ist "pays out capital in wages. One a cargo from one port to another—give would think that the 66 paying out” of for the unfinished vessel which would take capital is bardly possible without at least water in at every seam and go down in

temporary” diminution of the capital half an hour, if she were launched ? Supfrom which payment is made. But Prog- pose the shipbuilder's capital to fail before ress and Poverty changes all that by a little the vessel is caulked, and that he cannot verbal legerdemain :

find another shipbuilder who cares to buy Ft For where wages are paid before the object the value created by the labor, for which

and finish it, what sort of proportion does of the labor is obtained, or is finished-as in agriculture, where ploughing and sowing must he has paid out of his capital, stand to precede by several months the harvesting of that of his advances ? Surely no one will the crop; as in the erection of buildings, the give him one-tenth of the capital disconstruction of ships, railroads, canals, is clear that the owners of the capital paid

bursed in wages, perhaps not so much in wages cannot expect an immediate return,

even as the prime cost of the raw matebut, as the phrase is, must “outlay it' or “ lié rials. Therefore, though the assertion that out of it for a time which sometimes the creation of value does not depend amounts to many years. And hence, if first

on the finishing of the product” may be principles are not kept in mind, it is easy to jump to the conclusion that wages are ad. strictly true under certain circumstances, vanced by capital (p. 44).

it need not be and is not always true.

And, if it is meant to imply or suggest Those who have paid attention to the that the creation of value in a manufac. argument of former parts of this paper tured article does not depend upon the inay not be able to understand how, if finishing of that article, à more serious sound“ first principles are kept in mind,” error could hardly be propounded. any other conclusion can be reached, Is there not a prodigious difference in whether by jumping, or by any other the value of an uncaulked and in that of a mode of logical progression. But the first finished ship; between the value of a principle which our author “ keeps in house in which only the tiles of the roof possesses just that amount of am

are wanting and a finished house ; bebiguity which enables bim to play hocus- tween that of a clock which only lacks the pocus with it. It is this—that “ the cre- escapement and a finished clock ? ation of value does not depend upon tbe As ships, house, and clock, the unfinfinishing of the product” (p. 44).

ished articles have no value whateverThere is no doubt that, under certain that is to say, no person who wanted to limitations, this proposition is correct. It purchase one of these things, for immeis not true that “ labor always adds to diate use, would give a farthing for either. capital by its exertion before it takes from The only value they can have apart from capital its wages” (p. 44), but it is true that of the materials they contain is either that it may, and often does, produce that that which they possess for some one who effect.

can finish them, or for some one who can To take one of the examples given, the make use of parts of them for the conconstruction of a ship. The shaping of struction of other things. A man might the timbers undoubtedly gives them a buy an unfinished house for the sake of value (for a shipbuilder) which they did the bricks; or he might buy an incomplete not possess before, When they are put clock to use the works for some other together to constitute the framework of piece of machinery. the ship, there is a still further addition Thus, though every stage of the labor of value (for a shipbuilder); and when bestowed on raw material for the purpose the outside planking is added, there is an- of giving rise to a certain product confers other addition (for a shipbuilder). Sup- some additional value on that material in pose everything else about the hull is fin- the estimation of those who are engaged ished, except the one little item of caulk- in manufacturing that product-the ratio ing the seams, there is no doubt that it of that accumulated value, at any stage of has now still more value for a shipbuilder. the process, to the value of the finished But for whom else has it any value, ex- product is extremely inconstant, and often cept perhaps for a fire-wood merchant ? small; while, to other persons, the value What price will any one who wants a ship of the unfinished product may be nothing, that is to say, something that will carry

a minus quantity. A house.


or even

timber merchant, for example, might con- and therefore, by natural right, is the sider that wood which had been worked property of the laborer; that the possessinto the ribs of a ship was spoiled—that or of capital is a robber who preys on the is, had less value than it had as a log. workman and appropriates to himself that

According to Progress and Poverty, which he has had no share in producing. there was, really, no advance of capital On the contrary, capital and labor are, wbile the great St. Gothard tunnel was necessarily, close allies ; capital is never a cut. Suppose that, as the Swiss and Ital- product of human labor alone ; it exists ian halves of the tunnel approached to apart from human labor ; it is the neceswithin half a kilometre, that half-kilometre sary antecedent of labor ; and it furnishes had turned out to be composed of practi- the materials on which labor is eni ployed. cally inpenetrable rock-would anybody The only indispensable form of capital have given a centime for the unfinished vital capital—cannot be produced by hu. tunnel ? And if not, how comes it that

man labor.

