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expenses incurred in the defence of O'Don. How much this opinion will be valued in nell, the alleged murderer of Carey, the the course of a few years, say, in a quarkeen desire that was evinced for a fair trial. ter of a century or even less, no The fact of the treasures which reached the say. The United States is one of the Irish National League from American few Powers that are steadily and rapidly sources is now a matter of history. Year progressing on the highway of commercial after year, in good report and in bad, in prosperity and social advancement. She seasons as dark and perilous as any in the holds out every promise of future expannation's history, the National League in sion and greatness, still greater than those Ireland was maintained and encouraged, of her short past. At present the arbiand has, indeed, survived by reason of tress, if she so willed it, of the nations the funds forwarded from America—funds and Powers of the New World, she may which came from every class, from the in time become the arbitress of the fate Irish navvy and from the Irish banker. In of the Powers of the Old World. Just this profuse generosity, a generosity which now it seems to us that three nations, and in America is evidenced by the number- three only, have reached the zenith of less magnificent churches and splendid their power and glory--Britain, Russia, edifices erected over the entire land, the the United States. Some omit the two Irish-Americans owe much of their social former from the list, and consider the influence and inuch of their influence as a States alone as the only Power that has body politic. Such records, such facts, not attained the full measure of its strength, such traits, contribute to elevate the Irish and that other nations have passed their character in the eyes of the people of the zenith, or are doing so. Yet England, Republic, cause the Irish to be regarded the parent of free peoples, can rejoice, bas with feelings of admiration and respect, and every cause for rejoicing, in the rapid rise cause their mother country to be looked of the Western Republic, ber eldest cbild, at with eyes of kindly sympathy. These in a progress than which none more rapid facts also show that the Irish form an es- or more splendid has been witnessed since sential portion of the American popula- the dawn of history, which will ensure the tion, an essential element of American continuance and future extension of Engsociety ; that they owe principally to their lish power, directed for the attaininent of own exertions that freedom which they an increasing measure of human happithought denied to them in their native ness, for the cultivation of those arts, purland ; tbat the United States owes much suits, and industries which promote the to them, and that she is proud of them. welfare of all, and for the further diffu. Then we have to bear in mind the liish sion of civilization and freedom, with their influence in America has assumed its great attendant blessings, into every clime. To power in an incredibly short period : the attain this noble and surely practicable obIrish emigration practically began not ject, much will be done if the English more than seventy years ago ; from that more fully recognize and rightly appreciate period it went on steadily ; it received a the power of the Irish-Americans, the ingreat impulse by the frightful plague in fluence they exert, the powerful position the year 1832 ; in or about the dread they have attained. This can be effected year of the famine of 1847, one-fifth of by a better understanding, by a juster apthe entire population fled from this coun- preciation, by cach of the two peoples of try, and, surely and steadily, the stream of the merits of the other, who, even when emigration has flowed on. In this short erring, “ lean to virtue's side.” And period the progress of the Irish-American here we may be permitted to add that due has been really marvellous. The influence regard inust be had for those feelings of exerted by the Celtic people on the West, antipathy exhibited by many Irishmen which has developed so quickly and in toward England. They were the feelings such a wonderful way, can scarcely be of men who had been cruelly wronged and over-estimated. The commerce, the manu- insulted ; they were the gradual outcome factures, the social and political impor. of a long series of years of degradation, tance of the Republic, are all progressing of vexations, of impoverishment, and of by leaps and bounds. Her position is contumely. And such sentiments, when fully admitted by every Power. Her once generated by a sense of wrong and opinion can no longer be disregarded. injustice, and kindled by acts of hardship,

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andfostered by bitter recollections, are and moral influence of Americans would the most fierce and uoquenchable that can be at our back, and that in the struggle spring up in the heart of man. Time the people of the States of every class, alone can efface from the meinory a sense and especially the Irish-Americans, would of injustice, and patience alone can trans- be our allies and firmest friends. form the passion of fierce hatred into sul- our part must see that that alliance, so len indifference or into good will. The powerful, so prolific of good, shall never effects of these two powerful agents can be weakened or impaired by our national be much augmented by kindness and mu- prejudice, by our selfishness, or by our tual confidence, and the effects of these supineness ; if we do so—and we doubt agents are now beginning to be discerned. not but we shall under the guidance of We have good reasons for believing that the dictates of conscience, and the influif any unforeseen event should occur by ence of common sense—a magnificent which the freedom, the independence, or future is in store for the people of Great the rights of the peoples of these king- Britain and the Republic of the West. — doms become menaced, the moral power Westminster Review.

