sand gups which compete with them? bas just presented that amount of good What chance has a Christian virtue where wbich the negro could comprehend and the soil is so suitable for European vice- assimilate. Moreover, the Mobammedan wbere, for every individual influenced for missionaries have been like the natives good by merchant or missionary, there are themselves—men who spoke the same lana thousand caught up in the Styx-like flood guage, lived the same life. of spirit-poison and swept off helplessly On the other hand, the Christian worker to perdition ?

has accomplished so little because he has It would, however, be presenting an en- tried to do so much. He has seldom tirely misleading picture of the situation comprehended the problenis he has had to were I to restrict myself to the distant and face. His educatior bas rarely been general prospect. As already said, a adapted to the work before him, and, filled closer and more detailed examination re- with much enthusiasm and ardor and more veals many bright points in the night-like erroneous ideas, he has gone forth too darkness. Of these, none scintillate with a often to do little more than throw away more promising light than the enterprises his life with but small result to the cause of the Christian missionary. And yet, he has at heart. however promising for the future, when The missionary, as a rule, bas ignored we look around and see with what rapid the fact that men's minds can only assimstrides the emissaries of Islam have made ilate ideas in proportion to their stage of their influence felt throughout the whole development. He acts as if he could in a of the Central and Western Soudan, and left single generation transform a being at the the mental and spiritual impress of their foot of the ladder of human life into a civilization

upon the natives, we cannot but civilized individual, and raise a degraded sidly wonder at the comparatively small heathen at a stroke to the European spiritheadway that their Christian rivals have ual level. Filled with such beliefs, he has made against the sodden mass of heathen- ever attempted, in defiance of all common dom. As compared with the progress of sense, to graft Christianity in its entirety Mohammedanism in Africa, Christianity upon undeveloped brutish brains. Instead in these lands has been practically at a of taking a lesson from his successful Mostandstill.. Wherever Mohammedan seed hanımedan brother-worker in the mission. has been sown there it has taken root, and field, and simplifying the presentation of there it has remained to flourish with a the Gospel truth, he has generally done his vigorous grip of the soil which nothing best to stupefy his hearers with views and can destroy. The same cannot be said of doctrines which have been beyond their Christian seed : it has ever been as a deli- spiritual comprehension. cate exotic, difficult to plant, more diffi- It has rarely occurred to him that he cult to rear, and ever requiring outside had better, like the Mohammedan, sow support and watering.

one good seed which will grow and frucWhat, then, is the secret of this dis- tify, and strike deep and permanently into couraging state of matters? It cannot be the life of the negro, than a thousand for lack of good men and true. Of such wbich only remain sterile on the surface. there have been hundreds—men who have Before any great advance will be made been possessed with the very highest ideals in the Christian propaganda in Africa, a of duty, and who have literally burned out total revolution in the methods of work their lives in the ardor of their missionary must be accomplished. Surely the time enterprise.

has come when professorships for the The explanation is simply this : Mohain- preparation of missionaries should be medanism has succeeded because of its founded, so that men might be sent out elasticity and its adaptability to the peo- properly armed for the conflict, instead of ples it sought to convert. It has asked of leaving them, as at present, to enter the the heathen negro apparently so little, and mission field not knowing what they have yet, in reality, so much, considering what to face, imbued with the unworkable tradihe is ; for in that little lie the germs of a tions of bygone times, and hampered by great spiritual revolution. In fact, it is in the unsuitable theological training for the a manner because of its very inferiority as ministry which they have received among a religion-looked at from our standpoint a civilized people, and wbich in Africa is - that it has succeeded ; and because it worse than useless.

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Once the negro is attacked in the right we have not only checked its desolatiug spirit, and with a suitable choice of weap- career, but slain it outright. ous from the Christian armory, I venture Here is indeed a gigantic task, which to predict even more splendid results to we, as a Christian people, cannot shirk. Christianity than has ever marked the It would be well if we heard less about progress of Islam.

