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them. I shall in several succeeding pa- tends that in them we find a Divine revepers strive to show, at least by specimens, Jation ; and that the evidence, rationally that science and research bave done much viewed, both of contents and of results, to sustain the historical credit of the Old binds us to stand where our forefathers Testament ; that in doing this they have have stood, upon the impregnable rock of added strength to the argument which con- Holy Scripture.— Good Words.
(YE who heed, in these stray leaves of rhyme,
The music of those sighs whereon my heart
Was fed, when I, another man in part
I trust for pity (pardon all apart)
When between idle hopes and idle smart
Was hawked on all men's lips, their common theme;
As the world loves is all a flying dream.
THE FIRST BALLATA.
Lady, nor sun nor shade made thee untie
I saw thy face aflower with pity of me :
And love-looks into hiding back must flee ;
Thus have I lost what most I wished in thee.
Which shrouds thy sweet and radiant eyes in night
BY SIR ROWLAND BLENNERE ASSETT.
The resignation of Prince Bismarck the Thirteenth crushed most of the obterminates the active political life of one stacles which hindered the development of the greatest men that ever directed of French power. He had not, however, affairs of state. He has often been called completely finished his task when death the German Richelieu, and the expression overtook him. Mazarin took up the tale, is not unhappy. The minister of Lewis and by the treaty of the Pyrenees estab
lished the supremacy of France in Europe ciples, straightforward and candid minds, on so firm a basis that, in spite of some and, above all, uncompromising loyalty appalling disasters, it lasted for more than and proud submission to the House of two hundred years. The work of Bis. Hohenzollern. When
Otto von marck is not likely to be less enduring. Bismarck was six years old, he was sent As he himself long ago expressed it, if to school at Berlin. After passing his Germany were only once fairly in the sad- Abiturienten-Exanien he went to the unidle, she would soon learn to ride. Of the versity and threw himself heartily into four great men who established the new student life. He did not, however, negGerman Empire, he was the last to remain lect the cultivation of his mind. From in laborious service. Field-Marshal Roon, his boy hood he was devoted to the study the famous minister of war-a man not of geography, and often tells his friends less remarkable for purity and nobility of of the strange impression which the map character than for administrative genius— of Germany used to inake on bim ; as he was the first of them to pass from the looked at the thirty-nine states into which
The Emperor William was the his country was divided, he could not help dext to follow. Advancing years and the thinking what a great work it would be to exigencies of the public service forced bind them together without destroying Field-Marshal Moltke to retire from an their several characteristic traditions. office in which he won a foremost place The study of history was pursued with among the greatest soldiers of history. eagerness. There was not a country in Prince Bisinarck was the youngest of the Europe with whose rise, development, and group, and its most striking member. peculiar institutions he did not inake himWithout his indoitable courage, his self thoroughly acquainted when still a strength of will, his directness of mind, very young man. He insists continually his profound knowledge of men, it would on his great obligations to Ranke for his have been impossible for the king to ac- intellectual development, loses no oppor. complish the military reforms which were tunity of praising the political sagacity of absolutely necessary for the security of that historian, and gives as an instance of the country and the efficiency of the army. it the famous memorandum on the EastMoreover, it is at least doubtful whether ein Question which Ranke wrote for Fredthe results of the Prussian victories in erick William the Fourth. His knowledge 1866 would have been so far-reaching if, of English literature is very great, and after the Austrian power had been shat- although he speaks it with a slight accent tered at Königgrätz, the Prussian State and a somewhat old-fashioned pronunciahad not been guided by a man of such tion, his mastery of our language is comdiplomatic skill, sound common-sense, plete. Not only is he perfectly acquainted accurate historical knowledge, and power with the chief works of our great poets, of gauging the forces of European life. he is almost equally at home in obscure
Otto Edward Leopold von Bismarck and forgotten works of second-rate writers. comes of good old Brandenburg stock. He has been known to quote in English IIis family have been settled in the Mark
of the moment some twenty since the fourteenth century. In the year lines of Lalla Rookh, and an English 1345 the Markgraf Lewis the Elder con- statesman is fond of telling that when he ferred the castle of Burgstall on the Bis- was in Berlin some few years ago the marck of that day, and his descendants great Chancellor expressed his regret that lived there for many generations. They the pressure of official business had made exchanged this property with John George, it iinpossible for him to make himself the seventh Elector of Brandenburg, in as well acquainted as he should like 1562 for the estate of Schönhausen, where to be with the works of living English on the 1st of April, 1815, the man was poets. born who was destined to make their an- When the golden days of university life cient name illustrious forever. The Bis- came to an end, he entered the Civil Ser. marcks belonged to that sturdy race of vice, and worked for a couple of years at Prussian squires_who possess all the Berlin, at Aix-la-Chapelle, and Potsdam. strength of the English Puritan without In 1838 he performed his obligatory milihis peculiar narrowness, and who are re- tary service, and when that was over unmarkable for high character, firm prin- dertook the management of the estate of gave him.
