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and the body, which ached as if burned These are also to be “ given up” as a matwith fire. The more we struggled to get ter of course. Suffice it to say that the rid of our tormentors the more we opened letters from Russia take six months to the way to thousands more of them. On reach Sredne-Kolymsk. Thas the news arriving at the huts of the Yakuts we received and the papers-supposing the kindled a great fire, which made such a exiles have money to spare for subscribing smoke that it pricked the eyes and choked to anyare always six months old, and the breath, though we lay stretched on the the post comes only three times a year. earthen floor. The mosquitoes disap- Now let us see for what crimes scoies peared, but as soon as the smoke dispersed of young, intelligent, well-educated people a little, new swarms penetrated into the are exiled to these horrible places. First hut, covering all of us thickly.
of all it must be remeinbered that, with a Such is nature in these regions. Now, few exceptions we will mention later on, what are the inhabitants, and their means they are all administrative exiles, people of protecting themselves from its rigor ? who have never been tried at all, and We will quote from the same authority never convicted of any
offence. They a few lines describing the largest of these have been exiled by order of the police on northern settlements, Sredne-Kolymsk, a suspicion that they held dangerous opin" town” numbering fully 560 inhabitants. ions and were likely some day to commit Most of them are of Russian extraction, soine offence. What grounds for this but being for many generations isolated suspicion are considered sufficient by the from all the world, and feeding exclusively Russian Government for exiling people to on fish, they have lost the energy, indus- such awful places we shall see best by a try, and versatility of Russian peasants. few examples. We take them from one They are apathetic, lazy, and dull. It is place, Sredne-Kolymsk. considered a great sign of cleverness in a Let us begin with Isaac Sklovsky, a boy if he succeeds in learning to read and journalist of Jewish extraction. He was write in the course of eight or nine years. a man of position—the editor of the They know no trade, no industry, except Odessa Leaflet, a popular provincial paper. fishing and occasionally bunting. The The charge against him was this : having houses they live in can hardly be called made the acquaintance of an Odessa revohouses, for they are badly-fitting wooden lutionist, named Dudin, wbo afterward sheds, with no chinineys, because the in- turned informer, he purchased from him habitants do not know the use of bricks. two pamphlets, issued by the secret printing The houses are warmed with a fire lit in office, for the sum of 30 kopecks, which the middle upon the earthen floor, the makes about 8d. in English coin. When smoke passing out through a big hole in a domiciliary search was made at Sklorthe pointed roof. It is not surprising sky's house the pamphlets were not found. that such houses during the winter are But he did not deny having purchased
infernally cold,”' to use the expression them, and refused to disclose what he had of the writer. Nothing grows, nothing done with them. For this offence he was can be got in these regions. Everything kept in prison for about a year and then is imported from enormous distances, and released on bail at the beginning of 1885, is, therefore, exceedingly dear. Bread is pending the decision upon his case.
In sold at famine prices. Candles, soap, the suinmer of 1886 the decision came, cotton wares, matches, are fabulously and he was arrested again and marchied
" In such conditions of the mar- off straight to Eastern Siberia for five ket,” philosophically observes this exile, years. Because he was a Jew he was sent
one bas naturally to give up bread, to Sredne-Kolymsk, where he is still. sugar, and the many other commodities The case of another young Jew, Liadoff, we are accustomed to consider as indis- of Riga, is still more remarkable. The pensable for a civilized man. But fish, reader may remember that about five years reindeer meat, fat, and wood for burning, ago some notice was taken by the English can be obtained." (Russky Vedomosty, Press of the arrest at Riga of a German 1889, No. 94.)