THE BEAUTY OF WINTER.

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It is much casier to see the beauty of a is a kind of beauty about the promise and late than the beauty of an early winter; bint and hope of life, which does not befor the very essence of its beauty consists long to the fulfilment of that promise ; in the anticipation of the life which lies in and it is this which makes a winter sun reserve beneath frost and snow, and it is breaking through light wintry clouds, a much easier to most men to realize this sun that seems intended only to mock the vividly, as the long suspense approaches longing for heat, and to some extent even an end, than it is when it is just begin- that for light, suggest aspects of beauty ning. As Mr. Coventry Patmore says of which not even the sun of a bright spring, Winter in the volume which he mystically or of midsummer, or of a glorious autumn entitles “ The Unknown Eros,

can afford.
In the former, there is

prom" It is not death, but plenitude of peace ;

ise but hardly any fulfilment ; in the latter, And the dim cloud that does the world en. there is too much warmth already felt to

admit of that shy foretaste of a radiance Hath less the characters of dark and cold

still withheld, which lends so much beauty Than warmth and light asleep,

to hidden or unfolded life. Why it is And correspondent breathing seems to keep With the infant harvest, breathing soft bé. that there is a kind of joy in vivid antici. low

pation which is absent from the fruition, Its eider coverlet of snow."

it would be hard to say. But whatever A prophecy of the future is by most of us the reason, no one who knows what exmuch more vividly realized when the quisite beauty there is in the very parsi" dim cloudmay break and float away mony of Nature as seen in a winter landat any moment, than it can be when it is scape like those of a few of the bright, just closing round us. For the beauty of keen days of this last week, can doubt winter ccnsists, after all, in the expression that, in proportion as Nature gires more of life in reserve which hangs about it. liberally, the lavishness of what she does Change the rich purple of the leafless elms, give is less vividly appreciated. The or delicate white of the birches into the snowdrop is more eagerly welcomed than shrivelling yellow of a dead tree, and in- the rose, and even the aconite than the stead of seeing in it the beauty of winter, snowdrop. It is the earliest violet or we see in it only the desolation of decay. primrose that confers the greatest pleasure, It is the evidence of lingering life in No- those of which Mr. Patmore says, – vember, the promise of budding life in March, that lends so great a beauty to a

“ Often, in sheltering brakes,

As one from rest disturbed in the first winter landscape, and the latter feeling is

hour, far more really inspiring than the former.

Priidrose or violet bewildered wakes, It is curious, but certainly true, that there And deems 'tis time to flower."

as

Indeed, it is donbtful whether the rich beanty has in time of wealth, in spring or carpets of primroses which brighten the summer, when there is less promise and copses a month or two later, fill the mind more performance. The almost ghostly with as much eager gladness as the single beauty of the Christmas rose and the riolet or priinrose which forestalls the sea. snowdrop, like that of a bright winter son of spring. And even bare winter, morning, touches in some way a higher though it does not send the thrill through key in our nature than even the lavish the observer which accompanies the first beauty of an exquisite midsummer dawn signal of spring, has an austere beauty or sunset. For our own parts, we bold which is due entirely to the sense of what that the secret lies in that word“ gbostliit hides and what spring will one day re- ness ;' that we find in the pallor of that veal. What Matthew Arnold speaks of carly gleam an assurance of its spiritual

the tender purple spray on copse and essence, which we fail to find in the richbriars” owes all its charm to the latency ness, the fragrance, and the many.colored of life in that tender purple spray. If tints of the inore abundant seasons. It is the life were not latent but visible, the strange that it should be so, but it is, we charm would be quite different, and some think, almost certain that in the prophetic how not so intense. The delicate tracery stage we discern much more clearly the of the naked trees bas a spell in it which spiritual origin of all beauty than we do even the tenderest green of early spring in the flush of its meridian blaze. Probcannot quite surpass. And the very chill- ably this is due to the limitation of the huness of the air, the strict suspense of all man mind, which is more equal to detectvisible growth, the pallid blue of the sky, ing the significance of that which is single the powdered snow and the vivid grass- and solitary, than of that which is rich green which peeps from beneath it, the and complex. No doubt, too, there is sense of far distance, the glimpses of those something in the earliest stage of beauty long vistas which are never seen again which less reminds us of decay, than after the leaves have shown themselves, there is in any of the later stages. The all heighten the feeling of that reserve beauty of a child is almost all promise for force in the world around us, -that im- the future ; the beauty of a woman is almeasurable and impenetrable secret on the ready felt to be passing : and so the mcre surface of which the wintry light beauty of the winter is almost all promise glistens,—which constitutes the strange for the future ; the beauty of the summer, freshness of a bright March frost. Prob- and even of the spring, is already felt to ably, too, the stimulant of the keen air, be rapidly approaching the end of its brief hy exciting the nerves, adds considerably span. But there is something more in to this vividness of appreciation. The this ghostly beauty than mere promise. only mistake Mr. Patmore makes in the There is in it an appeal to faith which, striking passage from which we have being one of the most spiritual principles quoted, is to speak of winter's “ languor- of our nature, is stirred by very faint in.

