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unpublished political poem by Schiller, in “ There, my dear young lady, I have done the which the poet first puts the question doubt- little that was necessary, and hope it may ingly whether the Germans have any reason suffice. Affectionately yours, Robert Brown. to be proud of their nationality, while the ing." English and the French struggle about the

MR. W. A. CLOUSTON, to whom the world is mastery of the world. Finally he answers the

indebted for so many volumes popularizing question in the affirmative, and prophesies the folklore of the East, has recently published that the German spirit will one day conquer another work of a similar character. It takes the world, and that the Germans will gain the

its title, “ Flowers from a Persian Garden," Weltprozess.

from the leading essay, which consists of exHERR ANDREAS PERTHES, chief of the well

tracts from the Gulistán of Sa'dí, with illusknown publishing firm at Gotha, died recently trative notes. Other essays deal in the same at Eisenach, in his seventy-sixth year, after a way with the well-known Tútí Náma, or short illness.

rot-Book,” the Arabian love-story of Majnún THE original autograph mss. of the first and Láyla, Rabbinical legends from the Tal. canto of Sir Walter Scott's “ Lay of the Last mud, and anecdotes of Oriental wit and bunior. Minstrel ” and the whole of Tom Moore's At the end is added a collection of amusing “Lalla Rookh'' was recently sold by Messrs. stories of the Middle Ages. Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge. In the same sale was also included Sir John Franklin's autograph diary, written during 1831, while

MISCELLANY. travelling in Malta and the Ionian Islands ; several characteristic letters of Dickens ; one

SOMETHING ABOUT AMBERGRIS.—Amber, as of Sir W. Scott; a short note written by Nel

everybody may now be supposed to know, is

fossilized or mineralized rosin, and is there. son not long after he had lost his right arm ; a portrait in water-colors of an Oriental, drawn

fore a vegetable product. Ambergris is an

emanation from the sperm-whale, and is and signed by Thackeray ; and, on an octavo sheet of note-paper in Lord Tennyson's auto

therefore an animal product. Amber is found

mostly on the shores of the Baltic ; ambergris graph, the songs inserted in " The Princess."

only on the surface of the sea off the coasts of This manuscript varies in several verses from the printed edition. Included in the sale

tropical countries. The word ambergris is were two valuable illuminated English manu.

French, and signifies gray amber ; but by scripts from Bere Court, one the second por.

whom or when first applied to this marine tion of Wiclif's version of the Bible, and the phenomenon we have not been able to disother a Book of Hours.

The scientific explanation of the nature of One of the few men remaining who could

ambergris is, that it is the product of some give personal recollections of Goethe, Ch.

disease in the sperm-whale analogous to gullSchucherdt, the printer, died at Geneva re

stones. It is found sometimes in the intes. cently. He was a native of Weimar, where he

tines of the creature, but more frequently is served as printer's apprentice, and used as a

found, after expulsion, floating on the surface boy to carry proofs to the poet. In the year

of tropical seas. It floats in masses which 1848 Schucberdt was involved in the revolu

have a speckled gray appearance, and mixed tionary turmoil, and fled to Switzerland, where

with which are generally found some remhe ultimately became head of the firm which

nants of the known food of whales. printed the Journal de Genève and several of

The best quality of ambergris is soft and the publications of the many learned societies

waxy, but it is said not to be uniform in color, of French Switzerland. He worked also for

The streaky or marked specimens are prenot a few houses in Paris,

ferred. It is opaque and inflammable, reA CHARMING instance of Mr. Browning's markably light as to specific gravity, as may kindness of heart has been made known. A be understood from its always keeping the young girl was set as a school task to write an

surface ; and it is rugged to the touch. explanation of“ Prospice.” Not satisfied with Most of what comes into the market is found her essay, she ventured to send it to Mr. near the Bahama Islands ; but it is also found Browning, to whom she was an entire stranger, at the Moluccas and other parts of the Indian and he took the trouble to make sundry cor- Ocean, off a portion of the coast of South rections and additions, winding up with America, and sometimes, as we have seen in called for. A hungry man may be innately There is another peculiarity ascribed to am- just; nay more, he may by dint of patience bergris, and that is the power to exalt the persevere in an attitude of calm fairness in flavor and perfume of other substances with spite of his hunger. Most people, however, which it is brought into combination. Thus, are not thus judicially perfect. If hungry they a grain or two rubbed down with sugar is often become proverbially angry, and the irritated added to a hogshead of wine, giving a percep


the case of the Fanny Lewis, floating on the

absence from business in order to attend in Atlantic Ocean.

