division, the lower being the dressingof the wealthier or receiving help from room and sometimes used to represent the them. Sharp says that “in 1548 the nether world, while the upper

division was Cappers received 38. 4d. from the Whit

the main stage,

beinge all open on the tawer's Company for the 'hyer of our tope that all behoulders might heare and pageand,' "" and" in 1574 and for some The scenery was painted or modsubsequent years the Card makers and elled, the names of places being affixed at Sadlers contributed 13s. 4d. annually to the back of the stage. The actors apthe Cappers toward their pageant" (Cov- peared on the "boards” together, and entry Mysteries, pp. 45, 48). From the were treated as invisible until their turn to same authority we call the following ex. speak came. The plays, where necessary, tracts from the guild registers of expendi- as in that of the “ Adoration of the ture :


had musical accompaniItm for mendyng of dame P'cula's gar

ments ; one

sv Jbon” was paid ments, 7d. To reward to Maisturres Grymes- synge the basse,” and we find an item of by (Mrs. Grimesby) for lendyng off her geir * 7d. for mendynge the trumpets. ffor Pylatt's wyfe, 12d. Pd. for V schepskens Lights were also used for the Star of for god's coot, and for makyng, 3s. Pd. for Bethlehem and for the night scene of the a gyrdyll for god, 3d. Pd. for payntyng and gyldyng god's cote Itm for å quarte of Betrayal. Pots and kettles were banged wyne for heyrynge of P'cula is goune, 2d. Itm when the devil carried off souls to hell ; For makyng spret of god's cote and 24 yards thunder volleyed during the play of the of bokeram, 2s, id.

Transfiguration ;” and


the Christ was represented as wearing a gilt larger items is " 38. 4d, for a baryll for peruke or beard, a painted sheepskin coat, the yerthequake.” But “ Hellmouthe' a girdle, and red sandals. His tormentors was costlier than the barrel, and must wore black buckram jackets with nails and bave been the “ sensation” of the pagedice on them. The Virgin Mary wore a ants. As contemporary pictures show, it crown ; the angels had white surplices and a fiery-eyed, dragon-shaped head,

savyd sowles” wore white with jaws opening and shutting by means coats ; and the “dampnyd sowies' had of a windlass, and leading to a murky their faces blackened and wore black cavern, either with real fire within or with coats, sometimes with red and yellow imitation flames, and filled with a yelling stripes on them to represent flames. In horde of demons tormenting the sbrieking accordance with the popular belief, the damned.


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wings; the "


Among the items of outlay thereon are : dreamt that his wife has given birth to a “payd for payntyng and makyng newe yong lad,” and that he must hurry of hell-hede, 14d. ; for kepyng of fyer home. They miss the sheep after he has at hell-mothe, 4d. ; for setting the world left, and follow him to his house, when of fyre, 5d. ; for kepyng the wynd (wind- he begs them to “ speke soft over a seke lass), 6d. ; paid to ij wormes of conscience, woman's hede.” He denies the charge of 16d.

having stolen the sheep, for which they The plays themselves, in their alterna- make vain search, till, as they are leaving, tions of pathos and humor, often broad- one shepherd asks the other if he gave the ening into farce, are, on the whole, far babe anything. Mak deprecates the from tedious, and, as far as their archaisns shepherd's offer to give the “ barne lot are concerned, not difficult to read. In sj pence," because he “slepys." But " Abraham's Sacrifice” the drainatist the shepherd insists on at least kissing the presents with skill the struggle between child : fatherly love and submission to the Divine

Gyf me lefe hym to kys and command ; touches of tenderness are given

lyft up the clowtt. to the dialogue, as when Isaac, seeing his

What the devill is this ? he father dumb with grief, says :

has a long snowte.

Secundus Pastor. He is lyke to oure shepe. Fayre fadyr. ye go rygbt stelle,

Tertius Pastor. Wylle ye se how thay sweI pray you, fadyr, speke unto me.


His foure feytt in the meIn the “ Processus Noe cum Filiis” (the

dylle ? term processus was applied to the plays on

Sagh I never in a credylle account of their exhibition in connection

A hornyd lad or now. with the Corpus Christi procession) Noah's Mal.