There may be a languorous dications of what is coming, into an energy gaze in spring and summer and autumn, which it cannot put forth when sight alone but in genuine winter, never. Her gaze is sufficient, and more than sufficient, to is keen and bracing, a gaze which chills exercise and exhaust all our keenest facu!the passions and fortifies the will.

ties of perception.

" Blessed are they What is the explanation of this greater who have not seen, and yet have believed, satisfaction,-greater, we mean, in pro. is as true of natural as of supernatural portion to the amount of the beauty ac. phenomena. As Wordsworth said that tually visible,-in beauty which is chiefly when he did see Yarrow, he saw it " not a promise, than in beauty which is com- by sight alone," but that a ray of fancy plete and full fledged? We do not, of still survived in what he saw, so it is true course, mcan to say that there is nearly so that when at last spring and summer come, much beauty in winter as there is in we see them partly by the light of the spring, or so much in spring as there is in prophetic vision that we had of them in summer. But we do mean that the little winter, and not merely by the light of there is in times of a comparative famine their own day. And it is of the essence of beauty, that is, in winter, has a higher of this foretaste of future beauty that it kind of influence about it than the same should be felt to be more spiritual than

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the immediate and present vision. We frosty air, the gray-blue skies, the keen cannot foresee without faith as well as wind, the pallid sunlight, the glimpses of memory, without confidence as well as ex- white buds in the garden, of purple buds perience ; and all faith, all confidence, is upon the trees, the feathery outlines of of the very essence of spirit. That is the which we anticipate the leafy outcome, reason, we believe, why the parsimony of are all in their way appeals to courage and beauty in winter lends the beauty which faith ; and courage and faith are, after there is an additional charm. We are all, the most spiritual parts of man, and living by faith, and not by sight. But no lend a charm to what he sees by their aid sooner does the gayety of spring spread which is quite distinct from the charm of itself over the land, than we begin to live rich and overflowing color, or glowing in the present, and even to deplore that suns and balıny breezes. - Spectator. the present should be so transitory. The

THE IMPREGNABLE ROCK OF HOLY SCRIPTURE.

BY THE RIGHT HON. W. E. GLADSTONE, M.P.

Ir is a serious question how far one ig- tral point the study of Homer, and that of norant, like myself, of Hebrew, and hav- the early Seriptures, which may in the ing no regular practice in the study and mass be roughly called contemporary with explanation of the text of the Old Testa- the Homeric period, much light is, and ment, is entitled to attempt representa- with the progress of research more can tions concerning it, which must present hardly fail to be, given and received. more or less the character of advice, to Moreover, I have there had the opporany portion of his fellow-countrymen. It tunity of perceiving how, among specialists is clear that he can draw no sufficient war- as with other men, there may be fashions rant for such a course from the mere of the time and school, which Lord Bacon warmth of his desire that such portion of called idols of the market-place, and curthe British public should not lose or relax rents of prejudice below the surface, which their hold upon the Book which Christen- may detract somewhat from the authority dom regards as an inestimable treasure, which each inquirer may justly claim in and thereby bring upon themselves, as his own field, and from their title to imwell as others, an inexpressible calamity. pose their conclusions upon mankind. As But, on the other hand, he has some bet- a judicious artist likes to know the opinion ter pleas to urge.