court, When to this is added from time to The essential characteristic of ambergris is time the further hardship of being locked up its powerful and peculiar odor. It is so pe- without a prospect of necessary refreshment in culiar, that art has never been able to imitate

order to consider a debated verdict, the posi. it, although the scarcity and enormous price tion of even the unpatriotic juryman exoites of ambergris has lent every stimulus to inven. our sympathy. Is there no way out of this tion. It is so powerful and diffusive that the latter difficulty ? In these days of police effi. very minutest quantity is perceptible in the ciency it is incredible that a body of men enmost fragrant perfumes.

gaged in discharging an anxious public duty The chief component of ambergris is a fatty should not be allowed the ordinary privilege matter called ambrein, which is obtained by of taking food lest some chance collusion with boiling in alcohol. This ambrein--and there the outer world should warp their judgment. is said to be about eighty-five per cent of it in

Both in the interest of justice and of human the best ambergris—is what gives it its value, frailty, some relaxation in the antique rigidity for it is in this ingredient that the perfume of law with reference to this matter is clearly lies.

mind is never the most just. There can be tible and, what is considered by some, an im. very little doubt, therefore, that a reasonable proved flavor to the whole. And a small par- concern for natural wants, far from corrupt. ticle of ambergris added to other perfumes is ing, would enhance the truth, as well as greatfound to exalt the odor of the blend.

ly expedite the facility of jury findings. If, In fact, ambergris is too dear to use alone, then, it should be needful in any given case to and it is so dear that it is one of the most imprison together for a time the twelve selectadulterated articles known to chemists. It is ed citizens, we earnestly hope that it may be adulterated both by those who export it and found permissible to lock in along with them in the countries in wbich it is used.

a due allowance of needful refreshinent.The odor of genuine ambergris is not unlike Lancet. musk, but is more penetrating and more onduring. That which is called Essence of Am. EASTER TRIPS.—The term cheap tripper'' bergris by the perfumers contains only a pro- is usually regarded as one of reproach. Time portion of an alcoholic tincture of ambergris, was when travelling was a luxury from which made up with oil of cloves and other ingre- all but the very richest were delivered. We dients. Again, the pungent perfume known have only to read a few of the novels of fifty, as Tincture of Civet is made from ambergris thirty, or even twenty years ago to realize how and civet in the proportion of a quarter of an painfully restricted were the movements of ounce of the former to half an ounce of the middle-class families. Miss Austen's heroines latter, dissolved in a quart of rectified spirit. rarely paid visits, and never went abroad. A few drops of either the so-called Essence of The golden rule for travelling is not to adopt Ambergris or the Tincture of Civet will con. the American plan of cramming in the greatvey the unmistakable odor of ambergris to est number of places possible. If we want to lavender water, soap, tooth-powder, or any of get local color we must move slowly, and to the other “ toilet requisites'' in which it is the happy possession of ten days of leisitre favored. - Chambers's Journal.

and as many sovereigns, there is no end to

the tours that may be planned if the modern JURYMEN'S MEALS. – Nothwithstanding the mode of travelling be adopted. Normandy respect which is generally felt for the method fairly teems with beauty and historic interest, of trial by jury, there is perhaps no honor and can by no means be explored in a single which is less esteemed by individuals than visit. Holland is especially fascinating in that of exercising its duties. Twelve men may spring, we are told, when the tulip farms are be good and true, and yet feel some regret at in all their glory. Belgium is another ideal the frequently long duration of their enforced happy hunting-ground for such as take their