For the negro, with high-sounding impossible schemes for the all his intellectual deficiencies, is naturally suppression of the present Arab slavea very religious individual. In his present trade, and more practicable proposals for helplessness and darkness he gropes aina- the stoppage of our equally ruin-working lessly about after an explanation of his sur- commerce in spirits and weapons of deroundings, and finds but slight consolation struction. Let us

Let us stop our pharisaical in bis stocks and stones, his fetichism and trumpeting from the house-tops over the spirit-worship. That he gladly adopts a pounds we spend for the conversion of the loftier conception is shown by the avidity heathen, while our merchants continue to with which he accepts as his God, Allah make fortunes out of their demoralization. -the one God of the Mohammedans. Instead of talking of retiring with our We cannot be too quick in entering the enormous gains-a proceeding which field in opposition to the religion of Islam, would only be in harmony with all our however great may be its civilizing work dealings with the natives---conscience calls among the natives, or splendid its benefi- aloud that we should put ourselves in sackcial influence in raising up a barrier against cloth and ashes, and set about sweeping the devil's flood of drink poured into our commerce and our politics free from Africa by Christian merchants. For un- the iniquities by which they have hitherto happily its ultimate results belie the prom- been characterized. That accomplished, ise of its initial stages among the lower we have before us the still more mighty levels of humanity, if we are to judge task of undoing the evils propagated durfroni Morocco and other Mohammedan ing the last three centuries, and inaugurempires ; and we have only too good rea- ating the real work of civilization-religson to fear that what in the present is a ion, working hand in hand with no hypogreat blessing to myriads of negro people critical make-believe legitimate comin the Central and Western Soudan, may become a deplorable curse to the genera- Justice might indeed join hands with tions of the future.

such as demand our withdrawal from AfriIn view of these facts-namely, that ca were there no indication on our part of our intercourse with Africa has been al- a consciousness of wrong-doing-of a demost one long carcer of crime and shame, sire to reform where we have erred, to refraught with direst consequence to a whole trace our steps where we have gone astray. continent of people, and, in addition, that But already on all sides there are signs of our various missionary enterprises have hope—signs of the approach of a brighter not accomplished the amount of good day and of better things for the negro. which might reasonably be expected of The national conscience is awakeningthem—one might be tempted to ask, men's eyes are being opened to the real ought we not to retire altogether, and character of our doings in the Dark Coni leave Africa and the African alone ? To tinent. Societies have been formed, vowed such a question I should answer most em- to the suppression of the worst evils, and phatically, No.

We must not, if we are spreading their influence at a rapid could, and we ought not even if we would. rate. Governments are becoming more and We have laid ourselves under an over- more alive to their duty to the ignorant whelming load of debt to the negro which savages who have come under their rule, centuries of beneficent work can never re- and are striving to check the liquor traffic pay. We have not made reparation and where it has been established, and to abatonement for the evil we wrought with solutely prohibit it where no hold has yet the slave-traffic. The hydra-beaded beast been obtained. The sympathetic car of -the gin and weapon trade-is still con- the Houses of Parliament has been obtinuing its ravages, still bringing new ter- tained, and Churches of all denominations ritories under contribution. We brought are lending the weight of their influence the monster into being, and ours is the to the good cause. Still better, merchants duty to give battle to it, and rest not till themselves are becoming alive to the fact


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that they are engaged in a business they only commercially and politically are there ought to be ashamed of, and are seeking signs of the approach of a brighter day. for a way of escape from the situation in It is gradually dawning upon Missionary which they have placed themselves. Pub. Societies that their methods have not al. lic companies, too, armed with the powers ways been the most suitable for the work of a Royal charter, are entering the field to be done. In this respect our Scottish with enlightened views as to what their Missions have also been taking the lead, aims and objects shonld be. More espe. They have sent of their best to carry on cially do they take a stand against the the difficult work. They no longer disfurther development of the ruinous traffic dain the helping hand of the layman, but of which so much has already been said, see in the artisan and the merchant co. apparently determined to restrict and workers in the same field. In every refinally extirpate the vile thing.

spect they have broadened the basis of their Of such we have no better example than operations and grappled in a more niodern the Royal Niger Company, which since it and common sense spirit with the question got its charter has started on a career of Christian propaganda, and how best to bright with promise. The British East come in touch with the undeveloped deAfrica Company is another which we may graded nature of the negro.

This spirit be sure will never soil its bands by any is likewise reflected in the communications misdirection of its commercial dealings to our missionary magazines. Throughwith the people under its rule.

out, these manifest a more vigorous and As a bright spot in the black expanse healthy tone, and are made up less of the of Africa, let me point with pride to what weak milk-and-water demanded by spirour Scottish merchants and missionaries itual babes and sucklings. are doing on Lake Nyassa.