All that man can do is to “the creation of value does not depend favor its formation by the real producers. on the finishing of the product”' ?

There is no intrinsic relation between the

amount of labor bestowed on an article I think it may be not too much to say and its value in exchange. The claim of that, of all the political delusions which labor to the total result of operations are current in this queer world, the very which are rendered possible only by capi. stupidest are those which assume that tal is simply an a priori iniquity. —Ninelabor and capital are necessarily antago- teenth Century. nistic ; that all capital is produced by labor


CONSIDERING that now relations, politi- the Land League and of the National cal, commercial, and social, are being rap- League, with the vast sums of money

foridly developed between America and Eng. warded from America for the promotion land, that friendly understandings are of the objects of these associations, and being consolidated between the two peo. for the attainment of their ultimate aims ; ples— not long ago divided by clannish and \partly and indirectly in connection prejudices and mutual misunderstandings, with the Cronin trial. From these and and separated by those jealousies which similar indications the people of England must of necessity arise between two great may learn that in the political life of commercial powers, of wbich the one is too America there is a rast substratum of proud to endure an equal and the other Irish sentiment and Irish opinion, and that ioo haughty to brook a superior-it has these must operate in a powerful and sig. often been a matter of surprise to us that nificant manner on the current political the people of England know so little, or, affairs of America. Yet it is only dimly what is the same thing, care so little, and through the small end of the teleabout a factor in American life, which, scope that the influential part played by though they may affect to treat it with Irish-Americans is perceived ; often it is contempt, is a mighty and potent factor, perceived through the mist of political in the social and political system of the prejudices and race hatred. To form a United States, a factor which is actually more correct idea of this influence a wider, moulded into American life, and a factor nobler, and clearer view must be taken ; which has exercised, and can exercise, a we must look beyond the mere outlines of powerful influence on the relations which the case, we must probe deeper into, and subsist and may spring up between Great seek farther through, the doubts and conBritain and the United States. We refer fusion that obscure this question ; for it to thai large portion of the Anierican is only by minds void of prepossessions population which is known by the name of and hearts divested of prejudices that the Irish-American. Much has been heard question can be fully and properly underabout this for many years past, in connec. stood. Prejudices are, we admit, hard to tion with the rapid rise and progress of get rid of. They are especially hard in the case of the peoples of England and has often been heard, as occurred in many Ireland. They have been fostered and cases during the fearful famine of 1847, cherished and stimulated by bitter ani. to assert his resolve to demand vengeance mosities and fierce sectarian and race feuds, on his foe before the judgment-seat of which have been the growth of several God. These are characteristics of the centuries of cruel oppression and beartless race, and, strange to say, they do not pass domination on the one side ; and, on the away from the breast of the Irish when other, by the insults offered to the haughty they settle in strange lands, and are spirits of a vanquished but high-souled brought into contact with other peoples. people. In war or peace the motto of the They seem to become stronger and fiercer barbarian of old--voe victis—has ever been when the Celt is removed from his natal held true. The oppression practised by land. And from the moment the Irish the conquerors when they had once at- hills pass from his view till the last motained the mastery over their less powerful ment of his existence, they grow gradually neighbors, together with those insults to in intensity, and assume more defined which, during centuries, they have been forms. These sentiments of hatred towcompelled to submit-insults to their na- ard his foe-and Britain he imagines has tional pride, to their national or adopted been the inveterate foe of his country, his religion, and to those innate feelings religion, and of himself—are transported which urge men to act bravely, to live beyond the sea, they are carried into the nobly, to love liberty and to die fearlessly, far West. There they are being nursed, originated hates and feuds which are now and fostered, and treasured. When the almost forgotten by Englishmen, and living man expires, even then they do not which are becoming rapidly effaced from expire with him. They are handed on the recollection of Irishmen.