pleasure while the vineyards of the Rhine are the scene to the stage with iron braces.” under bare poles. To Mr. Gooday, the cour- Scenes so constructed possess almost unlimteous continental manager of the Great East- ited capabilities of varied and picturesque ern Railway, tourists to Holland and Belgium effect ; but the timə occapied in setting them are indebted for an admirably arranged Con- far exceeds that required by the older and tinental Train Book, in which will also be simpler methods, and hence has arisen, in found an excellent series of well.considered some theatres at any rate, that new-fangled circular tours, especially commending them. addition to the “unities of the drama," the selves on the score of economy and conven. principle of “one act one scene." The old ience. Those who are fond of the sea may set method, whereby stage carpenters dragged sail for Hamburg, now one of the most splen. together coram populo the halves of a landdid cities in Europe, and take a glance at scape or a drawing-room, was not without its quaint Heligoland, where the national colors artistic drawbacks, but at least avoided doing -red, white, and green, are reproduced on that violence to the text of some of our finest the sands, the cliffs, and the meadows. It is plays with which recent revivals have familiarwisest to make an early tour among towns and

ized us.

The importance of modern mise-encities. Other climates are apt to resemble scène appears reflected in the very bulk to that of England and to be somewhat variable which it swells ; the old-fashioned scenery at fickle Easter-tide, so that the resources of was painted on flat-canvased frames, which picture-galleries, music, and theatres are ex- would in storage stand closely side by side tremely desirable. In spite of Mr. Steven- like a gigantic pack of cards ; but it is now son's assertion that, to enjoy travel, solitude no longer the fashion to trust for perspective is essential, most people will agree that a entirely to the painter's brash. Architectural single tried friend adds vastly to the pleasure details are solidly reproduced in heavily timof the journey, especially if he be better in. bered carpenter's work, or in papier-mâché formed than his companion. Those who con. mouldings ; raised grassy banks, rocks that template a little trip when the rigors of an might deceive a geologist, and streams of English spring have in some measure abated real water" adorn a woodland scene ; while may be warmly recommended to pick up as modern interiors," with walls and ceilings, much information as they can before starting doors and windows of massive aspect, appear concerning the scene of their projected wan- far more capable of withstanding the elements derings. Novels_descriptive novels, are the than the “ jerry-built" residence of many a best of all guides, and these are now so nu. suburban playgoer. Thus space, which would merous that there are few celebrated places formerly have held the scenery for an entire around which the desultory reader cannot season with its constant changes of programme cluster a crowd of charming or thrilling asso- now scarcely suffices to house the mounting ciations. Hawthorne will be the guide to of a single play, and an additional and very Rome, Thackeray to Paris, Charlotte Brontë substantial bulwark appears to be erected to to Brussels, Rowland Grey to“ Sunny Switzer- protect the present system of long runs and land," and in the same author's later books, scanty répertoires. Bat, after all, the most entitled “Lindenblumen” and “ Jacob's Let- serious charge we have to make against mod. ter,' we have in romantic settings a series of ern mise en scène is that it is so costly, and we pictures of Antwerp, the Rhine, Heidelberg, make this charge out of no tender solicitude Homburg, and Lake Como ; wbile Mark for the exchequers of our managers, who are Twain's jocular “ Tramp Abroad" conducts us quite able, if they are fit to be managers at to many of the cities and villages on the tour- all, to take care of themselves. On the con. ists' beaten track. – Western Independent. trary, we make it because we see that the artis.

tic advance of the drama is constantly obTHE SCENERY OF THE MODERN STAGE.—The structed by this costly expenditure on its modern fashion is to build the scene together trappings. It is this expenditure that makes piece by piece, each section being attached to our managers so chary in the production of its neighbor by “cleat and line,” as it is called novelties ; the man who ventures a younger (the line on the one piece pusses over a small son's portion with each change of bis prohook or projection-the cleat-on the other, gramme is not unnaturally inclined to "hedge" is then made fast below, and holds the whole (so far as lies in his power) by minimizin its place), while additional stability is ob- ing the other risks attendant on his enter. tained, if required, by attaching the back of prise ; and, as the production of a play which