sailor who took upon an English ship a It is hardly necessary to say that there parcel of revolutionary prints. is nothing in a place like that to satisfy this fact that brought poor Liadoff into the intellectual cravings of a civilized man. trouble. He had a prosperous business
NEW SERIES. – VOL. LI., No. 5. 45
It was As a
of some kind in Riga, and never thought derstanding. The colonel said that the of politics or revolution, when, one fine order was a peremptory one, but he would inorning, he received from an unknown grant a respite if the governor of the provgentleman (the German sailor) a note re- ince authorized it. The governor, who questing him to come on board a certain also knew Liadoff, was applied to, and ship then in Riga harbor. Prompted by fully entered into his position. He tele. curiosity, Liadoff came and asked for the graphed to St. Petersburg, vouching for sailor. When they were alone the latter Liadoff's innocence, and asking whether told him that he was in a great difficulty ; it was not somebody else who had to be he had a parcel of revolutionary pamplilets sent to Eastern Siberia. The result was entrusted to him by a Geneva friend, but an angry telegram from St. Petersburg could not find the person to whom they saying that they “ do not make mistakes,” had to be delivered at Riga. Not know and reprimanding the governor for having ing what to do with his dangerous parcel, delayed the execution of the order. Thus, he wanted to know whether Liadoff would after a respite of two days only, Liadoff not be good enough to take care of it. was marched off to Eastern Siberia. Naturally, Liadoff declined, energetically Jew, he was also sent to Sredne-Kolymsk. saying that he had nothing to do with The case of two boys in the same place, revolution, and expressed his amazement Landa and Hornstein, also Jews, who, that the idea of applying to him could when arrested, were—the first fifteen, tho have entered the sailor's head. The latter second sixteen years of age, is more shockapologized, and explained that he got ing still. They were both studying in the Liadotf's name from his Geneva friend, Odessa gymnasium, when, in the beginwho happened to have been Liadoff's ning of August, 1885, a certain Fedorsher schoolfellow, and thought he might be arrived in the town from Geneva. He asked if he was still in Riga. The affair had been slightly compromised in some did not go farther. Liadoff went home carly propaganda business before he left without having taken one of the pam- Russia, so that on returning he had to be phlets. But when the sailor was arrested, careful to keep ont of the reach of the İiadoff's visit on board the ship was dis- police. As the latter got wind of his ar-covered by the detectives, and he had to rival in Odessa he had to hide himself for answer for it to the police. He explained sone time in the houses of his friends, as candidly how the thing passed, and was is often the case with “illegal” people. released. This took place in October, One of these friends, not being sure that 1885. Soon after he married, and was his own house was not watched by the enjoying his honeymoon, when, in Jan- police, had the unfortunate idea of taking uary, 1886, while he was at dinner with Fedorsher one night to the lodgings of the his young wife, a messenger came from two boys, who were bis relatives, as the the colonel of gendarmerie, asking him to safest refuge. Of course the boys asked come immediately to his office. Liadoff no questions and were satisfied with the was on good terms with the colonel. The explanation that their guest wanted simply office was in the same street, a few doors a lodging for a night or two to avoid the off. Nothing suspecting, he left the table expense of an hotel. Nobody thought of immediately" just between the second the possibility of the police coming to course and the pudding” — as he said after- seek Fedorsher in the house of these chilward to his companions, and went to the dren. But the police came on account colonel. Here be was told that, accord- of the boys themselves. It was rumored ing to a telegram from St. Petersburg, he that in their gymnasium some sort of propwas to be sent off to Eastern Siberia by aganda was atioat, and in one night 120 the next train, which meant in two hours' domiciliary visits were made to the houses time. It is easy to imagine the poor of different pupils in order to discover man's consternation. To his vehement some material proof of it. One of these protests and inquiries the colonel answered visits was to Landa and Hornstein. When that he was himself exceedingly surprised the police arrived the inmates were not at such an order, for which he was quite yet in bed, and Fedorsher, on being asked unable to find any plausible explanation. who he was, explained that he was their Liadoff begged for a respite, suggesting neighbor, living a few doors off. They that there must be some error or misun- believed him, and he played the part he
assumed so well that the police let him they are of a certain race and creed. Is go. But when his little portmanteau, it not another form of religious persecuwhich he had to leave behind, was opened tion ? Is it not a crying injustice, a fiaa parcel of revolutionary publications was grant and cynical violation of the fundadiscovered in it. This was sufficient for mental laws of all modern States, Russia the arrest of the two boys, though it was included, where the equality of all the clearly proved that they knew nothing citizens before the Tzar or his representaabout it. They were kept in the Odessa tives stands in the written code ? prison, one of the worst in the Empire, in We need not mutiply our illustrations. solitary confinement for about a year and The cases of Belousoff, Daniloff, and Miss a half, and then the police, without any Shmidova, a young girl of Jewish extractrial, pronounced upon them the verdict tion, whose only offence is that she was of five years' exile to Eastern Siberia, as the sweetheart of Ulianoff, the would-be people dangerous to the existing order Tzaricide, present the maximum of guilt ; and implicated in revolutionary agitation, the cases of Liadoff and the two boys we When the monstrous sentence was read to have just spoken of, the minimum. All them, the younger of the boys, Landa, the rest of the thirty exiles in Sredneexclaimed : Ilow? Am I also a revo- Kolymsk stand between. lutionist, a man dangerous to the authori- The exiles of Verko-Yansk are in the ties?'
same position as those of Sredne-Kolymsk At this the gendarme smiled and an- -the same offences, or rather absence of swered in these very words : No, cer- offences, the same conditions of life. tainly you are not. But
you may become
The government of Alexander III. so some day.”