The first is that there even of one not an expert on his picture, is a very large portion of the community and sometimes derives benefit from it, so whose opportunities of judgment have in all studies lights may be thrown inward heen materially smaller than his own. from without ; and this in far the largest The second is that though he is greatly degree where the special study deals with wanting in the valuable quaifications grow- a subject matter that has deep root in our ing out of special study in this field, he nature, and is the source of profoundly inhas, for more than forty years (believing teresting controversies for mankind at that change of labor is to a great extent large. Yet I do not feel sure that these the healthiest form of recreation), devoted considerations would have led me to inake the larger part of all such time as he could the present attempt were they not capped properly withdraw froin political duties to with another of great importance. It apanother, and in several respects a similar, pears to me that we may grant, for argufield of specialism-namely, the earnest ment's sake, to the negative or destructive study of prehistoric antiquity and of its specialist in the field of the ancient Scripdocuments in regard to the Greek race, tures all which as a specialist he can by wboso destinies have been, after those of possibility be entitled to ask respecting the Hebrews, the most wonderful in them- the age, text, and authorship of the books, selves, and the most fertile of results for and yet may hold firmly, as firmly as of us, among a!l the races of mankind. As old, to the ideas justly conveyed by the between this field, which has for its cen- title I have adopted for this paper, and NEW SERIES. — VOL. LI., No. 5.

43

on

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we

118.

may invite our fellow-men to stand along children of men !" Or“ How unsearchwith us

" the impregnable rock of able are His judgments, and His ways past Holy Scripture.'

finding out. For tbe memories of men, These words sound like a challenge. and the art of writing, and the care of the And they are a challenge to some extent, copyist, and the tablet and the rolls of but not in the sense that might be sup- parchment, are but the secondary or ineposed. They are a challenge to accept chanical means by which the Word has the Scriptures on the inoral and spiritual been carried down to us along the river of and historical ground of their characters the ages ; and the natural and inherent in themselves, and of the work which weakness of these means is but a special they, and the agencies associated with tribute to the grandeur and greatness of them, have done and are doing in the the end, and of Him that wrought it out. world. We may, without touching the So, then, these high-sounding words domain of the critic, contend for them as have been placed in the foreground of the corresponding by their contents to the present observations, because they consey idea of a Divine revelation to man. We in a positive and definite manner the con. are entitled to attempt to show that they clusion which the observations themselves afford that kind of proof of such a revela. aim at sustaining, at least in outline, on tion which is analogous to the known di- general grounds of reason, and at enforcvine operations in other spheres ; which ing as a great rule of thought and life. binds to conduct ; and which in other They lead upward and onward to the idea matters, inasmuch

are rational that the Scriptures are well called Holy beings, we recognize as entitled so to bind Scriptures ; and that, though assailed by

We may legitimately ask whether camp, by battery, and by iine, they are they do not differ in such a manner from nevertheless a house builded upon a rock, the other documents of prehistoric relig- and that rock impregnable ; that the ions, while they too are precious in vari- weapon of offence, which shall impair their ous ways, as to make them witnesses and efficiency for practical purposes, has not buttresses to the office of Holy Scripture yet been forged ; that the Sacred Canon, rather than sharers in it, although in their which it took (perhaps) two thousand degree they may be this also.

years from the accumulations of Moses But all these assertions lie within the down to the acceptance of the Apocalypse moral and spiritual precinct. No one of to construct, is like to wear out the storms them begs any literary question of Old and the sunshine, and all the wayward Testament criticism. "They leave abso. aberrations of numanity, not merely for a Jately open crery issue that has been or

term as long, but until time shall be no can be raised respecting the origin, date, more. authorship and text of the sacred books, And yet, upon the very threshold, I emwhich for the present purpose we do not brace, in wbat I think a substantial sense, require even to call sacred. Indeed it one of the great canons of modern criti. may be that this destructive criticisin, if cism, which teaches us that the Scriptures entirely made good, would, in the view of are to be treated like any other book in an inquiry really searching, comprehen- the trial of their title. The volume which sive, and pbilosophical, leave as its result is put into our hands when young under not less but greater reason for admiring the that venerated name, is, like any other hidden modes by which the great Artificer volume, put together as a material object works out His designs. In proportion as by human hands. The many and diversi. the means are feeble, perplexed, and to all fied utterances it contains proceeded from appearance confused, is the marvel of the

men ; and the question, whether through results that stand before our eyes. And supernatural guidance they were, for this the upsbot may come to be, that, on this

purpose, inore than men, is to be detervery ground we may have to cry out with mined, like other disputable questions, by the Psalmist * absorbed in worshipping the evidence. The books have been transadmiration, Oh, that men would there- mitted to us from their formation onward fore praise the Lord for His goodness, and in perishable materials, and from remote declare the wonders that He doeth for the dates; and, until four hundred years ago,

by the agency of copyists, as in the case * P8, cvii. 8.

of other literary productions, and presum

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