has already proved successful either on our then the devil, for he is very old,” In all own or on some foreign stage is less of a countries the intelligent are aware that you “ leap in the dark” than the exploitation of can't estimate a horse's goodness by his statnow and original work, so we find in certain The average stature of the Pampas managerial counsels a tendency to play for horses is about fourteen and one half handssafety, and to rely mainly on revivals and what we should call a pony in England. In translations. Were £100 considered sufficient his case, however, his length of loin, his lean to purchase the decorations which now per- neck, and relatively immense stride show that haps cost £1000, there would be more work it is no pony we have to deal with, but a borse, for our playwrights. - Suturday Review. of low stature if you will, but one that wants

a man to ride him. THE HORSES OF THE PAMPAS. - It would in. Intelligent and fiery eyes, clean legs, round deed be as impossible to measure the Pampas feet and well-set sloping shoulders, long pashorse by the standard of an English horse as terns, and silky manes and tails, form the best to measure a Gaucho by the standard of an points of the Pampas horse. His defects are ordinary city man. Each man and each ani generally slack loins and heavy head, not the mal must be estimated according to the work “cuarse" head of the underbred horse of he is required to do. Putting aside cart- Europe, but one curiously developed that may horses and those employed in heavy draught, or may not be, as Darwin says it is, the result almost every horse in England, except the of having to exert more mental effort than the cab horse, is an object of luxury. He has a horse of civilization. Of his color, variable is man to look after him, is fed on regular hay, he ; brown, black, bay, chestnut, piebald, and is never called on to endure much fatigue, gray, making a kaleidoscopic picture, as on carry much weight, still less to resist the in. the dusty plains, or through the green monte clemency of the weather. He is valued for (wood) a herd of them flash past, with waving his speed, for his docility, or merely for his tails and manes, pursụed by Gauchos as wild pecuniary value in the market. In the Pam- and fiery-eyed as they. As on the steppes of pas none of these things is of prime impor- Russia, the plains of Queensland and Arabia, tance. We do not require great speed from the trot is unknown. To cross a Pampa our horses, we care nothing as to their docil- loaded with the necessaries of desert life, withity, and their pecuniary value is small. What out a path to follow, it would be a useless we do look for, is endurance, easy paces, 80- pace. The slow gallop and the jog trot, the briety, and power of withstanding hunger and Paso Castellano of the Spaniards, the Rhakran thirst. A horse that will carry a heavy man of the Turks, is the usual pace. The pacer of seventy miles is a good horse, one that can do the North American, the ambler of the Middle ninety miles with the same weight is a better Ages, is in little esteem upon the Pampas. horse, and if he can repeat the performance You spar him, he does not bound ; he is a two or three days in succession, he is the bad swimmer. As the Gaucho says, “he is best, no matter if he be piebald, skewbald, useless for the lazo, though perhaps he may one-eyed, cow-houghed, oyster-footed, or has do for an Englishman to ride."

Manso como as many blemishes as Petruchio's own mus- para un Ingles (tamo enough for an Englishtang. Talking with some Gauchos, seated on man to ride) is a saying in the Argentine provthe gravel, one starlit night, before a fire of inces. bones and dried thistles, the conversation fell Where did these horses come from, from as asual upon horses. After much of the re- where their special powers of endurance ? spective merits of English and Argentine How did these special paces first characterize horses, after many of the legends as closely them, and how is it that so many of the supertrenching on the supernatural as is befitting stitions connected with them are also to be the dignity of horsemen in all countries, an found among the Arabs ? My answer is un. ancient, shrivelled Gaucho turned to me with hesitatingly, from the Arabs. All the charac“How often do you feed your horses, Don teristics of the Arabs are to be observed in the Roberto, in England ? Every day?” There Argentine horses ; the bit used is that of Turupon, on being answered, he said, with the key and Morocco, the saddle is a modification mingled sensitiveness and fatuity of the mixed of the Oriental one, and the horses, I think, race of Spanish and Indian, “ God knows, the are in like manner descended from those in Argentine horse is a good horse, the second Barbary. It is pretty generally known that day without food or water, and if not He, the conquest of America was rendered much


