« VorigeDoorgaan »
their want of any sufficient idea of the achieved great things on the Continent Church. These two were intimately re- before it took shape here. In France it lated ; their theology was too narrowly produced Chateaubriand, whose rhapsodiindividualistic, too much a reasoned meth- cal Génie was at once a coup de théatre et od of saving single souls, to admit easily, d'autel, Joseph de Maistre and the idealior without fracture, those larger views of zation of the Papacy. In Germany, it God, the universe, and man, needed to blossomed into the Stolbergs and the guide a great society in a crisis, or, as it Schlegels, who preached the duty of a were, in the very article of revolution. flight from the present to the past, and They did not sufficiently feel that the believed that they preserved faith by inChurch was a sort of spiritual Fatherland, dulging imagination ; and through the within which they had been born, through school first at Tübingen and then of Muwhich they lived, for whose very dust they nich, as represented by Möbler, it entered could love to die. The Evangelicals have theology, furnishing Roman Catholicism often been described as the successors ard
new and potent apologetic and representatives of the Puritans within the Anglican with a no less potent source of Anglican Church, but here they were their inspiration and guidance. Its charactervery opposites. The Puritan theology istic was an imaginative banding of its was remarkable for its high and catholic material, especially mediavalism and its doctrine of the Church, so conceiving the survivals, with a view to a richer and hapsovereignty of the Redeemer that the body pier whole of life. Rationalism was an in which He lived and over which He optimism which glorified its own enlightreigned could never be dependent on any ened age, and pitied the ignorance and State or subordinate to any civil power superstition of the earlier men ; but Rowhatever. The high Anglican rather than manticisin was an idealism which wished the Evangelical bas here been the Puri- to transcend the present it disliked, by retan's heir, though the Anglican bas lowered turning, either with Wordsworth to a sethe splendid idea ho inherited by giving vere simplicity, all the more refined that it a less noble and a less catholic expres- it was so rustic and natural ; or, as with sion. It was the want of such a vivifying Scott, to the gallant days of chivalry and and commanding idea that lost the Evan- the rule of the highly born and bred. All gelical the leadership of the Church in its were subjective, each used a different mehour of storm and crisis.
dium for the expression of himself, but 4. So far, then, it seemed as if the bat- the characteristic thing was the self extle against vigorous and victorious Liberal- pressed, not the medium employed. The ism must be fonght on the lines, abhorred Lake poets sang in praise of Nature, but of the old High Church, of the old lati- it was the Nature of the poet's dream, tudinarian utilities, Church and State sleeping in the light that never was on sea were allies, tbeir union was due to a con- or shore.
Scott loved to picture the past, tract or compact, by wbich the Church re- but his was the past of the poet's fancy, ceived so much pay and privilege, and the not the bard, grim world, where men State so much service and sanction. To struggled with existence and for it, but an argue the question on this ground was to idealized arena, where voble birth meant be defeated ; there was no principle in it, noble being, and only a villain or a hypoonly the meanest expediencies, profits to crite could lift a hand, even for freedom, be determined by the utilitarian calculus, against a head that was crowned. In this with contract broken when profits ended. use of the imagination there was moro It was at this moment that Romanticism as- truth but less reality than there had been sumed an ecclesiastical form, and emerged, in the cold and analytic methods of the changed in name, but unchanged in es- previous century. Rationalism, for want sence, as Anglo-Catholicism.
of the historical imagination, sacrificed the Romanticism may be described as the past to history. Romanticism, for want literary spirit which, born partly in the of the critical faculty, sacrificed history to frenzy of the Revolution, and partly in the past. What one finds in the elegant the recoil from it, executed in the early yet careless pages of Hume is a record of decades of this century vengeance upon events that once happened, written by a the rationalism of the last. It was not man who has never conceived so as to English nierely, but European ; it had realize the events he describes ; what one finds in the vivid pages of Scott is a living of God became love of his own Church, picture of the past, but of a past that of what she had been, what she was, and, never lived. This is the very essence of above all, of what she ought to be, of her Romanticism, the inaginative interpreta- ancient monuments, her venerable institu. tion of Nature or history, but it is only tions, her stately ceremonial, her saints the form that is natural or historical, the and her saints' days. And by his sweet, substance or spirit is altogether the inter- meditative, poetic gift he made what he preter's own.
loved seem lovely. What ecclesiastical II.
