that when he was informed of it as a mere The King gave, of course, a point-blank matter of courtesy, in the month of June, refusal to so preposterous a demand, and 1870, he was exceedingly surprised. More- said that he neither could nor would bind over the Spanish Foreign Secretary Sagas- hinself to any engagement without limit ta, in a circular note of the 7th of July, of time, and that he must reserve his right declared that the Spanish Government had to act according to circumstances. Subsenot taken the advice of, or communicated quently the King went to far as to send an with, any foreign cabinet, but had dealt aide-de-camp to Benedetti, and to tell him directly with the Prince.

that the decision of Prince Leopold in reThe moment the French ministers heard nouncing the proffered crown had his apthat a deputation had been sent by the proval. Later in the day the King left Spanish Government to offer the crown to Eins, and arrived in Berlin on the evening Prince Leopold, Le Sourd, the French of the 15th. He was met at the railwayChargé d'Affaires at Berlin, was instructed station by Bismarck, Moltke, and Roon. to ask for explanations. Le called on It was by that time plain that France was Herr von Thile, the Secretary of State, bent on war. Before the old sovereign and was assured by him that the Prussian reached his palace he had made up his Government bad not in any way promoted mind to give order for the mobilization the candidature, and knew nothing about of the army. The news was communi. it more than the rest of the world. This cated to the crowd, who heard it with was on the 4th of July. The excitement wild enthusiasm. That very night the in France, however, became more and necessary telegraphic messages were sent more intense. The Duc de Gramont di- to all parts of the country, and in the rected M. Benedetti to go to Ems, whither words of Moltke“ United Germany stood the King of Prussia bad gone to drink the to arms." Some days afterward the waters, to see that sovereign and force French declaration of war was received, him to order the Prince Leopold to with- and the great struggle began. Everybody draw his candidature. When this request knows the result-in a few months France was made to King William, he replied lay prostrate at the feet of her conqueror. that he had neither encouraged nor op

While the war was being prosecuted posed the acceptance of the crown of Spain with vigor, the question as to the internal by his kinsman, and that he had no re- constitution of Germany was not lost sight : sponsibility in the inatter. In the mean

In the mean- of. The idea of re establishing the Gertime, Prince Antony of Hohenzollern sent man Empire was in many minds, but hisa despatch to Marshal Priin, announcing torical reasons and local prejudices made on behalf of his son his renunciation of it an exceedingly difficult question to all pretensions to the crown, and a copy touch. The Crown Prince was undoubt. of this message was sent also to Señor edly the most active among leading men Oloaza, the Spanish ambassador in Paris. in urging the matter forward. The late This took place on the 12th of July, and King of Bavaria got credit for having everybody hoped peace would be pre- done much to promote it. But the truth served. M. Ollivier, the Prime Minister, is, he had no steady opinion from the strongly entertained this opinion for sev. commencement in favor of the Empire. eral hours. But the Duc de Gramont was The time has not yet come to let the deep in negotiations for forming a coali- world know the course of action which tion against Prussia, and he desired war. that monarch pursued during the great He confessed to Lord Lyons that the with. struggle in which his country was engaged. drawal of the Prince Leopold's candida- He never once showed an interest in the ture was a great embarrassment, and he progress of the campaign. The King of hit upon the expedient of ordering Bene- Saxony despatched a general officer to detti to ask the King for a declaration that Munich during the autumn, to urge the he would not at any future time sanction King to take some initiative in the restorathe acceptance of the crown of Spain by tion of the Empire, lest perchance the Prince Leopold or any of his kinsmen. movement should acquire a dangerously On the morning of the 13th the French centralized character. King Lewis refused ambassador met the King in the public to see the messenger.

Another secret engarden, and in accordance with his in- voy who came from another sovereign was structions, asked him for his promise. hardly more successful with the King.