I have my
Kniephof in Pomerania, which his father ancholy tales of suffering endured when
the French were in the country. Among lle became known to the country as an his own friends and acquaintances there excellent landlord, who took great and in- were many who had to struggle with actelligent interest in all agricultural pursuits. tual poverty in those years. He was a passionate sportsman and a splen- self known two gentlemen, bearers of did horseman. He could use the pistol great Prussian names, one of them still with such skill as to be able to decapitate alive, who can remember when every head ducks as they swam in the pond at Kniep- of cattle was driven from their fathers!
He has remained all his life a first- park, when there was no horse of any derate shot. A story is told that when he scription left in the stable to do the most was Ambassador at St. Petersburg he went necessary work on the home farm, and out bear-hunting one day with six other when their families were able to afford no gentlemen. Bismarck killed the first bear better light than that of tallow candles. that appeared. Soon another came from Four-fifths of the estates of the country the bushes and trotted toward the party, were unable to meet their rates and taxes. one of whom fired and missed ; the bear When the French army passed through made for Bismarck, who waited till the on its way to Moscow, it had not only to animal came quite close, then took steady be supplied with food during its march, aim and stretched him at his feet. An- but each soldier had to be provided with other bear then broke cover ; one of the twenty-one days' rations as it crossed the gentlemen fired twice without effect, then Russian frontier. In the province of East Bismarck fired and killed the aniinal when Prussia almost every vehicle was sequesit was just about to attack the gentleinan trated, and in that province and Lithuania who had discharged his gun. On another 71,161 horses were seized for the army. occasion, besides stags and roedeer, he The story of the French occupation in shot five elks, one of which measured 6 ft. Prussia may be read in the pages of 8 in, to his withers. His feats of horse- Duncker and Droysen, and Bismarck was manship were not less remarkable, al. perfectly justified in contending that though he got several severe falls, one of hatred of the foreigner, and not any dethem of a very serious character. His sire to establish a Parliament at Berlin, powers of endurance in the saddle were was the mainspring of that famous moveexceptionally great. At the battle of ment, which was the first step toward the Königgrätz he was on his horse for more unity of Germany. than twelve hours, and the day after Sedan Bismarck made the first of his real he was riding from six o'clock in the weighty speeches on the 22nd of March, morning till midnight.
