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differences. One of the dialects is pbilo- conquest of the country and the removal logically older than the other, containing of its capital to San'a. The intervention of fuller and more primitive grammatical Persia in the struggle was soon followed forms. The inscriptions in this dialect by the appearance of Mohammedanism belong to a kingdom the capital of which upon the scene, and Jew, Christian, and was at Ma'in, and which represents the Parsi were alike overwhelmed by the flow. country of the Minæans of the ancients. ing tide of the new creed. The inscriptions in the other dialect were The epigraphic evidence makes it clear engraved by the princes and people of that the origin of the kingdom of Sabâ Sabâ, the Sheba of the Old Testament, went back to a distant date. Dr. Glaser the Sabæans of classical geography. The traces its history from the time when its Sabæan kingdom lasted to the time of princes still but Makârib, Mohammed, when it was destroyed by the Priests,” like Jethro, the Priest of Midadvancing forces of Islam. Its rulers for ian, through the ages when they were several generations had been converts to “ kings of Saba," and later still " kings Judaism, and had been engaged in almost of Sabâ and Raidân," to the days when constant warfare with the Ethiopic king- they claimed imperial supremacy over all dom of Axum, which was backed by the the principalities of Southern Arabia. It influence and subsidies of Rome and By- was in this later period that they dated zantium. Dr. Glaser seeks to show that their inscriptions by an era, which, as the founders of this Ethiopic kingdom Halévy first discovered, corresponds to 115 were the Habâsa, or Abyssinians, who One of the kings of Sabâ is menmigrated from Himyar to Africa in the tioned in an inscription of the Assyrian second or first century B.C. ; when we first king of Sargon (B.C: 715), and Dr. Glaser hear of them in the inscriptions they are believes that he has found his name in a still the inhabitants of Northern Yemen Himyaritic” text. When the last priest, and Mahrah. More than once the Ax- Samah'alî Darrahh, became king of Sabâ, umites made themselves masters of South- we do not yet know, but the age must be ern Arabia.
About A.D. 300 they occu- sufficiently remote, if the kingdom of Saba pied its ports and islands, and from 350 to already existed when the Queen of Sheba 378 even the Sabæan kingdom was tribu- came from Ophir to visit Solomon. tary to them. Their last successes were The visit need no longer cause astonishgained in 525, when, with Byzantine help, ment, notwithstanding the long journey by they conquered the whole of Yemen. But land which lay between Palestine and the the Sabæan kingdom, in spite of its tem. south of Arabia. One of the Minæan inporary subjection to Ethiopia, had long scriptions discovered by Dr. Glaser menbeen a formidable State. Jewish colonies tions Gaza, and we now have abundant settled in it, and one of its princes became evidence, as we shall see, that the power a convert to the Jewish faith. His suc- and culture of the Sabæans extended to cessors gradually extended their dominion the frontiers of Edom. From the earliest as far as Ormuz, and after the successful times the caravans of Dedan and Tema revolt from Axum in 378, brought not had traversed the highways which led from only the whole of the southern coast under Syria to the spice-bearing regions of their sway, but the western coast as well, Yemen. Three thousand years ago it was as far north as Mekka. Jewish influence easier to travel through the length of Aramade itself felt in the future birthplace of bia than it is to-day. A culture and civilMohammed, and thus introduced those ization existed there of which only echoes ideas and beliefs which subsequently had remain in Mohammedan tradition. so profound an effect upon the birth of As we have seen, the inscriptions of Islam. The Byzantines and Axumites en- Ma'in set before us a dialect of more prim. deavored to counteract the influence of itive character than that of Sabâ. HitherJudaism by means of Christian colonies to it has been supposed, however, that the and prosclytism. The result was a conflict two dialects were spoken contemporanebetween Šabâ and its assailants, which ously, and that the Minean and Sabæan took the form of a conflict between the kingdoms existed side by side. But geogmembers of the two religions. A violent raphy offered difficulties in the way of persecution was directed against the Chris- such a belief, since the seats of Minaan tians of Yemen, avenged by the Ethiopian power were embedded in the midst of the
