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dent kingdom under Russian protection, while proclaiming the doctrine of Roma strong enough to absorb Servia, Croatia, Capitale, did not hesitate to disperse the and perhaps all the Slav countries in the freebooters of Garibaldi at Aspromonte. Austrian Empire, and thereby help Russia Soon after this Napoleon the Third, who to plant her standard on the dome of the always hoped he would be able to force Aya Sofia.
both the Pope and Italy to accept his soluIn Vienna, Berlin, and London there tion of the Italian question, determined to was considerable anxiety as to the further show his displeasure to the Court of Turin development of things. At that moment by making a change in his diplomatic serRussia and France were opposed to Eng- vice. He therefore sent to Rome and land on the question of the Danubian Turin as his representatives men of what Principalities, and it became known that were called Ultramontane views. Thouthe French Emperor, in spite of the sym- venel, who was Minister of Foreign Affairs, pathies of his country, looked coldly on was dismissed, and his place given to the Polish insurrection. The conclusion Drouyn de Lhuys, the old friend of AusBismarck arrived at was that the Russian tria and the Pope. It became therefore Chancellor, the Emperor of the French, vital for Prussia to keep on good terms and the Governor of Poland thoroughly with the government of the Czar. understood each other, and that they all It would be difficult to decide wbich agreed that
new Poland, in friendly alli- would most inconvenience the Prussian ance with Russia, would serve as a basis monarchy—a victory of the Revolutionary for an attack on Vienna and on the Otto- party, such as Mieroslawski, Mazzini, and man Empire. The Emperor of the French Garibaldi desired, or the establishment of could then settle the Italian question, and a Polish state under the protectorate of perhaps obtain for France the annexation Russia and France, which was the plan of of Belgium and of the left bank of the Wielopolski and Prince Gortschakoff. Rhine.
The Radical party had already proclaimed In England the government, who had their desire to incorporate into the future some inkling of the objects of France, en- Polish Republic, West Prussia, Posen, encouraged popular sympathy with the and Pomerania up to the Oder. The Polish insurrection ; and the Cabinet of other party, indeed, were inoderate in lanVienna, notwithstanding its fear for Galiguage, but if they got the upper hand it cia, viewed it with satisfaction because it was plain that Wielopolski would be crossed the plans of Prince Gortschakoff. driven forward by the force of circumBismarck was equally determined to use stances and his own inclinations. Morethe rebellion for the purpose of breaking over, Prince Gortschakoff was the last down the Russo-French alliance, and he man to stop him in his career. set about doing so with characteristic cour- ment, therefore, the news of the Polish age, originality and genias.
insurrection reached Berlin it was deterOn various grounds connected with ex- mined to deal directly with the Emperor ternal German politics the relations be- Alexander, and for this purpose General tween Prussia and Austria were becoming von Alvensleben was sent to St. Petersdaily more strained. England, for some burg to ask in the name of the King of perfectly unintelligible reason, took the Prussia for an explanation of the situation side of Austria, and was continually urg- and to consult as to the best means of ing the Cabinet of Berlin to adopt a more putting down the rebellion. Considering friendly attitude toward the Government the general position of European politics of Vienna. This advice was always met at the moment this mission of Alvensleben by Bismarck with a request that the min- was a very bold step. Everybody symisters of Francis Joseph should be told to pathized with the Poles. Liberals, Cleribe more civil to Prussia.
cals, Republicans, Conservatives worked More important for Prussia than the together in their interest. They were advice of England was the change of backed by the public opinion of Europe, French policy in the autuinn of 1862. and had stanch friends in all the most The Cabinet of Turin held fast to the idea important Governments. This circum. that Rome inust be the capital of Italy. stance, however, secured a welcome for But they announced that the city must be the Prussian general at St. Petersburg. won by peaceable means, and therefore, A convention was signed by which the
two Powers agreed to render each other Polish question a European one, and at mutual assistance. Gortschakoff was hos- last it was intimated that nothing would tile to the arrangement, and although it satisfy France but the resignation of Biswas agreed to keep the transaction secret, marck. The Cabinet of Vienna was asked he made it known the very next day to to join in a Note to that effect, and it was the Duc de Montebello, the French Am- hoped it would assent, considering the bassador, and that diplomatist showed his hostility to Prussia. In London there respect for the Russian Chancellor by at was a general sympathy for the Poles, and once telling Herr von Redern, the Prus- Lord John Russell had, unfortunately, sian minister, from whom he heard the made use of some expressions against the
Bismarck had no objection that Russo-Prussian Convention. It all the world should know what had taken hoped, therefore, England would also place, and on the 11th of February he had join. Lord John, however, recognized an interview with Sir Andrew Buchanan, the danger of the insurrection for Prussia, and told him about it. Sir Andrew asked and refused to be a party to any remonif the troops on each side would cross the strance. Austria followed suit, and the frontier. Bismarck replied in the affirma- whole French plan fell to the ground. tive, and remarked that Prussia would not The Prussian statesman had during all tolerate an independent Poland. “But this time to face the intrigues of Gortwhat,” said Sir Andrew, “if the Rus- schakoff and a most violent attack in his sians should be driven out ?”
