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Bok What, ye think the aim of all should be peace and quietude, BW invin Little brooklets running soft, never mighty roar and flood ?2.99
???/?^: What, ye think that none is blest save who lifteth bappy eyes ist 100.5 To the green of woodland trees and the blue of country skies ? Nay, but your philosophy has not dreamt or guessed or known
That which bides in London Town. m3
Thrice Lord Mayor of London Town !
Oh, the streets of London Town are alive with all the glow
On thy head, O London Town !
Oh, the beat of eager hearts ! Oh, the glory of life's great race !
In thy heart, great London Town !
Body and soul in London Town !
“Splendid things hath London Town! Dreadful things she knoweth too ;
Brooding over London Town ?"
And I answer, "Brothers, yea, in my heart I know this thing,
To the heart of London Town."
I have lost the hopes of youth, but a better hope is mine ;
In their greatness, London Town !
English women pined and starved till despair has bid them 'meet, video
sedef TS A' In the depth of London Town. 7.9077793
, loving much the right, therefore bating much the wrong ; to Going on for no reward, caring not to win renown
As they work in London Town.? :47.717231.0.3
Yes, and save in London Town !
Oh, because of such as these, I am glad that I can say
This their work in London Town.
Bij in het 1. The fine old crusted American traveller an immediate inference that the Swallow (now, unhappily, becoming extinct before Fall was scarcely worth looking at, and the spread of Culture) used often in the that Niagara could whip the Linn o Dec good old days, when he pervaded Europe into a cocked bat, if it only seriously made in six weeks, surveying it from end to end, its gigantic mind up to post the stakes for as per Appleton's "Guide,'' with cheerful an international contest. promptitude, to astonish one's ears from The March of Intellect, however, or else time to time by his complacent numerical the Zeit-geist, or
the Zeit-geist, or some other Deus ex maestimate of natural beauties. He carried china of the epoch, has now perhaps perin his mental pocket an imaginary footrule, suaded almost all Americans, except Mr. by whose aid he meted and compared all Andrew Carnegie, that you can't measure European greatness, either physical or scenery by the cubic foot. The leaven of spiritual. “ This cataract," he used to Boston has begun to leaven the whole mass. say, with statistical exactness, as he posed Florence is not as big a town, it is true, as himself, supercilious, before the Swallow New York; but even New Yorkers will Fall, or the Linn o Dee,"is fifteen feet cheerfully admit at the present day that high by seventeen wide, and runs at the the Bargello has points not to be observed rate of four hundred cubic feet per minute ; in the City Hall ; that the Pitti Palace whereas the Falls of Niagara are sixty feet contains certain objects not precisely to be by half a mile," or whatever else the par- equalled in the Metropolitan Museum ; and ticular amount might be," and they pre- that Giotto's campanile may claim more cipitate each moment a body of water equal consideration from the candid tourist than to fourteen times the volume of the Thames the tower of Trinity Church in Broadway. at London Bridge and at high tide, mean The trade of Venice is undoubtedly in measurement. Froin which stupendous ferior to the trade of Philadelphia ; but facts, poured forth irresistibly, the inferior the Piazza of St. Mark's has attractions British intelligence was supposed to draw scarcely to be met with in any part of Chestnut Street. The Mississippi is a sandstone slope, and St. Boniface Down much bigger river than the Rhine ; but it at Ventnor nothing better than a huge boss doesn't take its rise in the heart of Swit- of overgrown sheepwalk ? zerland, or roll its glacier-fed stream past The answer is, because, geologically the
crags of the Drachenfels. And so forth speaking, Dartmoor is the last relic of an ad infinitum.