Sabæan kingdom, much as the fragments Christian times, inscriptions were of Cromarty are embedded in the midst graved upon the rocks in the Nabathean of other counties. Dr. Glaser has now characters and language of Petra-inscrip- . made it clear that the old supposition was tions in which a fertile imagination once incorrect, and that the Minæan kingdom discovered a record of the miracles wrought preceded the rise of Saba. We can now by Moses in the wilderness. understand why it is that neither in the Since Mr. Doughty's adventurous wanOld Testament nor in the Assyrian inscrip- derings, Teima and its neighborhood have tions do we hear of any princes of Ma'in, been explored by the famous German and that though the classical writers are ac- epigraphist, Professor Eating, in company quainted with the Minean people they with a Frenchman, M. Huber. M. Huknow nothing of a Minæan kingdom.* ber's life was sacrificed to Arab fanatiThe Minæan kingdom, in fact, with its cism, but Professor Euting returned with culture and monuments, the relics of which a valuable stock of inscriptions. Some of still survive, must have flourished in the these are in Aramaic Nabathean, the most gray dawn of history, at an epoch at which, important being on a stêlê discovered at as we have hitherto imagined, Arabia was Teima, which is now in the Museum of the home only of pomad barbarism. And the Louvre. About 750 are in an alphayet in this remote age apbabetic writing bet and language which have been termed was already known and practised, the al- Protoarabic, and are still for the most part phabet being a modification of the Phæni- unpublished. Others are in a closely cian written vertically and not horizontally. allied language and alphabet, called LiblyTo what an early date are we referred for anian by Professor D. H. Müller, since the origin of the Phænician alphabet it. the kings by whose reigns the inscriptions self !
are dated are entitled kings of Libhyan, The Minæan kingdom must have had a though it is more than probable that Lihlong existence. The names of thirty-three hyân represents the Thamud of the Arabic of its kings are already known to us, three genealogists. The rest are in the language of them occurring not only on monuments and alphabet of Ma'in, and mention Minof Southern Arabia bnt on those of North- æan Sovereigns, whose names are found ern Arabia as well.
on the monuments of Southern Arabia. * Northern Arabia has been as much a The Minæan and Libhyanian texts have terra incognita to Europeans as the fertile been mainly discovered in El-Ola and Elfields and ruins of Arabia Felix. But
But Higr, between Teima and El-Wej-a port here, too, the veil has been lifted by re- that until recently belonged to Egypt-on cent exploration. First, Mr. Doughty the line of the pilgrims' road to Mekka. made his way to the ruins of Teima, tha The Protoarabic inscriptions, on the other Tema of the Bible (Is. xxi. 14; Jer. xxv. hand, are met with in all parts of the coun23 ; Job vi. 19), and the rock-cut tombs try, and according to Professor Müller, of Medain Salibh, wandering in Bedouin form the intermediate link between the dress at the risk of his life through a large Phænician and Minæan alphabets. Like part of Central Arabia. He brought back the Lihhyanian, the language they emwith him a number of inscriptions, which body is distinctly Arabic, though presentproved that this part of the Arabian conti- ing curious points of contact with the rent had once been in the hands of Naba