66 In that
own Chamber. The Berlin Parliament case,” said Bismarck, we shall occupy condemned the action of the Government the kingdom ourselves.": Europe will and declared for neutrality. Bisinarck, never tolerate that, remarked Sir An- however, remained unmoved. He stood drew, and repeated this phrase several firm by his own views, and there can be times. " What do you mean by Eu- no doubt that this policy was the basis rope ?” said Bismarck. The different of his success in the Danish war, in great nations,” replied the British Am- the war with Austria, and in the war of bassador. “ Are you then all agreed ?" 1870. said Bismarck. This question was some- When Bismarck became Prime Minister what difficult to answer, and Sir Andrew of Prussia everything was in confusion. stammered something about France not After the year 1848 powerful reaction allowing Polish oppression. “Well, as had set in throughout the country, in confor us," said Bismarck, “ the suppression sequence of the revolutionary vehemence of the revolution is a question of life and of the demagognies and the want of practideath."
He held the same language to cal sense which the Liberal party bad exthe French minister, who, however, re- hibited at Frankfort. The great middle plied he knew nothing as to the designs class began to tremble for its safety, and of his Government.
desired above all things the preservation Napoleon tbe Third was an enemy of of order. This state of feeling produced the Red party. He would bave been de- a movement in Prussia similar to that lighted to support Wielopolski, and there- which placed the second Bonaparte on the fore the Prussian Convention was most French throne and Bach at the head of unpleasant to him. At the same time the Austrian affairs. Thus it came to pass whole Clerical party in France as well as that the ministry of Manteuffel acquired the Republicans were equally cothusiastic for some years considerable popularity, about Poland. It became, therefore, a notwithstanding the Convention of Olmatter of importance to pretend at least inütz. The Prince of Prussia, however, to do something for Poland, and the had never forgotten this event, and he French Government hit on the thought of was further alienated from the Conservaturning their attention not to Russia but tive party in consequence of the manner to Prussia, Drouyn de Lhuys was just in which Kleist-Retzow, a highly honorthe man for such a policy.
able but uncompromising Pomeranian noThe Prussian Ambassador was first in- bleman, adıninistered the provinces on the formed that it would have been well if Rhine. Prussia would remain neutral in the Polish When the Prince of Prussia succeeded question. A few days later it was an- to the government of his brother, King nounced that the convention had made the Frederick William the Fourth, he introdaced into the ministry a liberal element, carried out without an increase in that exconsisting of Count Schwerin, Auerswald, penditure of 12,000,000 thalers. and Patow. The very first efforts of King Considerable friction arose in conseWilliam the First were directed to accom- quence between the King's Government plishing a complete reform of the army. and the Chamber. There is nobody who His object was to get rid of the Landwehr does not know at the present day bow as a force of the first line, and to intro- completely right King William was in this duce a more efficient, just, and impartial matter. If he had been less clear-sighted method of universal military service. The and firm the unity of Germany would still Landwehr had shown, on more than one 'be a thing of the future. At that time, occasion, that it was difficult to mobilize however, even wise men thought him with rapidity. In truth, it had never needlessly obstinate. Ill-feeling deepened been a very good force. Prussians were between the Crown and the representavery angry at some remarks which were tives of the nation. King William had made by the Duke of Wellington-not to give up one public man after another. flattering to its conduct-during the cam- At last le determined to entrust the govpaign of Waterloo. But the Duke was ernment to Bismarck, who was ambassaright. There can be no question that at dor in Paris. Count Bernstorff, who was the commencement of hostilities at Charle- Prussian Ambassador here some twenty roi the conduct of the Landwehr regiments years since, used to claim credit for bavunder Ziethen, though excellent as far as ing done something to influence the choice bravery was concerned, was wanting in of the King. However that may be, Bisinany soldier-like qualities. No one dis- marck became Prime Minister on the 21st putes the heroism these militiamen showed of September, 1862, a most noteworthy at Ligny ; but at the inoment of defeat date, not for Prussian chronicles alone, they became so disorganized that old Prus- but for the history of the human race. sian officers were reminded, during the Bismarck resolved at all bazards to night of 16–17 June, 1815, and during stand by his King and see the arıny rethe retreat on Wavre, of the confusion form accomplished. The use of the royal which followed Jena.