easier to the Spaniards by the fact that they statements and various ancient writers who possessed horses and the natives had never allude to it, and all the facts which seem to seen them. Great, well-watered, grassy plains, bear on the question, I am convinced that in a fine climate, and an almost entire absence estimating the population at 4,000,000 I am of wild beasts--what wonder, therefore, that rather understating than overstating it. It is the progeny of the Spanish cavalry horses has much more probable that it was larger than extended itself (in the same way as did the that it was smaller, De Quincey also esti. horses turned loose at the siege of Azov in the mates the inhabitants of Rome at 4,000,000. sixteenth century on the steppes of Russia) I will only cite one fact, and then leave the all over the Pampas, from the semi-tropical question. The Circus Maximus was plains of Tucuman and Rioja right down to structed to hold 250,000, or, according to Victhe Straits of Magellan ? Spanish writers tell tor, at a later period probably, 385,000 spectaus that Cordoba was the place from which the tors. Taking the smaller number, then, it conquerors of America took most of their would be 1 in 16 of all the inhabitants if there horses. To ride like a Cordobese was in the were 4,000,000. But as one half the populaMiddle Ages a saying in Spain (and such it tion was composed of slaves, who must be has remained to this day). Cervantes makes struck out of the spectators, when the circus one of his characters say“ he could ride as was built there would be accommodation then well as the best Cordobese or Mexican," prov. for 1 in 8 of the total population, excluding ing the enormous increase of horses in the slaves. Reducing again the number one half New World even in his time, not much more by striking out the women, there would be than a hundred years after the Conquest. In room for 1 in 4. Again, striking out the the plains of Cordoba, to this day, large quan. young children and the old men and the sick tities of horses are bred, but of a very differ- and impotent, you would have accommodaent stamp from their descendants of the Pam- tion for nearly the whole population. Is it pas. Where, then, did the original stock possible to believe that the Romans concome from? Cordoba was the richest of the structed a circus to hold the entire population Moorish kingdoms of Spain in the thirteenth of Rome capable of going to it?-for such century. It was directly in communication must have been the case were there only with Damascus. Thus there is little doubt 4,000,000 of inhabitants. But suppose there that the Cordobese horses were greatly im. were only 1,000,000 inhabitants, it is plain proved by the introduction of Arab blood. from the mere figures that it would never However, Damascus was a long way off, and have been possible to half fill the circus. the journey a difficult and a dangerous cne. Blackwood's Magazine. It therefore seems more probable to me that most part of the Cordobese horses came over ENGINEERING FEATS AND THEIR COST TO LIFE, from Barbary. A remarkable physical fact -The opening of the Forth Bridge is certainly would seem to bear out my belief. Most an engineering acbievement of which we may horses, in fact almost all breeds of horses, legitimately be proud, but the piteous appeal have six lumbar vertebræ, Amost careful ob. to the Prince of Wales on behalf of the widows server, the late Edward Losson, a professor in and orphans is evidence of the cost to life in. the Agricultural College of Santa Catalina, volved by these gigantic enterprises. In the near Buenos Ayres, has noted the remarkable present instance, every conceivable precaution fact that the horses of the Pampas have only seems to have been taken to prevent accident, five. Following up his researches, he has but in spite of these some fifty lives have found that the only other breed of horses in been immolated to the steel Juggernaut. which a similar peculiarity is to be found is Large as this number appears when viewed in that of Barbary. Taking into consideration the aggregate, it is in reality a small relative the extreme nearness of the territories of An- mortality for an undertaking which has taken dalusia and Barbary, and the constant com. seven years to carry out, and on which as munication that in Mohammedan times must many as four thousand men have been at work have existed between them, I am of opinion at the same time. Indeed, if one inquires that the horses of the Pampas are evidently into the conditions under which the work was descended from those of Barbary.- Time. carried on, the ultimate feeling is less one of

surprise at the number than of satisfaction How LARGE WAS ANCIENT ROME?—After care- that no more were sacrificed. Apart, however, fully examining all the data we have, all the from direct danger to life, the damage to

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