change the royal became only the form or where the authorized priest was not, the mask of parliamentary supremacy, which sacraments could not be ; and no sacrain its turn was but the instrument of the ments meant no Church, no life cominunihated“ Liberalism,''-then the Anglican cated by Baptism and maintained by the became as convinced as the Puritan of the Eucharist. And the Church which minexcellence of independency.* The secular istered life by her sacraments, guarded, arm in touching had wronged the Church, defined, and interpreted truth by her anand while the men who did it and those thority ; for to the being and belief of the who sutfered it to be done were alike re- truth an authoritative interpreter was even proached, she was pictured as the gracious more necessary than an inspired source. mother of peoples, with her heroic yet And this was to be found in tradition, not saintly sons, and clinging yet stately indeed as collected and preserved by Rome, daughters about her, creating the litera- but as contained in the Fathers, and as ture, civilizations, arts, and whatever gathered from them by Anglican scholars made life rich and beautiful, and remain- and divines. Rome was corrupt, but ing benignant, though forlorn, in the Catholic ; the Protestant Churches were midst of a greedy and graceless posterity, corrupt and sectarian ; but the Church of blind to her beauty, and forgetful of her the Fathers was Catholic and pure, and beneficence. But Newman touched after it the Anglican was fashioned, and higher strain ; his genius scorned to ask tried to walk in its light and read the truth aid from sentiment ; he called upon the with its eyes. And so a proud, coherent, Church to become militant and equip her- and courageous theory of the Church stool self in the armor of her divine attributes. up to confront and dare the State ; to reThe State might suppress bishoprics, but buke it as of the earth, to speak to it as bishops were independent of the State ; with the voice of heaven, to command it they were before it, existed by a higher to revere and obey where it had thought right, were of apostolical descent and au- it could compel and rule. thority, stood in a divine order wbich the It is no part of my purpose to criticise State had not made and could not unmake. the Anglican theory ; it was the work of And as with the bishops, 80 with the men who made an impassioned appeal to clergy ; their orders were sacred, inalien- history, but were utterly void of the hisable, instituted of God, and upheld by torical spirit. The past they loved and Him, And their functions corresponded studied was a past of detached fragments, to their authority ; to them had been com- violent divisions, broken and delimited in mitted the keys of the kingdom ; they the most arbitrary way. Their canon, could bind and loose, and were by their “quod semper, quod ubique, quod ab commission empowered to act in their omnibus," they honored in speech rather Master's name. In their hands too, and than observance; the "semper" did not in theirs only, were the sacraments, and an“ always," or the “ ubique" every“the sacraments, not preaching, are the where, or the “ ab omnibus" by all ; but sources of divine grace.” The sacred only such times, places and men, or even order was the condition of the Church's such parts and sections of times, places being, and the factor of its efficiency ; and men, as could be made to suit or

prove the theory. Then, for an authority * It is instructive to see how similar ideas to be of any use in the region of truth, it under similar conditions demand for their ex. must be authoritative, accessible, self-conpression similar terms: Thus the earliest treatise from the High Church point of view

sistent and explicit ; but this authority on this subject is Charles Leslie's ; the title

was not one of these things--it was only The case of the Regale and of the the voice of these very simple, very posiPontificate stated, in a Conference concerning tive, unscientific, and often mistaken men. the Independency of the Church upon any power on earth, in the exercise of her purely down the transcendent genius of the party,

Their supreme difficulty, which broke Spiritual power and authority. This exactly reproduces the very idea as to the relation was to get their own Church to speak their of Church and State held by those who were mind, and they were even less successful the ancestors of the later in

'Independents.” with the Fathers than with their Church, Indeed, the Anglican aatonomy of the There is no more splendid example anyChurch" is but the Puritan independency, or rather a single aspect of it, and the Presby.

where of how completely a professedly histerian “ Crown rights of the Redeemer.” torical movement can be independent of


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historical truth. The Tractarians in this truth in history, studied, learned, and sufrespect present a remarkable contrast to fered with the Thyrsis he so deeply yet so the Reformers. Calvin in his treatment sweetly mourned, like him became a poet, of doctrine was nothing if not historical ; jealous of truth in thought and word, and the Tractarians in their treatment of his like him, too, faced the problem and the tory were nothing if not dogmatic. They inen of the hour, but did not dare to trust were traditional but not historical, while as guides for the present men too credu. the Reformers were historical but not lous of the past to read its truths aright. traditional. The latter courageously, if Too well he learned the bitter moral of all not always thoroughly, rejected tradition their arguing, and concluded : “If auand authority that they might reach the thority be necessary to faith, then an im. mind and realize the ideal of the Christ of possible authority makes faith impossihistory ; but the former, with no less cour- ble,” and he turned from Oxford to learn age, tried to adapt the historical mind and of Weimarbend the historical ideal to authority and