prerogative introduced the necessary reThe wonderful march to Waterloo re- forms. The Prime Minister defied the mains a glorious recollection in the Prus- Parliament. He treated the Opposition
But the brunt of the fighting with the utmost scorn and contempt. fle in that battle fell on the fourth corps, devoted all his energies to the cause,
and which was commanded by Bülow, and was ably assisted by the splendid talents was not engaged at Ligny. The casual- and unflinching courage of the Minister of ties of the first corps, under Zietben, War, Albrecht von Roon. The scenes in which had been much reduced by the dis- the House that used daily to take place organization of the Landwehr regiments, baffle all description. The most striking and those of the second corps under Pirch, of these was perhaps the oratorical duel were comparatively slight. The great ser- between Dr. Gneist, who is so well known vice of the Prussian army, as far as fight. in England by reason of his famous books ing was concerned, was rendered by Bü- our constitution, and Field Marshal low, who lost in the storming of Plan- Roon. Dr. Gneist delivered a carefully chenoit over six thousand men. The cam- prepared pbilippic against the Minister of paign of Waterloo, however creditable to War, and made use of language totally the Prussian army, could not, therefore, unjustifiable, and of which I am quite sure be cited as showing the efficiency of the he has long since bitterly repented. Roon Landwehr. Still the force was popular, rose at the ninisters' table and delivered owing to the stirring memories of Gross- a reply so crushing in its effect that it can beeren, Dennewitz, and the wild Homeric only be compared to the well-known debattle on the Katzbach, and the reforms, nunciation of Lafayette by M. de Serre. moreover, would in the first instance cost Feeling ran so 'high that the firmest men money. There was a further difficulty, became uneasy lest revolutionary moveBoth Patow and Schwerin had commitied ments should break out. Bismarck, themselves in opposition to a reduction of Roon, and the King kept their minds military expenditure. They consented, as clear, their heads erect, and faced the ministers, to a plan which could not be storm. Long after, when the ship was
safe in port, some of their greatest ad- not agree to a policy which might mean mirers and even fulsome flatterers had the total destruction of Austria. been their bitterest opponents and enemies The debate became animated, and the in the hour of difficulty and danger. King grew warm. He leaned to the view
The circumstances that led to the war of his military advisers, and in the course with Austria in 1866 are well known. of conversation he said, no doubt unwitThey grew primarily out of the dualisın tingly, something which hurt the feelings which resulted from the schism in the na- of his chief minister. Bismarck retired tional life of Germany caused by the Ref- to his quarters anxious, and waited the orination ; but the immediate occasion determination of his King. While he was was the disputes arising out of the joint standing at a window somebody entered occupations of Schleswig Holstein. What the room. It was the Crown Prince. He is less perfectly understood, even in Ger- and Bismarck had not been for some time many, is the part Bismarck took in nego- on the best of terms, but they made up tiating the treaty of Nicolsburg, which ter- their differences and discussed the situaminated the war. The truth in this mat- tion. The minister convinced the son of. ter, as far as I am aware, has not yet been his sovereign of the danger to Prussia told.
after the attle of König- there would be in the future, if not in the grätz the King of Prussia called together present, if the policy which the King his chief councillors to consider on what seemed disposed to favor were adopted. basis peace should be negotiated with the The Crown Prince, when the council again Austrian Empire. A proposal was made assembled, gave his opinion against the that Prussia should demand certain annex- particular annexation proposed, and Bisations of territory, not necessary now to marck was triumphant. That very night mention, but to which it was positively he summoned Giskra, who was then burcertain that Austria would not consent gomaster of Brunn, and sent him to Vienna without another appeal to the god of bat- with offers of peace, which, if accepted tles. Bismarck opposed on five grounds : on the spot, would have been more adthat it would lead at once to war with vantageous than the peace eventually conFrance, for which they were not pre- cluded, and would have saved Austria the pared ; that there was cholera in the payment of a war indemnity. army ; that the troops of the Southern There can be no shadow of doubt that German States were not yet defeated, and Bismarck in opposing the wishes of his that with a little assistance from without imperial master on this occasion rendered they might be formidable ; that the war one of his most solid services to the Gerwould have to be carried into Hungary ; man pation and to the dynasty to which and lastly, that the end nmust be the total he is so devotedly attached.