Thus, with missionary enterprise startThere, band in hand, commerce and re- ing forth new armed on a more promising Jigion are pursuing a common end. Filled career of Cbristian conquest ; with comwith the noblest aspirations of their great merce purging herself of criminal inpioneer, Livingstone, and the best char- iquities, and joining with religion in the acteristics of their native country, the band work of civilization, what may not be preof Christian heroes have planted their flag dicted of the future of Africa ! Already on a rock, and, unfurling it to the breeze, the remotest corners have heard the glad have taken the helpless heathen under their tidings of the coming good-uttered in a protection in the name of Christ and hu- still small voice perhaps, and possibly unmanity. Sword in hand, they have driven heeded, uncomprehended—but bound to back the slave-raiding hordes in the north, catch the heat ben ear at last, and grow in and now they stand prepared to repel the form, in volume and in harmony, till they equally desolating wave of Portuguese ag- swell into one grand pæan and Christian gression which threatens them from the hymn, which shall be heard in every forest south. At such a crisis, it is our duty as depth and wide waste of jungle. individuals, as a Christian people, as a na- Then in the far distant future, Englishtion, to see that that flag is never again men who shall be happily alive to hear lowered, and that those who protect and that hymn, may indeed be able to speak gather round it are supported and encour- of tbe beneficent results of European interaged in their glorious struggle.

course with the African, knowing that the In such facts we see clearly that the sins of their fathers have at last been extidal wave of evil has commenced to turn, piated, and the blot on the national honor and that a new and more beneficent cur- wiped out. — Contemporary Review, rent is asserting itself. But, happily, not

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M. Pasteur's persistency in claiming and most eminent physicians America has to have discovered an almost infallible ever produced, is of special value : he had remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia only seen two cases, and the reader must induced the Rev. R. A. Chudleigh and remember that Dr. Austin Flint, from his some friends of his to urge me to visit eminence and metropolitan position, was Paris and interview the fainous French of all American inedical men one of the chemist, and as Mr. Chudleigh generously most likely to have opportunities of seeing provided the means, off I set. My visit took place at the time when Pasteur's "Dr. Carter of Shipley," says an able treatment against hydrophobia was attract- writer, was one of the many men escorting most attention. My object was not to ing patients to the Rue d'Ulm with whom take a patient in danger or supposed I conversed on what goes on there. Не danger of hydrophobia, nor to collect has had unusual experience in hydrophobia, statistics, still less to strengthen any them having treated eight cases, one of which

was simply to see what was ac- was caused by the scratch of a cat. He tually taking place to observe the man knew a death from rabies-or at least a and his assistants, and to report upon and death with every rabid symptom-from to converse with the people whom I found the bite of a dog never ill, and yet alive." in his rooms ; in short, I was only to be a We may fairly assume that hydrophobia spectator, nothing more, though my long may occur once in many millions of cases of experience of hospitals and private medi. other diseases. Some practitioners doubt cal practice gare me some claim to rank its very existence, though the majority beas a trained observer, less likely than some lieve it to be a real disease. It is

generother inquirers to be led astray by prej. ally supposed to result from the bite or udice and falsehood.

scratch of a rabid animal ; in other words, The character of hydrophobia invests it the saliva of a cat, dog, badger, wolf, or with an interest not often extended to dis- fox is introduced through the skin by a eases which destroy a thousand times as bite or scratch, and passing into the gen

There is something so dread- eral current of the circulation, leads to ful in the thought that the bite of a pet singular changes and nearly certain death. dog or the inoculation of a scratch with The rapidity with which the virus enters the saliva of a favorite cat may be the first the circulation is such that local applicastage in a disease hopeless in its character tions are probably useless, and the faith in and peculiarly distressing to witness, that caustics seems only another time-honored new remedies are examined with a pa. superstition. Some authorities hold that tience and hopefulness not often shown in the virus inay remain latent in the cicatrix other and really far more important cases. of the wound for days, months, even The great uncertainty as to whether a par- years, before being taken up by the systicular bite will end in hydrophobia, and tem ; others treat such theories, and probthe chance that even when the dog or cat ably with reason, as old wives' tales. Dr. is undeniably rabid, the sufferer may es. Austin Flint argued that rabies did not occape all evil consequences, make investi- cur very soon after the bite, nor very long gations as to the value of any new treat- after' ; in other words, in cases of illness ment peculiarly perplexing and difficult. commencing directly after the bite, or

Some preliminary statements about by- very long after, there was no reason to bedrophobia, a subject on which the public lieve the complaint to be hydrophobia ; are often ill informed, cannot be but in from ten days to a year fairly covered the place here.