“The need is everywhere, tradition, Truth is patient, and suffers

Art still has truth, take refuge there.' niuch at the hands of sincere men ; but she always comes by her own at last. William Morris, formed in the Oxford

2. What has been the result of the of a later day, when in the calm that fol. Anglu. Catholic revival ? If the success of lows conflict Anglo-Catholicism reigned, a religious movement is to be measured could find in it no satisfying veracious by its power to penetrate with its own ideal of truth, of art or of life, and went spirit, to persuade and reconcile to re- instead to the wild Scandinavian and dis. Jigion the best intellects of a country, then tant Greek mythologies for the forms in even its most devoted advocates can hardly which to impersonate his faith and bope. say that Anglo-Catholicism has succeeded. Swinburne, who had the hut imagination While at first championed by the greatest that easily kindled to noble dreams of libliterary genius and master of dialectic who erty and human good, could find no promhas in this century concerned himself with ise in the crimson sunset glories Anglotheology, it is marvellous how little it has Catholicism loved, and turned passionately touched our characteristic and creative toward what seemed to him the east and minds ; with these neither Roman nor the sunrise. But it was not only those Anglican Catholicism has accomplished younger sons of Oxford who had in a anything. Take the poets, who alike as

the vision and the faculty diregards period and place ought to have vine," that the new Catholic failed to been most accessible and susceptible to touch ; he touched as little the maturer the Catholic spirit and influence. Arthur and richer imaginations of the two men Hugh Clough was educated in Balliol, and who will ever remain the representative elected to a Fellowship at Oriel in the poets of the Victorian era. Tennyson has days when Newman reigned in St. Mary's, been essentially a religious genius ; the and is judged by the most competent of doubts, the fears, the thought perplexed our critics to be “the truest expression in by evil, by suffering, by a nature cruel in verse of the moral and intellectual ten- her very harmonies, by the presence of dencies of the period in which he lived ” wicked men and the distance of a helpful He is fascinated by Newman and held by God, the faith victorious in the very face lim for a while, but only that he may of sin and death, certain that somehow learn how little there is behind the subtle good will be the final goal of ill,'' have and persuasive eloquence that can satisfy all received from him rich and musical exa mind possessed with the passion for pression. But his ideals are not those of veracity, and he is driven by the recoil inedivval or modern Catholicisin ; they into the anxious uncertainties where “the may be clothed in forms borrowed from a music of his rustic lute” lost “its happy far-off world of mythical chivalry ; but it country tone,''

is not a priest's world, it is one of men all “ And learnt a stormy note

the more saintly that they are kings, warOf men contention.tost, of men who groan.'

riors, statesmen, a world of fair women

and goodly men. Browning, who was as Matthew Arnold, son of a father who essentially a religious poet as Tennyson, made England love breadth of view and and indeed, though no writer of hymns,



as a poet more profoundly, penetratively, to verse, always genial and graceful, and and comprehensively religious than Keble, often gay. But Anglo-Catholic poetry bears throughout in his sympathies, in his measured by the Puritan is remarkable for love of liberty, in his hopeful trust in nothing so much as its imaginative povman, in his belief in God as the All-loving erty, its inability to create a literature that as well as the All-great, who through the shall adequately embody the true and the thunder speaks with human voice, the sublime. And this has its parallel in the marks and fruits of his Paritan birth and theology of the past half-century. Newbreeding. But the sensuous seemliness man, of course, stands alone-Catholic of Anglo-Catholicism had no charms for still, but Anglican no more.

Apart from him ; it had too little spiritual sublimity, him, what names represent the most potent stood too remote from the beart of things, forces in theology and the higher religious had too little fellowship with the whole thought? Of all preachers, Frederick truth of God, and all the infinite needs and Robertson bas most moved the mind and aspirations of man. He had seen, too, conscience of this generation ; but though the outworking of its ideas; had studied an Oxford man of the time when the their action and character in history, and Tracts were at their mightiest, he escaped his curious lore and large experience helped from their toils with a rare love of reality, him to many a fit yet quaint form in which an abhorrence of all false sanctities, a to embody what he had discovered or ob- dread of all violence offered in the name served. Browning more than any man of authority to reason. Frederick Maurice has deepened the faith of our age in the was a personality of rare charm, with a Eternal, but he has also more than any soul ever turned toward the light, with a man inade us conscious of the evil of large range of vision, and a love of love fancying that we can transmute our ephem- and light that makes him the most mystieral polities and shallow symbols into cal thinker of our century ; yet his wholo the infallible and unchangeable speech of life was one sustained protest against the