The object destruction of the Austrian Empire, which of the war was attained when Austria would greatly aid the Panslavistic move- agreed to withdraw from Germany and ment.
when the Germanic settlement of 1815 The original proposal was vehemently was broken up. To prosecute the war supported by Roon, who gave a complete further would have intensified the feeling answer to the military objections raised of animosity to Prussia in the South Gerby the Chancellor, and who showed that man States, and particularly in Bavaria, there was no danger to fear from a strug- to such an extent that it would have been gle with France, seeing that the munitions out of the question to expect reconciliaof war were wanting in the arsenals, and tion between the peoples of the North and that the whole administration of the French South for another generation. It is not army was in a state of complete confusion likely that there would have been immeowing to the Mexican expedition. The diate war with France. But it would have Minister of War was supported by Moltke, come sooner or later, and when it did who urged that another blow should be Southern Germany would have been once swiftly struck at Austria, and then that more in arms against the North, supported the larger part of the army should be by whatever was left of Austrian power. wheeled round for a march on Paris if the This catastrophe was averted by the firmEmperor declared war. Bismarck, beaten ness of Bismarck, for when the hour of on the military points, took refuge in his trial came four years after Königgrätz, the fifth argument, and plainly said lie would sturdy sons of the Bavarian mountains, under the command of the Crown Prince spoke with even unusual rebemence in of Prussia, stormed the fortified position favor of increased arınament in view of an of Weissenburg, and were among the first approaching conflict with that power, Germans to shed their blood in that war The animosity of France against Prussia which was to end for Germany in the re- was stimulated by the action of the Govunion forever of her lost western march, ernment and the harangues of the Oppoand the re-establishment of Kaiser und sition. When Napoleon the Third went Reich in the palace of the very sovereign to Salzburg to visit the Emperor of Auswho harried the Palatinate and tore away tria after the tragedy at Queretaro, he -Alsace.
continually insisted on the circumstance The battle of Königgrätz was fought on that the French nation were so bitterly the 3rd of July, 1866. When the result jealous of Prussia since the battle of was known, most men who could read the Königgrätz that the slightest incident signs of the times felt, like Göthe after might provoke war. The Emperor of Valmy, that a new era was approaching. France asked to see Prince Hohenlohe There was consternation at the Tuileries. who was then Prime Minister of Bavaria, The Emperor of the French had not cal- Prince Hohenlohe went to the station at culated on so rapid and complete a success Munich to pay his respects. The Emfor the Prussian army. His knowledge peror got out of his carriage, and, walking of Germany led him to expect that the up and down the platform, warned the solid regiments of King William would Bavarian minister of the absolute necessity ultimately be victorious. But he imag- of keeping aloof as much as possible from ined that the struggle would be long, that Prussia, so as not in any way to provoke both combatants would be exhausted, and the susceptibilities of the French. The that he would be able to offer himself as Emperor did not evidently know the full arbitrator at some critical moment, and purport of the treaty of alliance which secure thereby for a long time to come the had been concluded between Prussia and undisputed, supremacy of France. He Bavaria in 1866. There were for a couple was now deeply disconcerted, and without of years continual rumors of a Francocarefully considering the situation sent an German war, and at last the explosion ultimatum to Berlin which was delivered came in 1870. early in August, 1866. He demanded for In the spring of that year the crown of France all the German territories on the Spain was offered to Prince Leopold of left bank of the Rhine, together with the Hohenzollern Sigmaringen, and accepted important fortress of Mainz.
by him. The French Government and Bismarck did not hesitate an instant, nation becaine frantic with anger. The but at once refused to meet the wishes of candidature of this prince, however, had the French Government and determined been mentioned the year before. A disto accept the alternative of war. A few tinguished member of the Cortes, Salazar days afterward, however, when the min. y Mazarredo, bad published a pamphlet isters in Paris realized the danger of a which attracted considerable notice in struggle with Prussia, it was intimated to favor of choosing Prince Leopold as King the Court of Berlin that the ultimatum of Spain. One of the reasons he urged in was sent during an illness of the Emperor, support of his proposal was that of all and Bismarck was requested to think no candidates this Hohenzcllern would be more about it.
From that moment, how- least objectionable to France, and less disever, the relations between France and agreeable a good deal to the House of Prussia were never cordial, and it was Bonaparte than the Duc de Montpensier. clear that sooner or later hostilities would Prince Leopold, he further pointed out, break out between the countries. France was only distantly related to the King of began almost at once to make preparations Prussia. He belonged to the Catholic for them, and in December, 1867, Mar- branch of the Hohenzollerns which had shal Niel, the Minister of War, openly for centuries been separated from the said that his scheme of army organization Protestant line. must be carried through in order
to pre- It was the same Salazar y Mazarredo pare for a possible collision with Prussia. who in 1870 conducted negotiations perIn July, 1868, M. Thiers, at that time far sonally with the Prince. So little had the the greatest authority of the Opposition, King of Prussia to say to this candidature NEW SHRIES. – VOL. LI., No. 5.