It is, then, a disease of great extreme limits of incubation, and in all rarity, and not always of very clear origin. probability, when the disease appeared Many medical men pass a long and busy some years after a severe bite, which the life and never see a case ; others see one patient had not forgotten, he had been or two. On this point the experience of subsequently inoculated by an infected the late Dr. Austin Flint, one of the ablest animal. Again, granting the existence of

many lives.

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the disease-and the evidence is sufficiently inhumanity, and it has seemed to many of strong—and admitting that it is caused by his opponents that his discomfiture, or the virus of an infected animal, much re- rather that of his anti-hydrophobic treatmains; and to this the reader's close at- ment, would be the death-knell of experitention must be directed. Not one dog ments on animals ; on the other hand, in a thousand-not one, perbaps, in ten many scientific men bave rallied around thousand-biting human beings is rabid ; him, apparently expecting that his triumph and as many people, bitten by a rabid ani- would forever set at rest the anti-vivisecmal, are proof against the poison, and, as tion agitation. The difficulty, therefore, in a large proportion, the fangs are wiped of being impartial, that is, judicial in the clean by the clothes or skin in their pas- tone of my article and in the investigations sage into the subcutaneous tissues, the per- which led to it, is obvious. Had I been centage of people bitten by rabid animals, asked to write a paper on the arcbitectural ultimately becoming rabid, is very small. beauties of Paris, its superb churches and Still more to complicate matters, many ancient cathedrals, its picture galleries, its nervous diseases simulate hydrophobia, or beautiful avenues and its transparent sumare liable to be mistaken for it. Many mer atmosphere, how quickly would my animals suffering from epilepsy and other pen run on, how rapid would be the flow nervous complaints are bastily assumed to of words ! but the cold blooded habits of have rabies. Hot weather bas nothing to the scientific investigator awaken no redo with the frequency or virulence of the sponse in my breast, and to deal with scidisease, either in man or beast ; though entific details, to balance facts-that was hot weather is vulgarly supposed to bave a task I was ill fitted for. much to do with bringing it on.

As the Unfortunately in all respects, unfortu. possibility of developing hydrophobia is nately for his reputation in many circles, present in the minds of nearly all people still more unhappily for the hecatombs of bitten by animals, deaths from terror are innocent victims whom he has slaughtered not unknown, and cases occur of what are -- sacrificed to what he supposed to be called pseudo-hydrophobia. When the cruel necessity-Pasteur's connection with dead body of a dog is carefully examined vivisection has surrounded any investigaby competent investigators, there are no tion of the man and his labors with comcertain signs by which hydrophobia can plications of such a character that it is albe recognized. The appearance of the most impossible to disiniss those terrible corpse, and the presence in the stomach of experiments from the mind, although very straw, bits of wood, and other such mat- many Englishmen are not opposed to viviters is pot conclusive. In many instances, section. too, the sufferer promptly sucks the wound, Many of our most enlightened countryand may thus remove the virus, and in a men would endorse the following passage still larger proportion a medical man, on vivisection from a reply once made by chemist, or some neighbor applies acid, Charles Darwin to Professor Lankester : vinegar, carbolic acid, hot iron, nitrate of “You ask about my opinion on vivisecsilver, or some other potent agent, and so tion : 1 quite agree that it is justifiable for may destroy the virus. The severity of real investigations on physiology, but not the wound, though adding danger of an. for mere damnable and detestable curiosity. other kind, cannot have inuch to do with It is a subject which makes me sick with increasing the risk of hydrophobia, as the horror, so I will not say another word most minute particle of the poison intro- about it, else I sball not sleep to-night.” duced into the system acts as a ferment, On the same subject Sir J. Fayrer says of and in some inexplicable fashion sets up Darwin: “ He was a man eminently fond d structive processes terminating in death of animals, and tender to them ; he would Nor has the locality of the bite anything to not knowingly have inflicted pain on a livdo with increasing or diminishing the risk; ing creature ; but he entertained the the introduction of the virus is the one im- strongest opinion that to prohibit experiportant matter, not the amount injected, ments on living animals would be to put a nor the region wounded.

stop to the knowledge of and the remedies Around Pasteur a fierce vivisection con- for pain and disease" Charles Darwin's test has raged. In many circles he is re- views are much those of most medical garded as the incarnation of cruelty and practitioners ; they regard vivisection as a


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