He was at last persuaded to move by a ground much heavier than was expected. gentleman who was sent to speak to him It is now five-and-twenty years since I had by Bismarck. And the letter which the the honor of being first presented to King then wrote, and which was the im- Prince Bismarck, but the conversation I mediate cause of the establishment of the then had with him made such an impresEmpire, was suggested by Prince Bis- sion that, though followed by many others, marck.

not a word of it has faded from my memWhen the German Empire was re estab- ory. Various subjects were discussed. lished, Bismarck became the first Cban- Speaking of England, he expressed the cellor. The constitution, which was chiefly opinion, which I know he has not changed, his work, was modelled .on that of the that although more Englishmen than forNorth German Confederation. It was the merly spoke German, the ignorance of main object to be contented with the mini. Germany in this country was greater than mum of those concessions which the par- Those who had acquired the Gerticular states of Germany were willing to nian language did not use it for the purmake for the good of the whole. I be- pose of studying literature and trying to Jieve," he said, speaking of the German understand the German mind. He did Constitution on the 10th of March, 1877, not believe that the work of any consider

our Constitution possesses a self-con- able German poet, from the Parzival of structive faculty resembling that to which Wolfram von Eschenbach to the songs

and the British Constitution owes its forma- ballads of Uhland, was at all widely or tion, not through the setting up of a the- properly appreciated in England. oretical ideal."

tions,” he said, “ have not yet been drawn It is impossible to imagine Bismarck closer together since locomotion has beapart from his influence in Parliament, come more easy. This is a melancholy and this brings me to consider him as a reflection. In the days of my youth, a public speaker. He has always been fond certain number of English used to come of insisting that he is no orator. Like here and stay some time among us.

Now Kant and Göthe he heartily despises rhe- they fly like woodcocks across the contitorical gifts. His great effort has always nent. No English leading public man has been to make his speech simple and plain, anything like the knowledge of Germany and to express himself as neatly, as clearly, Carteret possessed a hundred years since. and as concisely as possible, and appea! Among his personal characteristics Bissolely to the good sense of his audience. marck's extraordinary coolness and courThe result, however, is that of all speeches age are very prominent. Dr. Droysen his read far the best on account of the told me that once during the revolutionary total absence of verbosity. They are rich days of 1848 Bismarck went into an inn in thought and elegant in expression, and to get a glass of beer. There was a man are sure to be read in time to come even in the room talking to a very excited audifor their high literary merit. He speaks ence and speaking most disrespectfully of with far more deliberation than any speaker the Queen of Prussia. Bismarck went up I have ever known. The nearest approach to bim and instantly called upon him to to him in this characteristic was Mr. John apologize. The man demurred, but he Stuart Mill. Niebuhr used to say that soon thought better of it, and expressed M. de Serre was one of the greatest politi- his regret before the whole revolutionary cal orators that ever lived. M. de Serre crowd.

crowd. Three-and-twenty years after, in had by all accounts a great charm of de 1871, Busch tells us that during the partial livery, and no doubt great wealth of ex- occupation of Paris Bismarck could not pression. If Niebuhr had lived to read resist the temptation of going into the the speeches of Bismarck he would have city. He was soon recognized, and a discovered an orator who at least in many crowd gathered round and became threatrespects would come up to his view of a ening. He went up to the man who great speaker. In conversation he fre- looked specially truculent, pulled out a quently uses original and striking meta- cigar, and asked him for a light. The phors. A few years ago, speaking to an man was so astounded that he pulled his English statesman, he compared the

French short clay pipe out of his mouth and policy in Africa to a fiery steed galloping offered it to Bismarck with the most polite across the desert of Sahara and finding the of bows. Stories illustrating Bismarck's

every turn.

gone well.

humor are endless, and we meet them at On the other hand a person entitled to the

highest credibility assured me he once saw On one occasion he had to meet Heid. an official of position come ont of the rich von Gagern at the house of Manteuffel room of the Chancellor showing by his on some business of a political character. garments unmistakable signs that an inkManteuffel left them alone to discuss the bottle had been burled at him. subject they came about. Gagern in- But the strongest of all Bismarck's per: stantly drew himself up and began to talk sonal characteristics is his firm, unshaken, in a very loud voice as if he were making and deep sense of his duty to the Ala speech. Bismarck waited till he had mighty. At the height of the Francofinished and offered some cold and curt German war be said : " did I not believe remark. Gagern started off again and in a divine ordinance which has destined made a second oration. Then a third ; this German nation for good and great at last he went away. Manteuffel came things, I would have never taken up my back and asked whether everything had calling. . . . To my steadfast faith alone

“ We settled nothing," was I owe the power of resisting all manner of Bismarck's reply. That is a stupid fel- absurdities which I have shown during Jow ; he mistook me for a popular assem- the past ten years.