attempt to incorporate the religion of 3. This failure of Anglo-Catholicism to Christ in a sentimental and sacramental touch our higher literature is both remark- symbolism. There has been in our generable and instructive. It has had and bas ation no writer in religious history so picits ininor pocts, a goodly multitude, but turesque, no churchman so bold in speech even their poetry has been mainly reminis- and in action, so possessed of a broad and cent and sentimental, not spontaneous and inclusive ideal of the national Church as imaginative. Indeed, this has been its Arthur Stanley ; but he lived and died as characteristic in all periods of its being; the resolute antagonist of those Catholic writers of hymns, quaint, devout, beauti- schemes that so labored to sectionalize the ful, melodious, it has always bad, but Church he loved. Of another, though never poets of the imagination ; if it has lower, order was Charles Kingsley ; but ever taken possession of such, it has para- he was in his earlier period full of generlyzed the poet in them, as witness Words- ous impulses, philanthropies, socialisms, worth and his ecclesiastical sonnets. In quick and fertile at embodying his ameliothis stands expressed some of its essential rative dreams in attractive fiction ; and he characteristics. Within the rich and com- was possessed with what can only be deplicated and splendidly dight folds of the scribed as a great terror lest the rising tide Spenserian allegories, there lives much of of sacerdotalism should drown what was the brawny Puritan mind and purpose. most ethical and historical in the life of The same inind and the faith it lived by the English people. If Oxford has had made the noblest epic and the most per- within this period a scholar who could be fect classical drama in the speech of our named a Humanist, it was Mark Pattison. English people. No man will claim John But, though he fell under the spell of Dryden as a religious poet, though he Newman, and indeed for him the spell forced poetry into the ignoble strife of was never bioken, yet to him the Catholic ecclesiastical politics, and made it the theory became ever more incredible and mean apologist of royal and papal designs. false, and the system erer more mischievDeism lisped in nunibers through the lips ous in its working, fatal to freedom, of Catholic Pope, and the Evangelical Re- learning, and all the fair humanities. It vival inspired the gentle soul of Cowper may, too, be allowed to the writer to al


lude to one, though the grass above his the coincidence and co-extension of grave is not yet green, who, of all recent Church and State. The idea is at once Oxford men, most fulfilled the ideal of the English and historical ; it implies a far scholar in theology, and applied in a spirit deeper sense than the other party possesses as reverent as it was thorough the scientific of the continuity of history and the unity method to the history of ecclesiastical in- of the institutions created and maintained stitutions. But there was no man who'so by the English people both before and strongly believed, or was so armed with since the Reformation. The idea underproofs to support his belief, that Anglo- lying the old legislation was right, but the Catholicism was utterly unhistorical, as Ed- legislation was in spirit and method wrong, win Hatch. It is needless to multiply calculated to defeat rather than fulfil its names; it is not in literature nor yet in idea. What was necessary was to realize theology that the movement has hitherto the idea by changing the legislation. achieved success. Perhaps success here Parliament had made civil rights indepen. is not possible to it; the signal of victory dent of ecclesiastical tests ; tests ought would be the sign of decease.

now to be so construed as to guard rather

than invade religious freedom and eccleIV.

siastical privilege. The Act of Uniformity

had but created division and established But this bas brought us face to face variety ; it was time to attempt, by an with another and no less interesting prob- Act of comprehension, to legalize variety lem, or rather series of probleins. How and create unity. The idea was thus does it happen that the party that has through the State to reconstitute and rebeen so active and so eminent in literature unite the Church, as by the State the has accomplished so little in religion, Church had been broken and divided. while the party that has accomplished Comprehension and relaxed subscription most in religion has been less eininent in were to undo what uniformity and enliterature ? For two things seem manifest forced subscription had done. The Broad and beyond dispute—the decay, pointing Church was thus the very opposite of the to approaching extinction, of the Broad Anglo-Catholic, while the one emphasized Church, and the revival and growing dom. difference till it became independency, the inancy of the High. It may seem more other accentuated coincidence and relation dubious to say, a main condition of the till they became identity. The primary success achieved by the High Church has element in the one idea was, the Eoglish been the literary activity and efficiency of people constitute the English Church; the Broad; but, paradoxical though it the primary element in the other idea was, may sound, this represents the sober his- the Anglican Church constitutes the retorical truth. Why it has so bappened is ligion the English people are bound to a question we must discuss in order to get confess and obey. The one conceived the a fuller view of the situation.