old prehistoric mountain range. It is It is just the same with mountains. what it looks—the worn stump or basal Their essential mountainhood can no more wreck of a huge and ancient Alpine sysbe mcasured by height above sea level tem, alone, than Salisbury or Lincoln can be Nor is that all. These remnants of measured against the Capitol at Washing- mountains which we find scattered about ton by that simple footrule which Mr. over the face of the globe everywhere are Carnegie wields with relentless hand, as full of interest from the incidental light the surest means of coinparing Texas with they cast upon the history and vicissitudes the United Kingdom. The intelligent of continents. We are accustomed to talk traveller must have observed for himself, about the eternal hills : but these ruins indeed, in almost every country of the show us how the eternal hills themselves world to which bis native instinct and Mr. wear out in time as surely as the knees of Cook's coupons have led his wandering our boys' knickerbockers. We think of steps, how many undoubted mountains the Alps and the Himalayas as very ancient there are which hardly rise above a few piles ; and so they are, compared with the hundred feet. On the other hand, he Pyramids or the Eiffel Tower ; bat these must have noticed long chains of bills or r older ranges force us to acknowledge in downs which reach in places a highly re- turn that in many cases to be " as old as spectable altitude without ever in the re- the hills" is to be a great deal older than motest degree suggesting any claim to the the highest mountains. In fact, we shall mountainous character. Dear old Gilbert see, when we investigate them in detail, White of Selborne (one is always expect- that the greatest existing chains are for the ed to refer to Gilbert White in terms of most part of very recent date—mere somewhat supercilious but demonstrative modern upstarts—wbile the oldest and affection) alludes in one of his exquisitely most venerable mountains on earth are naïve letters to the Sussex South Downs as generally worn away to mere stumps' or that magnificent range of mountains.” tail-pieces.5) 119941 To anybody who knows what a mountain The ancient volcano of Mull in the means, the phrase, as applied to Cissbury Hebrides is a splendid typical, middleIIill or the Devil's Dike, seems little aged example of these worn-down peaks ; short of grotesque. The Downs have, no or, rather, though comparatively young, doubt, a singular charm and beauty of it exhibits well the phenomena of pretheir own ; no Englishman could ever wish mature decrepitude. In its present state; the shadows on their hollow combes to the Mull volcano very remotely indeed regrow less : but theirs is distinctly the sembles Etna or Vesuvius : it is only by beauty of gentle undulating hill country, an act of reconstructive imagination that the idyllic beauty of tender turf and the tourist who visits it by the Clyde emooth native lawn—as different as possi- steamer from Glasgow can see it once ble from anything which the phrase "a more raising its snow-capped cone high magnificent range of mountains” calls up into prehistoric clouds, and pouring forth before the mind's eye of an Alpine climber floods of liquid lava over the astonished or a Cook's tourist of the nobler sort. solit plains of Tertiary Scotland. But if bis
It would be hard to find anywhere a imagination has undergone the proper scibetter example of the short and stumpy entific education (this kind of thing takes mountain here contemplated than the tors a deal of training) he will be able to perof Dartmoor. There you get in full perform that difficult feat of second sight (as fection all the mountain characteristics in Sir Charles Russell would say) without a a square block of country which hardly moment's hesitancy. The whole island of rises higher than many upland tracts of Mull, in fact, is nothing more than the Central France or Germany. What is it mere weatherbeaten base of some vast prethat makes Dartmoor so distinctly moun: historic Teneriffe or Stromboli, which once tainous, while Leith Hill is merely a broad towered into the air with its volcanic cone
as bigh as Etna, and smoked away from which they disturb and alter by their inits angry crater as vigorously as Chimbo- trusion ; but how much later has to be razo itself.
left, as a rule, to pure guesswork. In the At the present day this ruined volcano case of the Mull volcano, however, the of Mull is seen, as it were, sliced across its lavas have been kind enough to preserve for base, so as to lay bare the very centre and us a distinct clew somewhat of the same sort ground-plan of the mountain. Geologists as that preserved by the Roman remains find this a great convenience, as sections at Herculaneum and Pompeii. Between of active volcanoes at the present day the different layers of basalt which mark would be both difficult and expensive to the various successive Java-streams there obtain. Judging by the breadth across occur in places thin beds of clay, on which the foundations now exposed, the peak in fossil impressions of leaves are found in its best days must bave had a diameter of considerable numbers.
These clays reprenearly thirty miles; and by the analogy sent the quiescent periods between one of its modern sisters elsewhere, we may eruption and the next, and the leaves emconclude that in its palmiest and most bedded in them are those of the trees that vigorous period its cone rose some ten or grew upon the slopes of the mountain in twelve thousand feet above sea level. We its lacid intervals. They are interesting can still make out in the rocks of the dis
on many accounts, both because they bear trict the dim story of the various stages by witness to the very mild and almost subwhich the great mountain was gradually tropical condition which then prevailed built up, and still more gradually rubbed over the whole of Scotland and England, down and worn away again. The outer and because they enable us with tolerable circle of the island consists almost entirely certainty to fix the approximate geological of antique Java currents, now hardened date of the days when the volcano was still into basalt, or of volcanic tuffs and show- in full activity. Fossils, indeed, are the ers of pebbles. The centre is composed trne landmarks of geological chronology. of the once active vents and craters them- Caledonia in those days, to judge from selves, filled up at present with molten these remains, far from being stern and masses of gabbros and dolerite.
wild, enjoyed what its modern bardy naeven trace various ages of the lava, some tives would probably describe as a " saft" of the streams having flowed from earlier climate. Huge conifers, like the “ big and others from later craters ; and the trees” of California, and belonging to an eruptions vary in the character of their almost indistinguishable species, then composition as modern lavas vary at differ- covered the slopes of Mr. William Black's ent periods.