Rob me of my Faith, bly.'

and you rob me of my country. Find Bismarck, as a boy, received the rite of me a successor animated by similar princonfirmation from Schleiermacher in the ciples and I will resign on the spot.”. All Church of the Holy Trinity at Berlin. persons who take an interest in the future Schleiermacher started from the Moravian of Germany will earnestly hope that sucsect, and never lost the influence of his

cessor has been found. early training. Partly, perhaps, owing to When the resignation of Prince Bis. the influence of Schleiermacher Bismarck marck was announced, many persons bashas always been attracted by their litera- tily assumed that it was the outcome of a ture. Busch tells us that early on the serious misunderstanding with his sover, morning after the battle of Sedan the eign on economic and socialist questions, Chancellor was summoned to meet the Those who came to that conclusion had Emperor of the French. After be left his not followed with any care Prince Bisroom his neighbor entered it while the ser- marck's attitude to the pressing problem vant was putting it in order. Two books of the hour. Had he been seriously opof devotion of the Moravian sect were in posed to the action of the Emperor in the room : one was called “Die tägliche calling together the labor conference, he Erquickung für gläubige Christen, the would, of course, have resigned when his other “ Tägliche Lesungen und Lehrtexte imperial master decided to summon it. der Brudergemeinde für 1870." And The truth is that very soon after the acces, the servant stated that His Excellency was sion of William the Second differences always in the habit of reading the books arose between the young monarch and the in question before going to bed.

Chancellor. They existed to my knowlNo account of Bismarck would be com- edge a year ago and longer. The leading plete without some allusion to his relations idea of Bismarck always was to maintain in private life. The letters which were thoroughly good relations with Russia. written at various times to members of his This was one of his chief differences with family reveal a nature of the most extraor- the late Emperor Frederick and also with dinary richness. His marvellous descrip- the most powerful members of the Prustions of landscape in Sweden, in Hungary, sian staff.

sian staff. The present Emperor is a in France, in Spain, show an enthusiast warm partisan of the triple alliance, but for nature, and he speaks of the sea in Bismarck while equally anxious to prelanguage which recalls some of the finest serve that combination, has attached more passages in Victor Hugo. His kindness importance than his sovereign to the necesof heart was not alone exhibited to his sity of bringing about an arrangement beown people. I was told once, by a per- tween Austria and Russia on such a basis son who had opportunities of knowing, as would secure the interests of each that he never observed Bismarck say a power in the Balkan peninsula. Morereally unkind or hard thing to any sub- over, the Chancellor has always looked ordinate he conceived was doing his best. with cold suspicion on the colonial policy


which has the sympathy of the Emper- complain of the action of his sovereign in

this respect. And, considering the serAlthough William the First did not vices, experience, and fame of the great always take the same view of things as his minister, it was not to be expected that great minister, he never took any impor- be would consent to be responsible for acts tant step without telling Prince Bismarck about which he had not been previously beforehand. William th cond has not consulted, and the consequences of which observed this rule so punctiliously. Prince might be most momentous.—Nineteenth Bismarck thought he had some right to Century.

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When a man like Professor Huxley, 2. He specially distrusts such a demowho has long been looked up to as the cratic extension of the franchise, because most brilliant champion of advanced he thinks that it leads straight to what he thought, propounds principles which are calls “ Rousseauism," that is, to a disponot easily distinguishable

from those of sition to throw all the fundamental instituthe most fossilized old Toryism, it be- tions of society, and especially that of land hooves those who believe in modern prog- and other forms of private property, into ress to review their position and make sure a crucible, and cast them into new and that they are standing on solid ground. impracticable forms in accordance with The Professor has been moved to descend visionary abstract theories of the natural from the serene regions of science, and equality of men. enter on the burning region of practical It is clear that this argument is in sub. politics by two considerations.