polemics, parochial activity, and sacerdotal
ritual never could have accomplished, hiş 1. Now it was this Ronianticist ten- hymns achieved ; indeed, they not only dency that was the positive factor of made those others possible, but even necesAnglo-Catholicism. While the other two sary, creating for them that disposition, sets of circumstances supplied respectively that readiness to receive, to learn, and to the occasion and the opportunity, this trust, which is, according to Newman, the gave the creative impulse ; it was the greater part of faith. It is by sure in. spirit that quickened. The men in whom stinct that the name of Keble' has been it took shape and found speech were three seized as the name most typical of the --Keble, Newman, Pusey. Perhaps we Anglo-Catholic revival. He seized the ought to name a fourth, Hurrell Froude ; prevailing sentiment, and translated it into but he lives in Newman. He was the a form at once poetic and religious, and swiftest, most daring spirit of them all; by so doing turned a rising tide or tenhis thought is hot, as it were, with the dency into the service of his party and his fever that shortened his days; his words Church. But the secret of his strength are suffused as with a hectic flush, and we may become the source of their weakness. must judge him rather as one who moved The man of pious and meditative fancy men to achieve than by his own actual may evoke the historical spirit, and make achievements. The three we have named the present beautiful in the light of an were in a rare degree complementary of idealized past ; but when the appeal is to each other ; they were respectively poet, history, scientific criticism becomes the thinker, and scholar, and each contributed ultimate judge, and, though its judgments to the movement according to his kind. are slow, they are inexorable as those of Keble was a splendid instance of the truth God. that a man who makes the
2. Newman was more rarely gifted than ple does more than the man who makes Keble, but his gifts though of a rarer and their laws. His hymns are a perfect lyric higher order, were less pure in quality. expression of the Romanticist tendency ; He had in a far higher degree the poet's in them the mood of the moment speaks temper, and more of his insight, creative its devoutest feelings in fittest form. genius and passion. It was his misfortune This was the secret of their power. They to be an ecclesiastic in a stormy crisis, are without the passion of the mystic, the and indeed to be of the crisis the foremost infinite hunger of the soul that would live and characteristic polenric. He had a for God after the God it canuot live with- subtle and analytic intellect, but dialectical out, the desire to transcend all media, win rather than speculative, discursive and the immediate divine vision, and lose self critical rather than synthetic aud construcin its supreme bliss ; rather are they the tive. He had more of the mystic's naturo sweet and mellow fruit of " pious medita- and intensity than Keble ; the passion for tion fancy-fed,” which loves means as God burned in his spirit like a fire, immeans, feels joy in their use, in reading pelled him as by an awful necessity to the their meaning, in being subdued by their Infinite, yet divided him from it by a still gentle discipline ; and which loves God all more awful distance. He loved to seek the better for the seemliness and stateli- everywhere for symbols of the divine, ness of the way we get to Him. Keble which would at once assure him of the learned of Wordsworth to love Nature, to Eternal Presence, and help him to gain read it as a veiled parable, or embodied more conscious access to it; yet he had the allegory, spoken by God, and heard by gennine mystic's feeling that all means the soul ; he learned of Scott to love the were inadequate, and so divisive ; as past, and scek in it his ideals. His love mediative they held the spirit out of the
of a peo
immediate Presence, and not only shaded quence, he shared in the common inheribut obscured its glory. Hence he had tance of our modern English thought, that none of Keble's love of means as means ; doubt of the reason which has become in he had too much imagination to be satis- the more consistent philosophies either a fied with the sensuous seemliness, the reasoned donbt, or, what is the same thing Laudian “ beauty of holiness," which adapted to a positive and scientific age, a pleased Keble's fine and fastidious but reasoned nescience. And to the difficul. feebler fancy ; what he wanted was to ties or antinomies of his thought Butler stand face to face with God himself, and more than any man awoke him. to find a way to Him as sure as bis own derlying or material idea of the “ Analneed for Him was deep and real. But to ogy," what may be termed the theory of find such a way, never an easy thing, was the correspondence of the physical and to one situated and constituted like New- spiritual realms, especially when further man peculiarly hard. For as deep and in- qualified by the influence of Keble, gave eradicable as his passion for God was his indeed to Newman his grand constructive scepticisin of reason, which is, in the last principle, the notion of the sacramental analysis, the subtlest of all scepticisms as symbolism of Nature ; but its formal and to God.