Semitic languages of the north, as for extheans who spoke an Aramaic language. ample in the possession of an article ha. and that the Ishmaelites of Scripture, in. The antiquity of Lihhyanian writing may stead of being the ancestors of the tribe of be judged from the fact that Professor Koreish, as Mohammedan writers imagine, Müller has detected a Lihhyadian inscripwere an Aranean population, whose lan- tion on a Babylonian cylinder in the Britguage was that of Aram and not of Ara- ish Museum, the age of which is approxibia. The Sinaitic inscriptions bad already mately given as 1000 B.C. shown that in the Sinaitic peninsula Arabic is as much an imported language as it is in * The Minæan and Libhyanian texts have Egypt and Syria. There, too, in pre- been edited and translated, with an imporWe gather, therefore, that as far back from a raiding attack on the part of the as the time of Solomon, a rich and cul- tribes of Sabâ and Khaulân, or Havilah, tured Sabæan kingdom flourished in the goes on to speak of their further deliversouth of Arabia, the influence of which, if ance from danger in the midst of Misr," not its authority, extended to the borders or Egypt, when there was war between the of Palestine, and between which and Syria latter country and the land of Mazi, which an active commercial intercourse was car- Dr. Glaser would identify with the Edomried on by land as well as by sea. The ite tribe of Mizzah (Gen. xxxvi. 13). kingdom of Sabâ had been preceded by There was yet a third occasion, however, the kingdom of Ma'in, equally civilized on which the dedicators had been rescued and equally powerful, whose garrisons and by their deities 'Athtar, Wadd, and Nikcolonies were stationed on the high-road råhh ; this was when war had broken out which led past Mekka to the countries of between the rulers of the south and of the the Mediterranean. Throughout this vast north. If the rulers of the south were the extent of territory alphabetic writing in princes of Ma'in, whose power extended various forms was known and practised, to Gaza, the rulers of the north ought to the Phænician alphabet being the source be found in Egypt or Palestine. Future from which it was derived. The belief research may teil us who they were, and accordingly that pre-Mohammedan Arabia when they lived. was a land of illiterate nomads must be
tant introduction, by Professor D. H. Müller : * It is possible that a Minean population is “Epigraphische Denkmäler aus Arabien," in meant by the Maonites of Judges x, 12, the the “ Denkschriften d. K. Akademie d. Wis. Mehunims'' of 2 Chron. xxvi. 7.
senschaften zu Wien," vol. xxxvii. 1889.
But the epigraphy of ancient Arabia is abandoned ; it was not Islam that intro- still in its infancy. The inscriptions alduced writing into it, but the princes and ready known to us represent but a small merchants of Ma'in and Thamud, centuries proportion of those that are yet to be disupon centuries before. If Mohammedan covered. Vast tracts have never yet been Arabia knew nothing of its past, it was traversed by the foot of an explorer, and not because the past had left no records there are ancient ruins which have never behind it.
yet been seen by the eye of the European. A Power which reached to the borders What has been accomplished already with of Palestine nust necessarily have come the scanty means still at our disposal is an into contact with the great monarchies of earnest of what remains to be done. The the ancient world. The army of Ælius dark past of the Arabian peninsula has Gallus was doubtless not the first which been suddenly lighted up, and we find had sought to gain possession of the cities that long before the days of Mohammed it and spice-gardens of the south. One such was a land of culture and literature, a seat invasion is alluded to in an inscription of powerful kingdoms and wealthy comwhich was copied by M. Halévy. The merce, which cannot fail to have exercised inscription belongs to the closing days of an influence upon the general history of the Minæan kingdom, and after describing the world. - Contemporary Review. how the gods had delivered its dedicators
THE DREADFUL REVIVAL OF LEPROSY.
BY SIR MORELL MACKENZIE.