shows, since 1886, a decided inclination We must not leave the reader under the to multiply and extend the practice of adimpression that Jews alone are honored in ministrative exile to the Arctic zone. The Russia with this dreadful form of punish- towns of Sredne-Kolymsk and Verkoment. There are several born Russians Yansk bare been populated, as we have said, among the exiles of Sredne-Kolymsk, but within the last three years. In Vilusk, a they have all somewhat heavier charges town in the same latitude, a special prison against them. One of them, Belousoff, is being constracted for the unfortunate was tried by an exceptional tribunal, it is survivors of the Yakutsk inassacres of true, but still tried, and condemned to 1889- -a fact which is unique in the his. exile for life in these gloomy regions for tory of penitentiary institutions. It is rebeing connected with a dynamite manu- ported tbat a project is afloat for instifacturing business; another, Victor Dani- tuting a new penal colony at Bykoff promloff, though never tried, was involved in ontory, which is still farther advanced in active revolutionary propaganda among the region of eternal ice. the dissenting sects; the third had es- The Russian Government has subscribed, caped once from Southern Siberia ; the through Galkin Vrassky, the head of the fourth was for several years the special Prison Department of the Empire, to the correspondent and representative of a revo- monument to be erected to John Howard, lutionary paper. All these are small the great reformer of European penitenoffences as compared with the punish- tiary institutions. The next International mėnt, but they are actual crimes when Prison Congress is to be held in St. Peterscompared with the ridiculous charges burg, and the Russian Government will against the Jews who share the same fate. certainly come forward with some plans of
The anti-Semitic agitation we have seen humanitarian improvements in its penitenin Germany and Austria is very absurd tiary system. and ridiculous, as would be the revival It seems to me quite opportune to draw of some exploded superstition. But in attention to that new “improvement" of Russia we see something worse. Here, the Siberian exile system—the exile into in consequence of the personal bias of the the Arctic zone-which is a fact, and the Tzar, Alexander III., who is a fierce Jew building of special prisons in the same rehater, a special measure was passed in gion, which will be a fact before long. 1886, making one section of the citizens I need not dwell upon the difference in liable to heavier punishments than others the treatment of Jews and Christians, for the same offences, simply because which is a monstrosity. I will only ask whether the foundation of penitentiary by physical sufferings so intense as those colonies of any kind in the Arctic zone is caused by the Arctic climate is to reintronot a monstrosity as well. Imprisonnent duce torture under another form. The is intended as deprivation of freedom and public opinion of the civilized world, if it nothing more. Exile is intended as a respects itself, ought to step in and stop limitation of the freedom of movement. such crimes against our common humanity. To aggravate these punishments purposely – New Review.
And yet, so long as time shall be,
And shall that realm of silence where
good of others. Mr. Childs has succeeded in RECOLLECTIONS. By George W. Childs. Phila- building up a great income by the most honordelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company.
• Make money,
A NOTED PHILANTHROPIST.
able means, and the spectacle of a millionaire
who has reached his fortune by such manly, The subject of this little work is rather a dignified, and reputable methods, is an interunique personage. That he is a personage is esting object lesson in an age which enjoins unquestionable. His reputation is more than on its children the lesson, national, it is international, Mr. Childs is honestly if possible, but make money.' not a man of great intellectual qualities, and George W. Childs began life in the humblest we fancy that he makes no claim to this dis way, and launched himself on his really actinction. He has never been intimately asso- tive, independent career as a book publisher, ciated with great events, except in the sense in which he accomplished several notable suothat he has been a trusted friend of great men. cesses, among them being Dr. Kane's Arctic He has never had greatness thrust upon him, Expedition, which sold an enormous number as has been the case with more than one well. of copies. When he bought the Philadelphia known American, nor was he born great. Ledger that paper was by no means a valuable What, then, is the secret of the reputation newspaper property, but under its propriwhich gives Mr. Childs an exceptional place etor's wise handling it has risen to be one of in the public mind? This : He is one of the the most remunerative in the United States. few men who, with high qualifications as a The policy from the beginning was to make man of business, has conjoined the most ex- the Ledger a model family newspaper, in which tended and sympathetic benevolence ; who has the most moral and fastidious reader should looked on money as a means of contributing never find anything to shock his tastes. This to the welfare of his fellows. He belongs to ideal met an immense response, and proves the Peabodys, the Cases, and the Peter Coop. that a public journal, at least outside of New ers, the men who, like Abou Ben Adhem, have York, can succeed by appealing to the best loved their fellow-men, and who care more and not to the worst. At an early stage in his for the love of others than for the admiration dealings with his employés, Mr. Childs diswith which so many stand open-mouthed played the most kindly and liberal methods, before the so-called great, those who have and he has been not only jast but often generstunned the public mind by intellectual pyro. ous in his anticipations of their demands. technics or dazzled it by towering ambition. Had all employers been moved by the same Whether in his relations to the men immedi. motives in dealing with wage-earners, there ately in his employment or to the great out- would not have been to-day nearly as many side world, the life of Mr. Childs has been difficult labor problems to solve. Mr. Childs's that of the man who believes that either his name everywhere through the country among own benefit is best served in the highest the printer's craft is held in the most exalted benefit of others, or that his own benefit is honor, and his arbitration would probably at not to be considered in comparison with the once solve any dispute between employer and