from father to son, from son to grandson. Yet it is these same hates, these same Hence it is that to-day we find in the bitter remembrances of the past, which Irish-American feelings which cannot be forms so important an element in the char. found in any other people on the globe ; acter of the American-Gael, and which feelings which do not exist in the Gercause him to be an object of great impor- man-American, in the Polish-American, tance to America, and of grave concern to even, if we may so put it, in the BritishBritain. The memory, and above all the American. We find the Irish-American memory of wrongs inflicted, and of in- citizen to be a man who loves far dearer juries unrevenged, is very deep and abid. the land of his ancestors and his people ing in all peoples of Gaelic origin, and, the land which perhaps he has never seen, especially, in those portions of the race and never may see, and of which he has which have settled in these islands. An heard only by tales told at the hearth, or unprovoked insult, an uncalled-for affront, read of in historical works—than the land cuts them to the very heart. The Saxon of his adoption. To Ireland—to promote would, perhaps, resent such an injury, but her interests, to further her welfare, to he woulu do so with care, with delibera- guard her honor-he devotes all the energy tion, with force ; perhaps, he would let it of his mind ; he sacrifices all that he can pass out of bis mind forever, scording to afford. He thinks no task too difficult, return an insult whicb might have been no effort too expensive, no toil too laborioffered in a moment of passion, with no ous, provided that he can advance her premeditation, no latent design of doing happiness, or relieve her sufferings. In wrong. The Celt is not endowed witb à the words of the child, who in the mastemper so placid. His revenge, if the sacre of Glencoe appealed to Glenlyon to means of gratifying it were at hand, would spare his life, for Ireland“ he would do be short and sharp. He would, with all anything, he would go anywhere." And the energy of his fiery and impressionable 80 he has done. Now these sentiments nature, return blow for blow, wrong for are no mere passing whims and transient wrong, insult for insult. If the means for fantasies which last for a time, when some satiating his passion were not at hand, he story of heartless evictions is wafted across would treasure in his mind the wrong the Atlantic, when by some reports.he done him, he would brood over it, and imagines that England is growing more even when he himself could not have re. callous to the calls of Ireland, more deaf course to the wild justice of despair, he to her appeals. It is, as we have before mentioned, with him a matter of profound tions are filled by ecclesiastics of Irish exconviction, a feeling that is deeply fixed in traction, or of Irish birth. In a word, his inmost soul, an abiding powerful opin- the Catholic Church in the States has been ion. Of this fact account must be taken founded, fostered, formed, for a magnifiby England in her future relations with cent future by Irish exiles. We may safely the United States, if she be not blind to surmise that at present there are in the her own interests, to the interests of her States from 50 to 60 millions of people ; young commercial rival, and to the pros- we may likewise venture to state that of perity of both. Importance must also be these from 12 to 13 millions are, probattached to the vast number of persons of ably, of Irish blood or of Irish birth. Irish blood or of Irish extraction who re- Among every half-dozen Yankees there is side in the United States. On this point at least one bound by some ties to Ireland. the ignorance evinced by the average Eng. And now comes the question, is the Relishman is really astonishing. In his opin. public in any way deeply indebted to these ion, the Irish in America are an inconsid- Irish citizens ? Have they, with their erable fraction of the great population of large numbers, high social standing, great the States. fle has heard of the Clan-na- places of trust, contributed aught to her Gael Society, of the Dynamitards, perhaps glory or added aught to her commercial indirectly of the Irish National League in greatness, refined her social taste, or asthe States. He rails at these Irish-Ameri- sisted in laying the foundations of the real cans, siniles confidently at their weakness, happiness of her people, the real security their insignificance. He indulges in a of her laws, the influence of her civic virgood-natured laugh at their attempts, as he tues, which more than anything else give thinks to look important. “Bah !” he power and permanency to a naissant and says to himself, " these people are to be mighty nation? The answer is unques · pitied rather than to be viewed with con- tionably affirinative. We have only to cern or care ; they number but a bandful ; look back on the past, and to scan the of wealth they have none ; in social status present, state of American affairs to feel they are nowhere. England never has certain of this. feared, never will fear, these fellows.' In the momentous struggle of the Now, in reality, England bas every reason, American colonies in the last century for we will not say to fear, but to view with their freedom, Englishmen are now apt to anxiety this class of American citizens. boast that the standard of rebellion was They are not few in number, nor is their raised by Englishmen, by thein carried wealth little, nor their social standing aloft in good and bad fortune through the low.

war, and by them finally hoisted in triThey are already counted by millions, umph. Do these boasts stand the test of they are scattered in large puinbers in strict investigation ? We think not : we every State, from Boston to San Francisco, think they are not justified by facts. froin Washington to New Orleans. They Every earnest student of the history of have settled in immense numbers along the that struggle—so fraught with interest to base of the Alleghany Mountains, by the the future progress of man-knows well shores of the lakes, and in the gold fields that, as the Torics themselves, in an adof the far West. In many States, the dress presented to King George, said, highest, the most important, the most that fully as many Englishmen had joined coveted positions are in the hands of Irish- the Royal troops as had joined the armies