Peasse byd I : what! lette wife jeers bim for croaking about the

be youre fare ;

I am he that hym gatt and coming Flood and gets a thrashing, after

yond woman hym bare. which he begins to build the Ark—“ in nomine Patris, et Filii et Spiritûs Sancti, The wife also tries to brazen it out by deAnnen.” When the Ark is finished, she claring that the babe has been transformed refuses to enter it, and a second fight en- by an elf ; and the incident ends with the sues, Noah complaining that his " bak is thrashing of Mak, and the angels singing nere in two," and his wife that she is Gloria in Excelsis. bet so blo." These quarrels are referred

Such, broadly outlined, are the features to by Chaucer in the Canterbury Tales :

and character of the institution which in

no small degree satisfied the appetite for Hast thou not herd, quod Nicholas also,

amusement, wbile it affected conduct for The sorwe of Noe with his felawship, Or that he mighte get his wife to ship ?

good, during the times that lay between

the opposition of the Church to the drama But the drollest incident in all the series --in the earlier epochs denying baptism is that in the second Towneley play of the to the theatre-goer, and in the later epochs Shepherds (“ Secunda Pastorum''), when denying the last consolations of religion to the watchers of their flocks are joined by the actor. At its second revival the stage one Mak, whom they suspect as a sheep- arose well equipped for all time by the stealer. To keep guard on him, they materials which the genius of Shakespeare make him lie between them, but he con- and his lesser contemporaries supplied ; trives, while they are sleeping, to slink off and only when it falls below the level to with a sheep on his back. When he which they raised it will it cease to be the reaches home his wife suggests that they worthy successor of these old Miracle pop the sheep in a cradle, she feigning Plays, which held their more refracting lying-in. Mak returns to the shepherds mirror

up to Nature,” wherein men without having been missed, and shams might see what soul of goodness dwells in sleep till roused, when he says that he has things evil. -Longman's Magazine.



For the sake of clearness, and for the can Company, known generally as Zampurpose of recapitulation, it may be stated besia, and two chiefs, Khama on the south that the questions which beset Africa south and Lobengula on the north cast, hold of the equator admit of a threefold divi- sway in the vicinity. Thirdly, there are sion. There are those wbich affect Cape the regions north of the Zambesi, where Colony, Natal, and the British possessions the lake system begins stretching northand neighboring Dutch Republics as far ward for nearly fifteen degrees of latitude. as Lat. 22° S., the live determined by the Everything here is on a vast and comparaproclamation of the High Commissioner tively unknowable scale. Within this reafter the Bechuanaland expedition, and gion lie the sources of the Congo and of dated March 23rd, 1885. To remind the the Nile, and the heart of the Dark Conreader how many and how vexing these tinent is reached. have been and still are, it is only neces- There is yet one other sphere of British sary to mention Swazieland, Bechuanaland, influence to be mentioned. Fifteen deBasutoland, Damaraland, Tongaland, Del- grees narth of the Zambesi, and lying as agoa Bay, and Zululand. Secondly, ly- an island on the east side of the Victoria ing north of Lat. 22° S. and south of the Nyanza, the British Imperial East Africa Zambesi, there is a distinguishable belt of Company has been established. We must country, extending across the continent for recollect how enormous the distances are about sixteen degrees of longitude from in Africa, and geographical facts must be 20° E. to 36° E., coming under the sphere repeated over and over again in order to of British influence. At the extreme convey correct notions. It will be seen north, and right in the centre of the ever that this Company is as far distant from broadening continent, are the Victoria Falls the British South Africa Company as the on the Zambesi, one of the wonders of the Lizard from the Canary Islands, or, roughworld. As a landmark in a country where ly speaking, six times the distance between everything is still undefined, they seem London and York. Obviously this counfor the present to offer a sort of objective try is completely cut off from our contitoward which civilizing agencies can work. neptal possessions farther south. If the Kimberley Railway is extended due Turning to the south, it will be noted north, as it doubtless will be, through Vry- that from Cape L'Agulhas to Lat. 22° S. burg, Mafeking, and Shoshong, it would is a distance of twelve degrees of latitude : bit ihe locality of the famous falls. Look- that is, a distance about twice as gr ing still further forward than this, it is that from the Lizard to the South of probable that the line of communication France. Again, from Khama's country to will be carried northward to the lake sys- the northern bend of the Zambesi there tem of equatorial Africa, and eastward tow- are more than six degrees of latitude. ard Mashonaland, and down the Zambesi These immense tracts of country are healthy Valley. The position of the falls would for Europeans along the interior plateaux be a central one between the mouth of the and among the mountains, but northward Zambesi on the east and the Cunene River the climate must be considered as unfa. on the west, the immense volume of water vorable to Europeans, especially along the discharged by the Zambesi in comparison low-lying valleys of the Zambesi and its with the Cunene sbowing, however, the tributaries. Mr. F. C. Selous, the wellgeneral slope of the country and the direc- known traveller, in an address to the South tion of the drainage. Generally speaking, African Philosophical Society, January South Africa is dry, and flat, and rainless 15th, 1890, speaks of the greater portion on the west, but mountainous, broken, of Khama's country as a dry and thirsty and fertile on the east. A glance at the land. In the northern part of Khama's mountain system along the eastern coast country there are rivers such as the Botwill prove this. The track of country letlie, the Mababi, and the Tamalakaw, north of Lat. 22° is the scene of the civil- where, of course, there is abundance of izing operations of the British South Afri- water. But here malarial fever is very