* And it is the least tolerable, regulatire maxim, “Probability is the because the most paralyzing, to the man guide of life,” was more creative of diswith the spirit and temper of the mystic. turbance and perplexity. For to a man To believe in God, yet to doubt His real of his temper, mental integrity, and theispresence in the reason, is to be impelled tic passion, as sure of God's being as of to imagine that what in man has most of his own, it must have seemed a sort of God is also remotest from Him, and most irony to inake such a maxim the judicial completely out of His control : and so the and determinative principle in a religious inexorable logic of the situation forces the argnment. It may be said to have formuman, if he does not surr ler his doubt lated his master problem-How is it posof the reason, either to surrender all cer. sible to build on probable evidence the tainty and all reality in his knowledge of certitude of faith ? or, How, by a method God, or to end the conflict by calling in of probabilities, can the existence, if not some violent mechanical expedient, such of necessary, yet of infallible truth, be indeed as Newmau was slowly but irresisti- proved ? Indeed, Butler's probability, bly driven to adopt. Whence this scepti- which was not without similar tendencies cal tendency came in Newman's case is too in his own case, determined the search large a question to be here discussed ; but which landed Newman in Papal infalliwe may say he owed it, partly, perhaps bility. inainly, to native intellectual qualities, We have, then, to imagine Newman, partly, to his place in the reaction against with his mystic passion, his philosophical Rationalism, and, partly, to an author he scepticism, and bis apologetical maxim, greatly loves to praise, who possibly rep- called to face the disintegrative and aggresresents the greatest mental influence he sive forces of his time. He could face came under, Butler. The reaction against them in strength only by maintaining his Rationalism was in Newman more a mat- intellectual integrity, and from the antinter of imagination than of reason ; and he omies of his thought there were only two hated and disowned its results without possible ways of escape, either by a higher transcending its philosophy. As a conse- philosophy or a higher authority. And
of these two each was exclusive of the * This interpretation of Newman is admir
other. If the way by philosophy had ably illustrated by Mr. Hutton, “Modern been chosen, then the process of reconciliGuides of Englis' Thought in Matters of ation would have been immanent and natFaith ” pp: 78 ff. The conclusion was not ural, the antitheses of the formal underintenderi, but is only on that account the more significant. " It is, I think, profound standing would have been overcome by pity for the restlessness and insatiability of the synthesis of the transcendental reason. human reason, which bas made him a Roman But to choose the way of authority was to Catholic.' But the “
pity” is only the super- deny that any natural process of reconcilificial expression of the deeper scepticism, ation was possible, and to seek to silence which so doubts “ God's Spirit as revealed in conscience and reason," as to require an in. the inward dissonances by the sound of fallible institution for their control.
an outward voice; the deeper, of course,
the dissonances grew, the more authorita. formulated in conflict and have been held tive had the voice to be made. For many amid controversies, internal and external, reasons—constitutional, educational, cir- a piety that is nothing less than a genius cumstantial, socia)—the philosophical way for religion, an intense imagination, using was not selected, and Newman began his the instruments of subtle dialectic, and wonderful polemical career a mystic in clothing argument in speech of wondrous faith, a sceptic in philosophy, a seeker grace and force, have enabled him to adafter an authority able to subdue the scep- dress with unequalled, often irresistible, ticism and vindicate the faith. His
power, power men who could be reached most studied in connection with his marvellous easily through the conscience or imaginaliterary faculty and intense religious sin- tion. Such men he has awed, subdued, cerity, is explicable enough, but, regarded converted, though by a process that as a question in philosophical criticism, it silenced or overpowered rather than conis more complex and difficult of analysis. vinced the reason. And the process he No man has more thoroughly understood has pursued without is but the counterpart the men of his age ; no man of genius of the process he had before pursued withever less comprehended the problems of in. Truth has never been to bim so much his time, or contributed less to their solu- an object for quest or question as for ac
It is remarkable, considering his ceptance. Intellectual difference has been immense productivity, and the range and a sort of moral offence, and he has reakind of subjects he has handled, how few soned as if the men who held the princiconstructive principles, speculative and ples he hated must themselves be odious. historical, can be found in his works. Hence came what Blanco White called his The critical philosophy he does not seem deceiving pride,” and his resolute sacrito have cared to understand. Modern fice of old
friends to new views. Hence, criticism, as regards both principles and too, the temper I will not call intolerant, methods, he never tried to master, or but so severely and logically authoritative even, objectively, to conceive. The sci- that, to quoto Blanco White again, “ be entific treatment of history is too alien to would, as sure as he lives, persecute to the his spirit and ainis to be comprehended by death if he had the direction of the civil him. His one considerable historical power for a dozen years." These are the work is but an overgrown polemical pam- invariable characteristics of the man wbo phlet-a treatise on the controversies of bases a faith of authority on a scepticism his own times disguised as a bistory. His of the reason. Newman, with all that be “Doctrine of Development” is not orig- stands for, represents the struggle of inal, and so far from being the equivalent English empiricism to remain empirical, of evolution is its antithesis and contradic. and yet become imaginative and religious. tion. It may be logic applied to dogma, 3. But the scholar of the band was as but is not science applied to history. His notable in his own order as the poet and most considerable, at once philosophical thinker in theirs. Pusey, indeed, was and apologetical work, may be