Members of Congress, senators, the of the insurgents; and we are assured by great executive functionaries, the police, an eminent authority that at least 25,000 the bar, the bench, are all largely recruited British-Americans fought against Amerifrom the ranks of the Celt. In the Catho- can independence. These are telling facts. lic Church, which, as Macaulay observed. They are rendered more telling by the cirhas been more than recompensed in the cumstance that on the march of the EngNew World for what she has lost in the lish forces out of Boston, whence they Old, which in point of numbers is the were forced by Washington, they were acNational Church of the States, and which companied by 1100 Tory traders of New holds out every promise of becoming in York and Boston. What part did the every point the National Church of the Celt take in the struggle? The stream of future, the loftiest and most sacred func. emigration from Ireland had not then set


If an

in fully. Yet even at that period there Ireland has contributed her share in buildwere emigrations. The Presbyterian ing up and supporting a free American farmers of the north of Ireland had left constitution, what sacrifices she has made, the country in large numbers, expecting what blood she bas shed. Who then can from the Government no relief from the wonder at the vast influence exerted by exactions of absentee landlords. They' the Irish-Americans on American politics, had set out in still larger numbers after when we consider their numbers, when the suppression of the Hearts of Steel. we reflect on their glorious record ? One They were largely followed by the Catho- point we would specially allude to. The lic farmers of the Sonth. Now Froude- Irish in America are a homogeneous peono friend of Ireland-says that among the ple. They have never lost the distinctive most forward in council, the most out- marks of their separate existence as a na. spoken in Congress, the most intrepid on tion. Though surrounded by various peothe field were the Irish. A Royal gen. ples, various creeds, and employing varieral, Montgomery, being questioned as to ous modes of life, the Irishman has still the strength of the Americans, said that managed to remind himself, and to remind fully one-half of the rebel forces were others, to what country he belongs. InIrish. So speaks Ramsay in his History termarriage has not, to any appreciable of the Revolution. In American military extent, disturbed this state of affairs. If andals no naines are more honored than an Irishman marry an English woman he those of the Butlers, Merylans, Sullivans, still remains Irish to the core. Warnes--all unmistakably pointing to Irish woman choose an Englishman for their origin. In the part of the temple husband, the odds are ten to one but that of fame set apart for the honor of the de- she will rear up her children in her own parted herves of the sea, no niche would national religion, and inspire them with occupy a higher place than that of Sancy, her national ideas. She will speak to them old Jack Barry, and later on than that of of the triumph of Clontarf, and Malachy's the fearless Parnell.

Nay, strangely collar of gold, lull them to sleep by some enough, fate willed that the Irish, the wild mournful chant of the woes inflicted sons and grandsons of those who left Ire- on the Gael by the Saxon, of the treason land after the siege of Limerick, and of of Mac Murrough, of the massacre of the “wild geese of Kerry and Clare, Mullagmast, and of the violated treatyunder the banners of France, should take stone of Limerick. Nay, in many Engpart in the struggle in connection with lish homes in the States, in which an Irishwhich the name of Count Dillon will long woman is the mother, may be seen little be remembered. Thus we can see the portraits of Molyneux, and Grattan, and great part played by the Celt in the first. O'Connell, and perhaps there may be read great American conflict; we can see him some lines commemorating the chivalry in every part of the struggle, in the thick- and heroism and purity of soul of Emmet, est of the fiery conflict, in the Senate, in of his enterprise, and of its results, the Council, at the Press, all to a man One other feature-a feature which everywhere “ hurling defiance to the foc." springs from their existence as children of We have often thought that through Ire- one common motherland, and as members land, and Ireland solely, was America lost of one common creed—may be noticed. to England. So in every national strug. They are to an extraordinary degree libgle, in every national revolution, Irishmen eral, generous, nay, even munificent. In have come to the front. Even in the last all their trials and troubles, especially in great war between North and South—a those in which any of their number suffer war of which the full magnitude can only for the sake of their common cause, their be appreciated by future generations-was open-banded and open-hearted munificence there a more cautious commander, a more knows no bounds. Their sympathy is intrepid soldier, one more loved by his heartfelt, and their aid liberal to an ex. friends or respected by his foes, than Gen- treme. No people on the globe afford a eral Phil Sheridan ? In fact, in every finer example of the practice of pure, unpage of the history of the United States, selfish generosity than they ; no people from its inception to the present moment, exist who esteein less money for its own the effects of the words and deeds of Irish- sake than they. We all reinember the men arc legible. We can thus see how plentiful provision that was made for the

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