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the Church, but the work of Archdeacon cious, and destined to achieve victories in Wilberforce on the Incarnation forced a field Möbler had never dreamed of; it thcology to the front, with most significant was adopted by Wilberforce, though stated results. This work is an expansion of a without the sharp precision which distinsection in Möhler's “Symbolik,” which guished Möbler. The incarnation is the in its turn is an application of the Hegelian central dogma of Christianity ; Christ as idea to the Catholic Church. The idea, incarnate is on one side the pattern and indeed, is much older than Hegel, but its representative of humanity ; on the other, modern form is due to him. Schelling the mediator between God and inan—at forinulated the notion : the incarnation of once the one sacrifice for sin and the one God is an incarnation from eternity. channel of divine grace. The Church is Hegel expressed the notion in the terms His body mystical ; to be united to it, is of the philosophy of history ; Möhler trans- to be united to Him. It is, as it were, lated it into a philosophy of Catholicism ; His organized presence, exercising his and apparently its changeful career is not functions as Mediator and Saviour. It is yet ended. It was said of Petavius that impossible to tell

66 whether men he so penetrated Catholicism with the joined to Christ by being joined to His Protestant spirit that his very apology was Church, or joined to His Church by being a victory for Protestantism ; at least this joined to Him. The two relations hang much is true, that in handling dogma he inseparably together.” Hence the value was the liberal and his great Anglican op- of the sacraments, they “ bind to llim,' ponent the conservative. Now if we sub- make us participate in His presence, stitute Hegelian for Protestant we may say communicate to us His man's nature, incormuch the same of Möhler. It is curious porate us in His body mystical, “the rethat the fundamental idea of Möhler was newed race” which He“ has been plcased also the fundamental idea of Strauss, * to identify with himself.”

They are, with this difference : Strauss universalized, therefore, the primary and essential means but Möhler sectionalized the idea. Strauss of grace on which all others depend ; they transferred the predicates of Christ to work our unity with the incarnate Son of Man, conceived humanity as the Son of God, and through Him with the Father. God, born of the invisible Father and visi- 2. Now the significance of this work ble Mother, eternal, sinless, feeble, suffer- lies here, it supplied the movement with a ing, dying in its members, but in its col. dogmatic basis ; placed it, as it were, unlective being risen, reigning, immortal, der the control of a defining and deterinfallible, and divine. But Möhler re- mining idea. Most of the positions bad stricted the divine predicates to the Catho- been maintained before ; what Wilberlic Church ; it was the abiding incarnation force gave was a co-ordinating and unifying of Christ, the Son of God continuously ap- principle. This changed the whole outpearing in buman form among men, with look ; the question did not need to be an existence ever renewed, a being eter- debated as one of Patristic or Anglican nally rejuvenescent. Strauss' notion ex. archæology ; it had a philosophy ; its pressed a consistent Pantheism, humanity reason was one with the reason of the inwas the incarnation of the divine, repre- carnation.

The Church was, as it were, sented the process by which the impersonal the Son of God articulated in sacraments, All created persons, passed from subjec- explicated in symbols, organized into a tive to objective being, and was realized visible body politic for the exercise of His in the realm of conscious existence ; but mediation on earth. This dogipatic idea Möhler's expressed what we may term an created the new Ritualism as distinguished ecclesio-theism, which represented the froin the old Tractarianism ; and changed Church as the form in which God existed the centre of gravity from a dubivus quesfor the world, and through which the tion in ecciesiastical history, discussed world could reach God. The Church was with learning, but without science, to a thus conceived as arrayed in all the attri- fact of faith or living religious, belief. hutes and possessed of all the functions of Ritualism may be described as the evanthe Son of God. The notion was auda- gelical idea done into the institutions and

rites of a sacerdotal Church. The idea * Möhler, of course, was the elder and earlier. The "

Symbolik” was pablished in remains, and is the same, but its vehicle 1832, the “ Leben Jesu' in 1835.

is changed. To speak with Hegel, the

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Begriff is translated back into the Vorstel- add, that here the Broad Church has a lung, the spiritual truth is rendered into a nobler idea than the Anglo-Catholic. To sensuous picture. Ritual is dogma in resolve the English Church into the Chrissymbol ; dogma is articulated Ritual. tian people of England is to show a right Justification is as necessary as ever, but it is conception of the place of the people conditioned on the sacraments rather than within it; but to resolve it into a bicfaith. Regeneration is still held, but it is rarchy or hierocracy, with its instruments worked by an outward act rather than an and dependences, is utterly to misconceive inward process.