In order to explain what may at first recated by Mr. Balfour, I may add that I sight appear to be an intrusion into a re- have made special investigations on leprosy gion altogether foreign to my line of pro- in most of its European haunts, and also fessional work, I may perhaps be allowed in Madeira ; I may therefore claim the to say that from a very early period of my right to speak of it with some amount of career I have taken a particular interest in personal knowledge. My attention was leprosy. Next to the skin, the throat is first directed to the subject nearly thirty the part most often attacked by the worst years ago, when I was studying diseases of form of the disease ; and for this reason I the skin under the celebrated Hebra at have songht every opportunity of seeing it Vienna. In his wards I saw several cases at close quarters. At the risk of falling of leprosy, which I understood came from into the " autobiographical" vein so dep the "Danubian Principalities” of those days. In 1880 I examined a number of the world without knowing that such a lepers in the Hospital de San Lazaro at disease as leprosy was to be met with. Seville, in 1881 I saw several cases in the Their first introduction to it was often lazaretto at Funchal, and in 1884 I made when its existence was forced on them as extensive investigations in Norway, at a strange and disconcerting phenomenon Molde and Bergen, where I had the ad. in actual practice. vantage of the assistance of Dr. Danielssen Space will not permit me to trace the and Ďr. Armauer Hansen, whose names earlŷ history of leprosy in ancient times, are familiar as household words to the nor even to chronicle its course in Europe medical profession throughout the world in the dark ages. My regret at being in connection with leprosy. In Daniels- obliged to leave out some historical details sen, who has watched the course of the whioh might prove interesting is lessened disease among several generations of his by the fact that an excellent summary of countrymen, che doctrine of heredity the researches of Hirsch,* Munro,t and finds its most uncompromising champion; others, was published five years ago in this in his son-in-law Hansen, the discoverer Review by Miss Agnes Lambert. of the bacillus lepræ, contagion has natu- Judging from the long intervals of time rally enough one of its most thoroughgoing which often elapsed without any mention supporters, One could bardly be in a of the disease, and the frequent notices of better position for hearing both sides of it by writers at particular periods, it would this most important question than between appear that between the twelfth and the those two distinguished men. In 1888 I fifteenth centuries the disease underwent saw a few cases in Italy in the Civil Hos. considerable vicissitudes, becoming at pital at San Remo.*
I have also bad a times more prevalent and then again being few opportunities during the last twenty- much less common. These changes probfive years of examining cases of leprosy ably corresponded with alternating periods here in London, in my own practice and of want and prosperity, the disease bethat of others.
coming general when the vitality of the In this country most people, I imagine, nation was lowered by long wars, pestiwere till lately in blissful ignorance of the lences, and famine. The extraordinary fact that leprosy still walks the earth in all spread of the disease at the time of the its original hideousness. Vague notions, Crusades led to the belief that it had again derived partly from the Bible and partly been imported into Europe from the East, from casual references in historical works, and Voltaire characteristically says that inade ap the sum of popular knowledge on this was the only permanent result achieved tho subject, and to the general reader" by these expeditions. There is, however, leprosy was but a name, an extinct deino. abundant proof that even if leprosy was therium of the palæontology of disease. reimported, it had really never left Europe. Very few English doctors were better in- In the early part of the sixteenth century formed. The disease was either not re- the scourge suddenly began to abate, and ferred to at all, or was dealt with in the in a relatively short time it became nearly most perfunctory way in lectures and text- extinct in most of the countries of Eubooks of medicine. As Dr. Mudro, whose rope. writings on leprosy have done so much to There are, however, a few strongholds diffuse a knowledge of the disease among from which leprosy has never been driven. medical men, points ont, students a very Spain supplies many centres of infection, few years ago might have gone out to fulfil but it is impossible to obtain exact statistheir mission of healing in various parts of tics on the subject. We have, however, and Castellon." * Dr. John Webster, who Dow almost extinct in these localities. visited the leper hospital at Grenada about Small foci of leprosy still exist in Thessaly thirty years ago, found it tenanted by and Macedonia ; the affection is not rare in fifty-three inmates. He was informed that some