rife, and only the exceptional wbite man ports. Here, in this distant part of the can live during the unhealthy season." world, is another proof of the necessity for Mr. Selous speaks of Mashonaland, north England of an overwhelming naral power. of Matabeleland, as the finest in all South The exploitation of inner Africa and the Africa, and destined to rival in its rich- development of South African commerce ness and fertility the best parts of the depends entirely upon the safeguarding of Transvaal. In Nyassaland Mr. Buchanan, the outlets. A well-known Cape Colonist, on the slopes of Mount Zomba, has proved the Hon. R. M. Bowker, of Somerset to the world that a planter's life in the East, bas just pointed out how greatly hills is possible, and that coffee, sugar, and South Africa is indebted to England for cinchona plantations are payable ; but to coast protection, and the moral to be all intents and purposes this part of South drawn from it is that colonists should, by Africa is, and must remain, a purely black subsidies and contributions, help very man's country. There is, however, no largely in this great work, as the Australimit to the amount of trade that may be lians have already done in the Pacific. created and carried on among them.

The position of English possessions on A glance at the map will show that the the continent is a favorable one for future Portuguese block the way on the eastern development, although not as good as it side at Delagoa Bay and the mouth of the might have been if foresight had been emZambesi, and, by their restrictive and pro- ployed a few years ago. Had England hibitive policy, deaden and paralyze all completed her boundaries up to the Cunene commercial enterprise. Mr. Drummond, on the west before the Germans stepin his Tropical Africa, has described the ped in at Damaraland, and to the Zambesi nature of the vexatious imposts at Quilli- on the east before the rush and scramble mane, the traveller having been requested for Africa took place among European to pay, among other items, a tax for nations, her position would have been unresiding in the interior” ! i.e. up the Shiré assailable, and the whole of the interior Valley. Consul Rankin has pointed out, might have lain before her as a field for in a recent number of the Fortnightly Re- operations from a scientific frontier. That view, why the Portuguese officials have she still holds the advantageous position chosen to live on islands off the coast rather she does is owing, of course, to the prothan the mainland. It has been through tests of the late Right Hon W. E. Forsfear of the natives, and he might have ter, who was tbe prime mover of the added a significant fact with regard to Del. Bechuanaland expedition. It is out of agoa Bay, that not many years ago the this expedition that the British South Portuguese officials were compelled, ow- Africa Company, with its illustrious pating to an insurrection among their native ronage, has arisen. It has been a wise auxiliaries, to fly for safety to Invack, or and far-seeing policy that has put England English Island. How long the Portuguese in the van of progress in the interior, bewill continue to block the Zambesi is a tween well-defined areas. It is a gain not matter for future consideration. While only for the trader and traveller, but also on the subject of these eastern highways, for the philanthropist ; and for the philit is well to notice the marked synpathy anthropist South Africa is, at the present of the Dutch organ, the Zuid Afrikaan, time, a most interesting country. Little in South Africa itself, with the Portuguese by little the plague spots of slavery have claims.