Where the pure preach the relation of the society and its organs. ing of the word once stood, the due ad- Yet even under these conditions the evanministration of the sacraments now stands. gelical idea has proved its energy ; the To it an authorized priesthood is neces- men who have construed their Church and sary ; without it there can be no Eucha: their order through their Christology have rist, in other hands the Supper is no sacra- been of another spirit than the men who ment or efficacious means of grace. In construed them through Patristic and Anorder to a valid priesthood there must be glican tradition as interpreted by an ina constitutive authority—the bishops who possible canon. The old men feared the stand in the apostolical succession, and a people ; “Liberalism” was the spirit of constitutive act-ordination at their hands. evil,“ Whiggery" its tool, and popu The chain is complete : without the apos- movements the very thing the Church tolical authority no bishop, without the most needed defence against ; but the new bishop no priest, without the priest po men burn with missionary zeal, the peculsacrament, without the sacraments iar evangelical passion that seeks to save Church, without the Church no means of men by reconciling them to God. In grace, no mediation or reconciliation their hands are the instruments of life, and through Christ of man with God. Two they multiply symbols and administer sacthings are essential to the Church, the raments as men who possess and distribute clergy and the sacraments; and of these the grace that saves. the clergy are the greater, for without Now, it is a question of the very gravest them the full sacraments cannot be, while order, Is this Anglo-Catholicism a suffithe sacraments cannot but be where they cient and a veracious interpretation of the

They are therefore in a most real religion of Christ ? Is it a system to sense of the essence of the Church, while which we can trust with a convinced reathe people are but an accident; they rep- son and a clear conscience the future at resent its formal-or normative authority- once of our English people and our Chris. i.e., they are the regulative principle of its tian faith? Does it present that faith in being ; it is not the condition and warrant the form most calculated to satisfy the of theirs. But, so construed, the theory intellect and heart of our critical age, to is less a doctrine of the Church than of its deal with its social and economical probofficers ; it is not the Christian Society or lems, to unite its divided classes, to repeople or commonwealth constituting its strain and conquer its sin, to foster its virofficers or priesthood, but the priesthood tues, and be the mother of all its benefi. constituting the people. In its Anglican cences ? These are too large and vital form the Apostolical Succession of the questions to be discussed in a concluding clergy, or the bishops who ordain the paragraph ; so we shall reserve ihe discusclergy, is a denial of the Apostolical de- sion for another paper, in which we shall scent of the Church. And so it is not too seek light and help from the professed much to say, the larger and more empha- “servants of the Catholic creed and sized the idea of the clergy, the meaner Church."— Contemporary Review, the idea of the Church ; and we may

NEW SERIES. – VOL. LI., No. 4.

are.

36

THE CONCIERGERIE.

' A RELIC OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.

Within the past few weeks the prison lowed to leave it for a moment day or of the Conciergerie has been much spoken night. At the height of the Reign of of ; for, after a lapse of nearly a century, Terror it was generally crowded with from it has once more numbered among its pris- fifty to one hundred persons, and not al. oners a conspicuouis member of the French ways of the same sex. A little to the left Royal family, the Duke of Orleans. At was a spacious cloister, surrounded by the time of the Great Revolution its aspect arcades, and having small fountain in its was very unlike its present one. Built in centre. Here the female prisoners were the reign of St. Louis, it was originally perunitted to take exercise, wash their the porter's lodge-hence its name, Con- clothing, and not unfrequently in fine ciergerie-servants’hall, and kitchens of weather spend the whole day. This courtthat monarch's palace, and some of its yard was separated by an iron railing from apartments in the early part of the present a similar one used by the men, who were century were still known as les cuisines de free to talk with the women, and even toSt. Louis. In 1794 externally it was play cards with them, through the rails. cheerful enough, for the first story was On the right-hand side was a series of occupied by a series of fashionable shops rooms known as Chambres de Pistole. for the sale of gloves, perfumery, ribbons, This consisted of what had originally been and knick-knacks. Under these shops, and one vast vaulted ball, but was now conindeed surrounding them on all sides, was verted into a sort of dormitory containing the series of disinal durgeons in which as many as fifty beds. It was called pispersons convicted of treason were detained tole because here people who wished to pending their sentence and its execution. have a bed could do so by paying from In 1825 the greater part of the old prison twenty-seven to thirty livres a month ; was destroyed, and, with the exception of but it very often happened that the same the two picturesque towers known as Julius bed was let three or four times over, owCæsar and Montgomerie, and the cell of ing to the fact that its latest occupant had Marie Antoinette, nothing of the original been sent to the guillotine. There was building remains intact. According to a another set of cheaper lodgings, with a very minute plan taken in 1796, the ar- litter of straw thrown on the ground, and rangement of the prison during the Reign used by those who could not pay for more of Terror was as follows. The principal luxurious accommodation. Those who entry, as at present, was from the inner slept here were popularly known as pail. courtyard which opens into the Palais de leurs and pailleuses. In the last years of Justice. A narrow Gothic doorway led to the tyranny of Robespierre, when the a small inner courtyard, at the far end of Tribunal was sending its daily cartloads of which was the guichet, or turnstile, a low victims to the guillotine, from forty to door about three feet and a half high, to fifty beds were used every night by fresh enter which the prisoners were obliged to victims, who paid each 15 livres for their bend nearly double, or even crawl on their sleeping accommodation.