stance that which has been used since the 1. He is alarmed at the progress of days of Thucydides, in the long controdemocratic ideas and institutions, by versy as to the relative advantages of Ariswhich, as he forcibly expresses it, the tocracy and Democracy ; and that the navigation of the vessel of State is to be “loblolly-boy" simile is in effect a pregintrusted to the votes of the “cooks and nant and pithy way of putting the objecloblolly-boys instead of the officers," and tions to the Reform Bill of 1832, urged when the great heart' of the crew is by Sir Charles Wetherall and Colonel called upon to settle the ship's course. Sibthorp, and since repeated by every op


ponent of the great democratic reforms, conclusion, has yet in some cases a real which, in the course of the last fifty years, element of truth. Tbus he would scarcely have so completely transformed the course deny that all classes and conditions of men, of legislation. It is a plausible argu. be they rich or poor, strong or weak, ment; but it has certainly thus far shown ought to be equal in the eye of the law. no sign of satisfying that, which, after Nor would Spencer deny that questions of all, is the surest test of truth, whether in property and contract, of finance and franscientific, or in political and social evolu. chise, are in their nature questions of tion, “ the survival of the fittest in the more or less, of time and circumstance, struggle for existence.

rather than of absolute conclusions. And here let me begin by saying that short, I hold that a right appreciation of it is a source of great satisfaction to me first principles and of the history of evoto find that in contesting Professor Hux. lution are useful in enabling us to state ley's conclusions it is a question of appre- the conditions of social and political probciation of facts, and not of conflict of lems, though powerless to solve them. In principle. I entirely agree with him that order to define more closely the conditions social and political problems are so in- of the problem of Aristocracy v. Democfinitely complicated that it is impossible racy, we must greatly narrow the assumpto solve them absolutely by any recurrence

tions on which Professor Huxley's arguto axioms or first principles.

ment depends.

In neither case is it a If even the simple problem of three question of “cooks and loblolly-boys" acbodies revolving round a common centre tually navigating the ship. There must of gravity by the law of gravitation, can always be a captain and superior officers, only be solved by successive approxima- and the sole question is under which systions, how hopeless must be the task of tem we get the best ones. Monarchy, or arriving at any hard-and-fast mathemati- as Carlyle calls it, hero-worship, implies cal solution of the problem of thirty-five that the rule of a single individual is best ; millions of people revolving each in its but here we are met by the primary conown individual orbit, determined by an dition which the sagacious Mrs. Glasse put infinite number of impulses of self-inter- forward as the first requisite for making est, sentiment, hereditary influences, race, hare-soup. First catch your hare, first country, education, and all the vastly find your hero. Hereditary descent varied action of a complex environment. clearly fails us, you are just as likely to In fact I am disposed to go even farther get a Nero or a Comniodus, as a Titus or in this direction than the Professor him- à Marcus Aurelius. A plebiscite may give self, and to object that in his “ loblolly- you a Napoleon III. or a Boulanger, as boy” simile, which contains the essence probably as a Washington or a Cromwell. of his argument against democracy, he has Aristocracy means that you are likely stated the problem too generally, and not to do best when the Government is secoupled it with the necessary limitations lected by a small, hereditary, privileged as to time, place, and other conditions class who from superior wealth and educawhich are indispensable to arrive at any tion may be supposed to understand politipractical conclusion. At the same time I cal questions better than the mass of their so far agree with Herbert Spencer, as to countrymen. The theory of democracy think that it is not only interesting, but is that you will get a better result from may be useful in arriving at practical con- the outcome of the varied opinions and clusions, to trace. back the results which conflicting views of a very large number have survived in the course of evolution of voters, comprising the whole or nearly of civilized societies, as far as possible to the whole of the adult community. their origin or first principles, so as to see A priori there is nothing absurd in this what factors bave become permanent and latter theory. Professor Huxley will ad. inevitable, and what are temporary and mit that it is quite a tenable proposition evanescent. Thus it seems to me that that you may get a more accurate reprewhile Huxley is perfectly right in reject- sentation of the annual parallax of a star, ing the axiom that all men are born equal, or of the precise moment of the comhe might study Herbert Spencer with ad- mencement and end of a transit of Venus, vantage in tracing the conditions under from the average of a large number of which this axiom, absurd as an absolute moderately skilled observers, than from

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