been indicated and localized, and little by England, however, can approach the little the chances of assailing it with sucscene of operations in the interior by Cape cess are being improved. While Cardinal Town, Port Elizabeth, East London, or Lavigerie and others have been preaching by Durban. In the Cape Colony itself anew the crusade against the accursed the largest amount of trade goes by Port traffic, England has been forging ahead in Elizabeth, the Liverpool of South Africa, a practical way, and, by means of mission for the simple reason that, geographically, centres, trading companies, and proclamathis port is so much nearer to the great tions, clearing the way for future operajpland markets. The shortest way of all tions. A glance at the map issued by the is, of course, by Port Natal and the Free Anti-Slavery Society, indicating the inState. England as a maritime power com- fected areas, as it were, within which the mands the coast, and, therefore, all the curse flourishes, and the caravan routes to the east coast, will make the fact clear that of these so-called colonies are the strong. it is only when the regions north of the est possible condemnation of that colonial Zambesi are reached that the disease ap- policy of Portugal which for 400 years has pears.

“It is calculated that within the exercised a feeble, corrupt, and purely last fourteen years the sacrifice of human nominal suzerainty along the narrow strip life and liberty bas been doubled. The of littoral east and west of Africa. Three loss of Soudan to Egypt bas stimulated the witnesses to the corruption of their rule trade on one side, while the so-called col- may be cited—David Livingstone, the exonizing operations in Madagascar have plorer Stanley, and the late Sir Bartle stimulated it on the other. The demand Frere. Livingstone wrote in his book on for labor in the sugar plantations there and the Zambesi Expedition, 1865—" It is the in the Comoro Islands is supplied by ex- unwarranted assumption of power over ports of human flesh from the coast ; and more than a thousand miles of coast, where the French flag carries with it exemption the Portuguese bave, in fact, little real aufrom the right of search.”

thority beyond the guns of their forts, There are no slave areas in the country wbich perpetuates the barbarisms of the inruled over by Khama and Lobengula, with- habitants. They interdict all foreign comin which the British South Africa Company inerce, except at a very few points where conducts its operations ; but the gradual they have established custom-houses, and opening up of the interior past Shoshong, even at these, by an exaggerated and obTati and the Victoria Falls or Mashona- structive tariff and differential duties, they land, by means of roads and railways, will completely shut out the natives from any be one of the inost effectual blows struck trade except that in slaves.” Elsewhere at that traffic which thrives only in dark –“ This Portuguese pretence to dominion and inaccessible haunts.

is the curse of the negro race on the east All this is perfectly plain and cbvious coast of Africa, and it would soon fall to to any one who has made South African the ground were it not for the moral supaffairs a study at all. It is a complicated port it derives from the respect paid to it study, as the field of operation is gradually by our own flag. That part of East Africa being extended in an ever-widening area, does not belong to the Portuguese any and it is difficult to see how one part is more than China belongs to them because connected with another. England has they possess Macao.Mr. Stanley says, meantime been brought into contact with more briefly and strongly-“If you deEuropean Powers. Some few years ago liver these people in Nyassaland into the no one would ever have thought that a hands of the Portuguese, you deliver them South African question would become a soul and body to hell and slavery." In grave question of European diplomacy, and some letters addressed to the Archbishop that a dispute, for instance, between our- of Canterbury on Eastern Africa as a field selves and Portugal in the Shiré Valley for missionary labor, 1874, Sir Bartle would end in a very prompt and certainly Frere observed of the so-called Portuguese justifiable ultimatum on the part of Eng- conquests on the east coast,“ The Portuland's Prime Minister.

guese conquerors gave large grants to their Lord Salisbury has very wisely indicated clergy and built numerous and magnificent by bis action that the dispute is by no churches, the ruins of which still remain. means one for arbitration. It was quite These and a few forts are almost the only enough to have the Macmahon verdict evidences to be found of former Portuguese against us in 1872, in the case of Delagoa dominion north of Cape Delgado. I could Bay. England's position in South Africa not learn that they had left any native conis clear enough, and admits of the most veits behind them. . Their policy in annple justification, and no third party is matters connected with religion seems to needed. Let us 'devote a few words to have differed little from that of their civil Portuguese claims. In the first place, it and military administration, which has is hardly necessary to say anything on the left an evil repute behind them on all the character and aspects of a Portuguese set- coast they formerly possessed.” Elsetlement either on the east or west coasts where, Sir Bartle Frere observed—“ Beto those who have seen and visited these sides these missionary establishments, we settlements. Seeing is believing, and the found at Ibo and Mozambique a few Porindescribable squalor, filth, and corruption tuguese priests ; but I could not learn that

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