Church as national, able to be only as it 1. The same events that had occasioned included and was realized by the nation ; the rise of Anglo Catholicism determined the other conceived the Church as of dithe being of the modern Broad Church. vine authority, because of divine instituThe latter was due to an attempt to adapt tion, able to fulfil its mission only by enthe Church to the new conditions by forcing its claims. In the one case, not broadening it as the State bad been broad- establishment, but incorporation with the cned. Its fundamental notion was not State or Civil constitution was of the very their ideal difference, but their material essence of the Church as English and naidentity. The Broad Church has throngh. tional ; in the other case, control of the out its history been dominated, though Church by the State was held to be alien not always clearly or consciously, by Ar- to its very idea as a society divinely nold's idea, which was also Hooker's, of founded and ruled. The parties differed

in their conception of the Church, but * We do not forget distinguished names in still nore in their notion of religion. To connection with tbe Anglo-Catholic School.

the Anglican, in a very real sense, Church It has had, and still has, learned historians and men of fine literary gifts ; but to have

was religion, that without which religion noticed these would have taken us beyond the could not be acceptable to God, or suffilimits defined by our problem.

cient for man; to his rival the two were separable, religion inward, spiritual, a mat- a tendency within and before which the ter of heart. or conscience ; Church, a old Evangelical formulæ could not vigormeans for its cultivation, good in propor- ously live, and yet it did nothing to protion to its suitability and efficiency. In vide new homes or agencies for the generpolity and dogina, ritual and symbol, the ation and direction of religious life. The Anglican could bardly distinguish between Broad Church is only the name of a ten. accidental and essential, all was of God, dency, but the Anglo-Catholic denotes a and all was sacred ; but in all these things party, well officered, well led, disciplined, his opponent saw the creations of custom organized, and inspired by a great idea. or law, to be upbeld or dismissed as ex- The representative inen within the fornier pediency or advantage might determine. have all been marked by a certain scvere In a word, to the one the Church was a individualism, they have attracted discicreation of God, instituting religion, but ples, but have not formed schools. Arto the other the Church was an institution nold was a man of intense ethical passion, of man, though religion an inspiration of and to it he owed what we may call the God.

most transcendent personal influence of 2. Now, these differences were radical, our century ; Maurice was a thinker seekand deterni in each case the ental at- ing to translate Christian ideas into the titude and action on all religious questions. terms of a Neo-Platonic idealism ; Arthur The Broad Church attitude tended to be- Stanley was a charming irenical personalcome critical, acutely conscious of the in- ity, fertile of schemes for reconciling our convenience of a too positive mind, and divided religious society ; but neither they institutions too authoritative to be capable nor any of their allies had the enthusiasm of adaptation to the new conditions of of the sect. They loved a Church as thought and policy. Civil legislation was broad and as varied as the English people, conceived as able to accomplish what was but would neither do nor attempt anything impossible to it, while the differences that that threatened to narrow its breadth or divided, the agreements or affinities that harass it into a prosaic uniformity. And united men were conceived more from their positive qualities helped the Anglican without than from within, from the stand- more than their negative. Tbey point of the State rather than of the loved liberty, used the liberty they loved, Church. Hence, there was superabundant but preached toleration even of the intolcriticism of things positive, the dogmas erant. They were impatient of formulæ, authority formulated and enforced, the but patient of aggressive difference; they institutions it created and upheld. The resisted every attempt to restrict freedom, criticism struck the Evangelical most but encouraged attempts at its extension heavily, for his faith was of the fixed and and exercise. Hence they helped at once rigid type that most invites criticism. to create room for Anglo-Catholic develThe Pauline Epistles were translated into opments, and to lessen the forces of iea speech and resolved into ideas that were sistance. Their intellectual activity made not bis ; his theories of justification and the English inind tolerant to the most atonement were assailed at once from the varied forms of belief and worship, which historical, exegetical, and speculative means that they prepared the way and the points of view ; his doctrine of inspiration opportunity for the men who believed that was discredited and made untenable, and theirs was the only form of divine suffihis conception of the Church dismissed as ciency and authority. arbitrary and insufficient. But to hit the Evangelical so hard was to do the utmost

V. possible service to the Anglican. It disabled, preoccupied, paralyzed his most 1. But while the Broad Church was resolute adversary, thinned his ranks, thus securing for it an easier path and a blunted his weapons, deprived him of the freer field, the Anglican was gathering convictions that give courage. Then the momentum and growing more missionary Broad Church criticism, while making no and theological. The Tracts had been impression on the Anglican, appealed to mainly historical and ecclesiastical ; only the sort of minds the Evangelicals had in a very minor degree doctrinal and rebecn most able to influence, surrounded ligious. They had been more concerned them with an atmosphere, begot in them with the archæology than the theology of


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