1849, against the proposal to grant an The year 1847 marks a turning-point in amnesty to those who had taken part in the life of Bismarck. His political career the rebellion of the previous year. He began. On the 3rd of February Freder- protested against any parley with treason, ick William the Fourth called together a insisted that to amnesty law-breakers was United Diet, composed of the representa- sure to weaken respect for law in the tives of the Provincial Councils established minds of the people, and sneered at the by King Frederick William the Third weak sentimentality which wept over the Bismarck became a member of this As punishment of fanatical rebels, as if they sembly, and delivered his maiden speech were suffering in a sacred cause. His on the 17th of May. It is worthy of no. next important public utterance was on tice that his first appearance as an orator the 10th of April following, when he conwas for the purpose of attacking one of clusively showed the unpractical character those popular superstitions everywhere of the constitution elaborated at Frankfort common. It used to be industriously cir- by persons who he truly said had learned culated in Germany, and thoughtlessly ac- nothing since the publication of Rouscepted as true by many, that the motive seau's Contrat Social. In this speech, power of the patriotic movement of 1813 which is full of prophetic wisdom, he was a desire for parliamentary institu- showed how ruinous it would be for the tions. Bismarck, who had lived in the Prussian Monarchy to have anything to do country and was well acquainted with peo- with the Frankfort Constitution, with its ple of all classes, had often heard mel. suspensive veto, its widely extended suffrage, and the ludicronsly inadequate rep- pflug had been sent about his business. resentation it accorded to Prussia. His Alluding to the cry which had been got next speech of weight was a defence of up that the honor of Prussia was tarthe Manteuffel Government for the Con- nished, he remarked, “ Prussian honor, vention of Olmütz. The Elector of Hesse according to my conviction, does not conhad appointed Hassenpflug as minister, sist in Prussia playing the part of Don and overthrew the constitution. The Quixote in Germany to please the offended Governinent of the King of Prussia com- vanity of parliamentary celebritics. Prusmitted itself to maintain the rights of the sian bopor consists in keeping clear of all people. The restored Diet at Frankfort, connection with revolution and the forces under the influence of Austria, took the of anarchy." Shortly after this speech side of the Elector. A large Austrian Frederick William the Fourth appointed army was concentrated in Bohemia, and him Prussian representative to the Diet of placed under the command of Radetzky. Frankfort. The action of Bismarck in his Prussian troops stood in the presence of new capacity is told inost fully in the pubAustrians and Bavarians in Hesse. Shots lication of Poschinger, which contains the had been exchanged, and war seemed in- confidential reports and State papers
which evitable. The relations between the Gov. he wrote for his Government. He deernment of Berlin and the Court of St. voted himself entirely to counteract the Petersburg were at that moment strained policy of Austria, but what is of more into the utmost, owing to differences of terest to this country is the attitude he opinion on the Schleswig-Holstein ques- took up regarding the Crimean war. In tion. No one could trust Louis Napo- the year 1854 the Emperor Nicholas was leon, who would probably have profited at the height of his power. He had put by the war to seize Prussian territory on down the revolution in Austria, and order the left bank of the Rhine, where the reigned in Poland. The Ottoman Porte population at that time were still in sym- had, however, incurred his displeasure for pathy with France, as we know on the having given Polish and Hungarian refundoubted authority of recently published ugees positions in the Turkish army. He letters of Field-Marshal Roon.
All of a
made up his mind that the time had come sudden Count Brandenburg, the Prime to put an end to the government of the Minister of Prussia, was sent to Warsaw Sultan in Europe, and the Crimean war to see the Emperor Nicholas. The Czar broke out. From the very beginning the convinced him of the necessity of yielding Eastern question had excited the keenest to the demands of Austria as regards the interest in Berlin. Those who desired Hessian question, and of leaving the Elbe German unity, who mourned over Olmütz Duchies to Denmark. He came back to and the loss of Schleswig-Holstein, saw Berlin and urged this policy on the King. With delight any symptom of Russian huHis advice was followed, and on the 29th miliation. They imagined a golden opof November, 1850, a convention was portunity was offered to Prussia to put signed at Olmütz, in which Prussia gave herself at the head of Germany. A group way to Austria and Russia on every point of distinguished men, like Count Goltz of importance.
and Count Pourtales and the Privy CounThere was the greatest possible indig- cillors Bethmann-Hollweg and Mathis, nation in Prussia, and it required no small unged strongly an alliance with the Westamount of courage to defend this poicy. ern Powers, and their organ in the press, Bismarck, however, stepped into the the Preussische Wochenblatt, published breach and delivered a most powerful ora- very able articles in this sense. On the tion, in which he insisted on the great re- other hand, the Prime Minister, Manteufsponsibility men incurred who drove a fel, beld different views, and so did Gencountry lightly into war. He asked those cral Count Dobna, Count Alvenslebenwho criticised the Government whether, Erxleben, and others who were special after the sacrifices the nation would have favorites with the King. The latter were to make if a warlike policy had been Russian sympathizers pure and siinple, adopted, they really expected the people full of enthusiasm for the sovereign who would be content when, in return for these bad done so much to crush the revolution sacrifices, they were told that Bayrhofer of 1848. was minister in Hesse, and that Hassen- In this state of affairs Bismarck thought
himself justified in offering his opinion. in 1859 till the cession of Venice to him He wrote several letters on the general by Austria in 1866.