This system hands and knees. Once within, they brought in a profitable revenue of about found themselves in a large and well- 10001. a month. A little beyond the Jighted chamber, where they were con

Chambres de Pistole a narrow passage led fronted by the chief jailer, Richard. Be- into the apartment known as that of Héloïse yond his salon was a long dark passage, and Abélard, which had a very fine vaulted in which the women were kept until they ceiling, and was situated directly under the were wanted pour la toilette. Some. hall of the Revolutionary Tribunal, where times they remained here a inonth, their the prisoners were judged, and served as food being handed to them through a nar- a general passage to and from that hall. row slit in the wall. Not a few died from It will be remembered that in the Dead, the effects of the horrible stenches with Heart the duel between Landry and Latour which this stilling corridor was always takes place in the Conciergerie, and in the filled ; for the unfortunates were not al- upper hall, only at the Lyceum Theatre the Gothic architecture, which predomi- to use Lamartine's expression, “ infernal" nated the interior of the entire building, night. It may be well imagined that has not been adhered to. Externally the there was not inuch attention paid to deConciergerie was apparently modern, have cency, for the men and women were oddly ing been whitewashed, and the Gotbic mixed. With the lightness of heart which arches of the windows bricked up and fur- characterizes the French, they amused nished with the usual green blinds, so that themselves as best they could. They little or nothing of its original architecture played cards, improvised games, made appeared. But internally the ceilings love, and even danced. Their gayety was, throughout were vaulted, the doors Gothic, however, at the best but an ill-adjusted and the whole prison had a thoroughly mask, and it may be said of the Concierfeudal aspect, which was suggestively dis- gerie that its very stones, like the sands mal. The first official whose acquaintance of the Roman Čoliseum, are saturated the prisoner formed was the chief jailer, with tears and blood. Owing to its proxRichard, already referred to, a fairly hu- imity to the Palais de Justice, almost every mane fellow according to his light. His distinguished victim of the Reign of Terwife, Mme. Richard, has won a deserved ror passed at least a night within its porplace among the heroines of the Revolu- tals. In the cell now converted into a sort tion for her respectful treatment of Marie of half chapel and half museum, Marie Antoinette and her general kindness to the Antoinette lived a living death from Auunhappy victims in her charge. Richard gust 2 to October 16-—the day of her exehad ton jailers under him, seven or eight cution. This cell was then considered one of whom were imposed upon him by those of the worst in the prison. It was damp, in

power, and were fearful brutes, gener- dark, and unwholesome. The walls were ally half drunk, and attended by half a pot papered, a scrap of dirty carpet, a dozen savage dogs.

screen full of holes, a camp bed, and a All the Memoirs of the time describe broken chair, were all the furniture it conthe Conciergerie as dreadfully damp and tained. Mme. Richard, kind soul, risked filthy. The majority of the dungeons her life to make it a little more comfortwere below the level of the street, on that able, changed the sheets frequently, filled of the river, and infested with rats to such the pitcher with fresh water, and brought an extent that more than one prisoner was her august prisoner peaches and flowers. nearly killed by them. In the first year Not far from this den was the old chapel, of the Republic the Conciergerie was fairly now destroyed, where the Girondins sang well organized ; but from 1792 to 1794 it for the last time Le chant du départ, and became a veritable pandemonium, being hard by yet another chapel of even greater literally packed with prisoners of both antiquity, which in 1794 was the scene of sexes, beds being made up in what bad the last night of Robespierre. Horribly been the chapel and in some of the pas- wounded and in fearful pain, the wretch sages to accommodate the extraordinary writhed in agony all night, making the number of poor creatures who were doomed place hideous with his shrieks and groans.