described less a scholar than a schoolman, these two as a trcatise on the necessity of the per- being distinguishable thus : the scholar sonal equation in religion : it ignores what loves learning, and uses it as an instruis primary and universal in the reason that ment for the discovery of truth, while the it may build on what is specific and ac- schoolman is a learned man who uses his quired in the individual. But it is no learning as a means of proving an assumed paradox to say, those very elements of or formulated position. The scholar his philosophical weakness have been studies that he may cultivate mind, desources of his literary and controversial velop and exercise the humanities ; but strength. The very severity of the con- the schoolman searches that he may find flict in bis own spirit has given him the authorities to verify his axioms and justify profoundest sense of any thinker in our bis definitions. The scholar aims at ob. day of the perplexities of living man-thejectivity, seeing things as they really were, bewilderments of thought, motive, and how and why they happened, whither conscience that come of limited and pas- tended, and what achieved ; but the sionful being, bound' by law yet in revolt schoolman is throughout governed by subagainst the law that binds it. Convic-jectivity, brings his system to history, and tions the inore strenuous that they were pursues his researches that history may be
made to furnish evidence of the systein increasing momentum whither they did not he biings. Now Pusey had the making mean to go. But Pusey had Newman's of a scholar in him, though he never be strength of conviction without his dancame what he could have been. He had gerous genius ; he was conservative not a susceptible, sympathetic, assimilative because sceptical, but because convinced ; mind, combined with a certain largeness he loved his Church in the concrete, and of nature that at once qualified him to un- he lived to prove that she embodied the derstand man and distinguished him as a “ quod semper, quod ubique, quod ab omman men could trust. His famous “In. nibus creditum est."
.” On any dubious or quiry into the Probable Causes of German questioned point he was ready to bring Rationalism” admirably illustrates his determinative evidence from his recondite mental qualities, especially the susceptible lore ; on any critical occasion he was no and assimilative. It is full of his German less ready to use the pulpit of St. Mary's teachers,* their spirit, method, materials, as a platform for the issue of a manifesto. though all has passed through a conserva- And so the movement others created Pusey tive English mind, wise and honest enough controlled, and in his hands its character to defend a cause by being just to the became fixed as a creation or Renaissance cause opposed. But in Oxford, Keble of Romanticism conditioned and tempered and Newman superseded Tholuck, and by scholasticism. Pusey passed from the scientific to a local
III. and insular standpoint, the scholar became the schoolman. What he was to the new 1. To these men, then, the progress of movement Newman has testified ; he events in literature and philosophy on the brought to it the dignity of high academic one hand, and in Church and State on the office and social rank, weight of character, other, combined to set the problem : How counsel, judicial faculty and speech, the can the Church be rescued from the hands service of vast erudition, and reverence of a State penetrated and commanded by for the sources his erudition explored. “Liberalism,” and be elevated into an He had precisely the qualities most needed anthority able to regulate faith and conto consolidate and guide the party. Keble's science, to control reason and society. fancy had idealized the Church and its What Newman named Liberalism was a past, had made its worship poetical, had single force disguised in many forms, ratouched its services with fine and well- tionalism in religion, revolution or reform ordered emotion ; Newman's genius had in politics, Erastianism and latitudinarianfilled the Church with new meaning and ism in Church. It was the spirit of change, new ideals, his eloquence had pealed negation, disintegration, destruction. The through it like the notes of a mighty organ Church must destroy it, or it would dewaking long silent echoes, and had kindled stroy the Church, and with faith in God, in men a new enthusiasm for their trans- godliness, religion. To save the Church, figured Church ; and now Pusey's erudi- two things were necessary--to invest it tion came to search the Fathers and the with divine authority, and all the rights Anglican divines for evidence that the flowing from it, and to set it strong in its new was the old, and based on venerable authority and rights over against the aposand invariable tradition. Keble was loved, tate State on the one hand, and the rebelNewman adınired, but Pusey trusted. lious reason on the other.
With sure inKeble moved in an atmosphere of rever- stinct the New Anglicans began by assailence and emotion, difference in his case ing the Reformation. The Puritans had did not breed dislike ; the very men who disapproved and opposed the royal aumost disagreed with his theology were thority, because it arrested and restrained most subdued by his hymns. Newman the Reformation ; but the Anglican hated was even more feared than admired ; the the Reformation, because it had been efmen that followed doubted, uncertain fected by the royal authority. In the old whither he might lead, the men that re- days, when the king reigned by the grace sisted disliked, certain that he tended with of God and through the zealous spirits of * For what the “ Inquiry" owed to Tholuck. loved the royal supremacy, and soundly
the Episcopal bencb, the Anglican had and his judgment on the use made of his material, see Witte's “ Das Leben Tholuck's,"
punished the Puritan for denying it : but vol. ii. pp. 242, 243.
wher in the process of constitutional