For this purpose it position of Prussia, which will be found was clear that Russia must not be offended, in Poschinger's work, and which explain and the notion of restoring Poland by much of his subsequent policy. In the force of arms was out of the question. first place he expressed entire concurrence He inaintained, however, his interest in with those who desired to avoid a war the country, and when he inet the Emwith Russia. He pointed out that the peror Alexander in Southern Germany in Western Powers ran no real danger. The 1857, he urged that Russia should make contrary would be the case with Prussia. Poland every possible concession consistIf she joined France and England she ent with her own interests. Alexander would bave to bear the whole brunt of the was prepared to do anything that was for war, and had nothing to gain in the not the benefit of his subjects; and his chan- . improbable event of military success. Io cellor was ready to make great sacrifices insisted that his country had little to fear for the French alliance, through wbich he from the progress of Russia in the East. hoped to get back for his country the Her real enemy was Austria. If they de- foremost position in Europe, and ulticided in Berlin to join in the war, the in- mately to tear up the treaty which preterests of the nation dictated that they vented Russian sbips of war from cruising should take the side against Austria so as in the waters of the Black Sea. The to force that Power to given the Hohen- Government of St. Petersburg set to work zollern monarchy elbow-room in German to introduce some reforins, but it made affairs. Bismarck himself was strongly in the capital mistake of supposing that imfavor of neutrality, and this advice pre- prorement in administration was what the vailed with the King.
Poles wanted. There were at that time These letters from Frankfort show that two parties formed in Poland, known by Rismarck was always a firm advocate of the name of the White and the Red. the policy of a good understanding with The first party was mainly composed of Russia. Although he has many English the great aristocracy, who desired a sepafriends, and in one of these letters frankly rate administrative system, the restoration says that after his own land there is no of the constitution of 1815, and a national country to which he is so attached as Eng. army. By this ineans they hoped to obland, yet he has always had a profound tain gradually complete independence. mistrust of the policy of an English alli- The Red party were impatient at delay,
He has never forgotten, and con- and were anxious for an immediate appeal stantly alludes to, the conduct of England to arms. In January 1863 numbers of in deserting Frederick the Great. His young men began to assemble in a wood confidence has not been strengthened by a few miles from Warsaw, and similar bis observations of English policy in his bands were formed near Lublin, Plock, own time. This idea of holding to the and other towns. On the night of the Russian alliance found expression some
23rd some small Russian garrisons were years later, after he became Prime Min- surprised, and about a hundred soldiers ister. When the Crimean war broke out murdered in their beds or burned in the the Poles in London and Paris began to barracks. The country rose in revolution. show great signs of activity. Some of Prince Gortschakoff was unmoved, for he them, followers of General Mieroslawski, believed, like all the world in St. Petershoped for a democratic repnblic and the burg, that the rebellion would soon be destruction of Western culture. More crushed. In that case the Marquis Wielomoderate men gathered round Prince polski, who was governing Poland, would Adam Czartoryski, the patriarch of the become all powerful. This nobleman, Polish exiles, who was a candidate for the undoubtedly the greatest intellect Poland throne should Poland become an indepen- could boast of, desired a good understanddent kingdom. Nothing of importance, ing between his own country and Russia, however, took place during the war. with a view to counteract German influWhen it was over the French Emperor ence, which he positively hated. He and turned his attention to the expulsion of his friends, who possessed great influence the Austrians from Italy, which task occu- orer the Grand Duke Constantine, desired pied him from the campaign of Solferino that Poland should become an indepen