beloved Highlands. Beside them grew Now the volcano of Mull, though an- ancestral pines and yews, with the parent cient enough as men reckon age in their forms of the plane, the alder, the buckown history, was, comparatively speaking, thorn, and the laurustinus. Al these quite a recent mountain-a thing of yes- plants, with the contemporary cinnamons, terday as we compute time in geology, bigs, and evergreen oaks, bear close likeperhaps little more than a couple of mill- nesses to the modern Mexican types, and ion years old or thereabouts. It was in show a climate at least as warm as that of full blast during either the Miocene or the Georgia or South Carolina. Eocene
age, which I will not insult the in- the trees belong either to the Eocene or telligence of the present generation by else to the Miocene period (experts, of further describing as the early Tertiary course, are at daggers drawn over the preperiod. Even our women nowadays learn cise era to which they should be assigned), geology at High Schools and give points when scarcely a single quadruped now to Macaulay's schoolboy. I may mention, living on earth had begun to assume its however, that we know this date owing to familiar shape. They go back to the days a very curious accident; for, as a rule, the when strange tapiss and crocodiles haunted age of volcanoes is as difficult to deter- the flooded banks of some mightier mine as that of unmarried ladies, owing Thames, and when the gigantic deinotheto their ashes and lavas naturally enclosing rium and the unshapely mastodon shook nothing in the way of fossils to guide us with their heavy tread the higher hills of to their origin. We can say, of course, Gloucestershire. that the mountains are later than the beds Still, geologically speaking, the volcano
As to age,
of Mall is quite a recent and almost his- Epoch, have not planed down Mull as yet torical mountain. How, then, has it come to an even or level surface. The unequal, to be reduced so soon, as by some heroic hardness of the various rocks causes them, course of Banting, to such small dimen- to resist in very unequal degrees ; so that sions ? Well, the answer doubtless. is, the close crystalline materials filling the because it was a volcano. Had it been a central vent, as Mr. Judd (our recognized good, solid, rocky mountain, the same authority on the babits and manners of through and through, like Somebody-or- volcanoes) justly remarks, stand up in the other's tea, or like Mont Blanc and Mount middle as big hilly groups ; while the Washington, it would doubtless have re- softer materials around have been largely sisted the wear and tear of ages far more worn away into corries and hollows. In energetically. But what can you expect places, the gradual removal by waterfrom a mere frothy volcano ? Its cone is agencies of the ash and tuff has left the mostly built up of loose and spongy ma- large dikes (or masses of igneous rocky terials—ash and lapilli, and scoriac refuse- formed in the fissures of the mountain hy heaps--which make a great show for the the outwelling of fiery materials from bemoney in the matter of height, but pos- low) standing out like gigantic walls; and Sess very little stability or fixity of tenure. it is this that gives rise to those curious As long as the crater goes on replacing the black inland cliffs, so characteristic of tho loss from wear and tear by constant erup- scenery of Mull. On the other hand, the tions, the cone continues to present a most remnants of the lava-streams, hard and imposing appearance to the outer eye ; but equal in texture, remain for the most part as soon as the internal energies cool down, as isolated plateaux. The bills still left and the mountain sinks into the dormant behind in the hard crystalline core have or extinct condition, rain and storm begin even now a height of three thousand feet : at once to disintegrate the loosely piled but this is a mere fraction of the ten or mass, and to rub down the great ash-heap twelve thousand which the central cone into a thousand valleys.
must almost certainly have attained in the Denudation, indeed, as geologists call days when it rose majestic to the sky, it, though slow and silent, is a far more crowned with wreathing smoke above, and potent destructive force in nature than clad below by a dark waving forest of the noisy, spasınodic earthquakes or erup- colossal Wellingtonias. tions to which ordinary humanity, scared Another one of these “ dissected volca: by their bluster, attaches so much undue noes,' as they have been aptly termed, importance. Wind and rain are mightier occupies (without prejudice to the claims than fire, The devouring element" is of the crofters) the entire area of the Isle really water. On the High Rocks at Tun- of Skye. This decrepit mountain has inbridge Wells some eighteenth-century deed scen better days. When it was poetaster has hung a board inscribed with young and_listy, in those same fiery, verses moralizing on the “ prodigious frolicsome Tertiary tinies, it must hare power'' that could rend asunder the living risen as high as Monte Rosa or Mont rock. Your modern geologist raises his Blanc, and smoked like ten thousand Gereyes, and sees with a smile the "prodig- man professors. To-day nothing remains ious power" hard at work there before of all that vast pile, says Mr. Judd, but his very face--a tiny, trickling driblet of the crystalline granite that fills up the huge water, that oozes through the soft sand- fissures throngh which the eruption of stone amid moss and liverwort, and slowly molten materials once took place. It is carries away, by a grain at a time, or these harder portions, sculptured into fan, rather by imperceptible atoms in solution, tastic shapes by wind or weather, and the seemingly coherent mass over which it carved out into domelike masses or wild dribbles. It is the same prodigious power, rugged peaks, that constitute the Red asserted over some ten thousand or so of Mountains and Cuchullin Hills of Skye, our petty centuries, that has worn down and now rise some 3,000 feet above sca the volcano of Mull to its lowest base, and level. The ignorant Southron who doesn't laid bare the very sources and entrails of know the district and its Gaelic tongue the great mountain.
warned parenthetically that Rain, snow, and ice, however, or even Cuchullin is pronounced Coolin, according the moving glaciers of the terrible Glacial to the usual playful orthographic fancy of