here their last hours on carth. To In an adjacent chamber Mme. IIébert, the give some idea of its overcrowded condi- ex-nun, mingled her tears with those of tion, the following statistics will suffice. the lovely Lucile Desmoulins. They both The prison could contain with ease three ascended the scaffold together. In the hundred persons, but certainly not more Salle Héloïse et Abélard the pretty courwithout cruel inconvenience. On the tesan Eglé, only seventeen years of age, night of September 10, 1792, there were spent the three days preceding her trial 511 prisoners distributed among its vari. and condemnation. By what means 'do ous halls and dungeons. According to an you carn your livelihood ?" asked the official statement recently discovered, M. judge. “By my beauty, as you do, you and Mme. Richard declared that on that dog, by the guillotine," was the sharp refatal night there were 511 persons in the tort. It was --and this is a detail but litprison, of whom 95 were certainly inas- tle known-originally intended to send sacred, and 233 most probably shared Eglé to the scaffold in the same tumbril as their fate ; 183 were set free. This makes the Queen, in order further to humiliate a total of 328, who, we may take for her. Hearing this, Eglé cried out,“ Send granted, perished during that horrible and, me, and I will manage to cast myself at

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her feet and implore her pardon before all only prisoner, male or female, of whom the people-sales chiens que vous êtes the expression of terror is recorded. She

Poor Eylé was very fearful lest rent the air with cries for mercy, she should sleep with the Devil” the forced into the fatal tumbril. To mention night after ber execution. You wiil rest all the illustrious victims whose sbades with Mary Magdalene," said the saintly haunt the precincts of this all too famous M. Eméry, who was known as the con- prison would be to recall almost every soling angel of the Conciergerie. Mine. conspicuous name in the annals of the Roland inhabited a cell on the second Terror. There is one young girl, howfloor, where there was a little light, ever, who must not be omitted— Chailotte whereby she was able to finish her remark- Corday. In the cell adjoining that of able Memoirs.

Marie Antoinette, Huer and Mme. Tussand The Conciergerie witnessed the last were permitted to take likenesses of this hours of those beautiful creatures the beautiful woman, whom Lamartine las ladies De Sainte Amaranthe, the victims celebrated as the Angel of Assassination. alike of the vengeance and lust of Robes- From 1792 to 1794 nearly ten thousand pierre. It beard the last song of André persons were imprisoned at the ConcierChénier, and it beheld the Christian res- gerie, of whom certainly not less than twoignation of the octogenarian Duchesse thirds were either executed or massacred. d'Ayen and her relations the Princesse de In 1825 the greater part of the old prison Mouchy and Vicomtesse and Maréchale de

was demolished, but in the present cenNoailles. Hither was brought Philippe tury several famous personages have been Egalité, Duke of Orleans, the great-grand- imprisoned here---Napoleon III., after the father of the young Prince who is now a failure of the Boulogne conspiracy, and prisoner at the Conciergerie, and from its Prince Pierre Bonaparte, previous to his portals he went to meet a death which be- trial for the alleged inurder of Victor Noir. came him better than the life he was to - Saturday Review. forfeit. Mme. Du Barry is perhaps the

LITERARY NOTICES.

MORE ABOUT STANLEY.

The author prepares the way for his account

of Stanley's rescue expedition by a study of STANLEY'S EMIN Pasha EXPEDITION. By A. J.

the situation in the Soudan, and the causes Wauters, Chief Editor of the Mouvement

which led to Emin Pasha's perilous situation. Geographique, Brussels. With Map. Thirty. He gives a sketch of the conquest of the Soutbree Portraits and Illustrations. Philadel.

dan by Ismail Pasha, Khedive of Egypt, and phia : J. B. Lippincolt Company.

of its effects on the ivory and slave trade. Another instalment of the thick-coming Then we have a graphic sketch of the attempts Stanley literature is before us in M. Wauters's of General Gordon, as Governor-General, to very interesting book, Stanley, deservedly reorganize this vast region, and bring some the most talked about man of his time from order out of the chaos of disorder, civil war, the unique and heroic character of his achieve- and insurrection which made this Egyptian ments, is now busy preparing his own record province a moral bell, as it might also be con. of his last expedition, which in some respects sidered one of climate. The siege of Kharis the most remarkable of his African experi- toum, the Wolseley expedition, and the death ences. This elaborate work, when published, of Gordon are briefly treated, and the funcwill, of course, meet the full requirements of tion of Emin, as a sub governor, under Gorthose able to satiate their curiosity at the foun- don. tain-head in a costly and beautiful publication. It will be remembered that Emin (whose real In the mean time, the large public, who cannot Dame, it may be said en passant, is Dr. Edward afford to pay the higher price and care less Schnitzler) was originally attached to Gordon's for diffuse detail than for compact and salient staff in the Soudan as physician and naturalnarrative, will find their intellectual appetite ist, his enthusiasm in the latter direction, gratified by such thoroughly able and well. however, specially determining his function. written narratives as that of M. Wauters. Gordon, who seems to have had a remarkably

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