of the Ægean islands, e.g. Samos, in 1851 the number of lepers in nine prov. Rhodes, Chios, and Mitylene, and it is exinces of Spain was 284 ; this was probably traordinarily prevalent in Crete. It is far below the real number, as the natural spreading to an alarming degree in Russia, tendency of lepers and their friends to especially in the Baltic Provinces, and it hide their affliction is in Spain intensified has lately been found necessary to establish by religious superstition, and the supine- a special hospital at Riga. In St. Petersness of the authorities must lead to per- burg cases are occasionally, though very functoriness in the difficult task of col- rarely, met with ; at least half of them are lecting statistics on the subject. Dr. imported from outlying provinces. “SpoWebster was informed that leprosy was radic" cases are said to occur in some believed to be spreading in Spain at the parts of Hungary and Roumania. In time of his visit. At Seviile, in 1880, I Sweden, where the disease was extremely found thirty-nine sufferers in the Hospital prevalent up to the beginning of the presde San Lazaro. During the five years ent century, it seems now to ave almost 1875–80, the total number of lepers ad. died out. Norway is unquestionably the mitted was eighty-four, the greatest num- most considerable leprosy centre in Europe ber in any year having been twenty-one at the present day, but the disease is cu(1879–80). Seville itself supplied the riously limited to particular regions, such largest contingent ; then
the testimony of Dr. Roman Viscarro to * Invalids visiting this charming health re- the fact that “from time immemorial sort need not be afraid of coming in contact lepers swarm in Spain, especially in the with lepers. The few unfortunate victims of the disease are kept under close supervision provinces of Asturias, Tarragona, Valencia in the Civil Hospital, which is situated on a high rock, and is separated even from the old * Handbook of_Geographical and Historical town to which the building is adjacent. The Pathology. By Dr. August Hirsch. Trangpart of San Remo which is frequented by lated from the second German edition by those seeking health or sunshine in that de- Charles Creighton, M.D. lightful spot is as free from lepers as Brighton + Edinburgh Medical Journal, Vols. xxii., or Eastbourne.
xxiii., xxiv., XXV.
then came Cadiz, as the districts round Bergen, Molde, and Huelva, Almeria, Badajoz and Pontevedra. Trondhjem. The figures, however, give an altogether In almost every other quarter of the inadequate idea of the prevalence of lep- globe leprosy is rife at present, and wherrosy in these districts.
As a high au- ever it exists it seems to be slowly, but thority says : ". In addition to the sufferers surely, extending its ravages. It is imfrom those provinces who enter the hos- possible to estimate even approximately pital, there are many others who remain the total number of lepers now dying by at home with their families, some main- inches throughout the world, but it is certained by them, others dependent on pub- tain that they must be counted by millions. lic charity; and probably only those seek It cannot be comforting to the pride of shelter in the hospital who are destitute of England," the august mother of nations,' all resource.'t The late Dr. Jelly I showed to reflect that a very large proportion of how extraordinarily prevalent leprosy is in these wretched sufferers is to be found the district known as La Marina, which among her own subjects. takes in the sea-board of the two provinces That leprosy has spread considerably in of Valentia and Alicante ; and he also recent times there can be po manner of brought forward proofs of the spread of doubt. Within the last fifty years the the disease in the south of Spain in recent sceds of the disease have been sown in years.
several districts where it was previously Portugal has more lepers than any unknown, and already the accursed crop other European country, except Norway : has begun to show itself. As has been but want of space prevents my showing its shown by Dr. Munro,* the seeds of lepdistribution. In Italy leprosy is met with rosy take something like half a century to on the Genoese Riviera ; it was also found mature, and there is every prospect that till quite recently at Comacchio, in the unless the natural evolution of the scourge Ferrara marshes. In Sicily the diseaso has can in some way be prevented, a terrible been steadily spreading for the last thirty harvest will be reaped before many years or forty years. In annexing Nice, France are past. To say nothing of the notorious took over with it a considerable number case of the Sandwich Islands, where lepof Italian lepers belonging to Le Turbie rosy, imported about the year 1850, either and neighboring places, but the disease is by whaling ships manned by sailors from
leprous regions or by Chinese immigrants, * El Siglo Medico. Oct. 21, 1883.
has since made such fearful progress, we + Dr, Ph. Hauser, Estudios Medico-Sociales de Sevilla, Madrid : 1884, p. 319. | Brit. Med. Journ., July 23, 1887.
* Loc. cit.