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whose calm face and clear cut features dropped his musket,
his arms, awakened in the old soldier's inind mem- and with a cry of “ Vive l'Empereur !!! ories of the glorious past. In an agony of fell dead. -- Gentleman's Magazine. joy he exclaimed, C'est lui !''=he
even now fighting against- will at once
answer : “ But there must have been, at RABIES is a disease which has been
some time or other, one first animal sponknown from the earliest times. The dog taneously afflicted with rabies.”
That anmay give it to man and to domestic aniAnimals, again, may communicate of the origin of things, a question which
swer simply opens up the whole question it to each other. At the time of writing is altogether outside the domain of scienthis paper rabies is raging in England in a tific investigation. Whence came the first herd of deer in the park of the Marquis of
man? Whence caine tbe first oak tree ? Bristol, at Ickworth. The herd was com- Nobody knows, and it is useless to discuss posed of five hundred animals, and two such mysteries. Observation alone shows hundred of them have already died, while
us that rabies never originates spontanethe disease still rages. A rabid dog found ously. Nobody has ever proved the exhis way into the park during the month of istence of spontaneous rabies, though many April last, and bit several aniinals, which have attributed to it the symptoms of died of rabies, but only after they had epilepsy, a disease frequently met with in bitten a large number of their compan- the canine species. Further, it never
breaks out in any country unless when inA short time ago onr knowledge of this
troduced there by an animal bitten in andisease was still surrounded by many pop
other place where rabies is endemic. ular fallacies. Old writings, recept papers
Many islands in the Pacific Ocean are even, state that rabies may originate spon
quite free from it. It is not met with in taneously, and the occasional causes pro- the wide Australian continent, Norway, ducing the disease are likewise described:
or Lapland. And yet these countries will In the streets of certain towns one may
be free of it only so long as they take see along the walls, in the summer time,
proper measures to prevent the introducsmall tin vessels filled with water in order
tion of dogs wbich, after being bitten in that dogs may satisfy their thirst. Many
another country, carry the virus with them think that unless such precautions are ta- in a latent form. ken some animals must become rabid.
Moreover, it is not difficult to prove Nevertheless, it is a fact that, in whatever that rabies is a disease which cannot apphysiological or pathological conditions
pear de novo under any physiological cona dog or any other animal is placed, ra
ditions, and that its spontaneous origin is bies never makes its appearance in that
We know nowadays animal unless it has been bitten or licked
that contagious or virulent affections are by another suffering from rabies at the caused by small microscopic beings which time the wound was inflicted. Every per
are called microbes. The anthrax of catson who is of opinion that rabies may tle, malignant pustule of man, is produced originate spontaneously-an opinion I am by a microbe ; croup is produced by a mi
The microbe of rabies bas * This information has been given me by not been isolated as yet, but, judging by Mr. Adams, demonstrator of pathology at analogy, we must believe in its existence. Cambridge University, who is now being in. To resume : every virus is a microbe. oculated at the Pasteur Institute. This young Although these beings are of infinite and very distinguished scientist cut himself with a knife soiled with nervous matter, while smallness, the conditions of their life and performing a post-mortem examination on one propagation are subject to the same gen. of these rabid animals.
eral laws which regulate the birth and
multiplication of the higher animal and sometimes preceded by horrible sufferings vegetable beings. They, like the latter, and indescribable maniacal attacks of fury, never have a spontaneous origin ; like the shortly follows. latter, they are derived from beings similar Strange to say, this disease, on which to themselves. It has been proved, with the resources of medicine have no effect, out the shadow of a doubt, that, in the has been treated in all countries by an endpresent state of science, the belief in spon- less number of remedies, all supposed to taneous generation is a chimera. If it be be infallible. There is no country in Eusaid that life must have appeared on this rope or America, be it small or large, in earth spontaneously at some period or which persons are not to be found who are other, I must repeat the statement which supposed to be able to cure rabies, or in I made just now, namely, that the origin which practices which are said to prevent of all things on carth is hidden behind an the occurrence of the disease may not be impenetrable veil. In short, rabies is not studied. The erroneous belief on which a spontaneous disease.
such practices are based is due to the fact As it is always due to the direct inocu- that it is difficult for men in general to lation of its virus by a rabid animal, it is apply to their knowledge of facts, more easy to understand that simple police or less mysterious in their nature, and the measures will suffice to stamp out this hor- causation of which is unexplained, the rible disease, more especially in insular precepts derived from experimental methcountries like England or Ireland. Two ods. The human mind is always struck or three years would perhaps be enough to by anything which appears to be marreleradicate it, if owners were compelled to lous. A man, for instance, will often bemuzzle their dogs or to lead them by a lieve the quack who tells him that a stone string when in the streets. The destruc- of a certain kind, or a plant, will prevent tion of all wolves in the United Kingdom the evil effects of a bite from a rabid aniwas a far more difficult task, and yet it mal, provided this stone or plant be merewas successfully accomplished.
ly placed in contact with the wound. He Everybody, medical men especially, may say even that he has personally exagree in thinking that rabies, in man at perienced the good effects of such a pracleast, is an incurable disease. If a man be tice, if rabies has not followed the applibitten by a rabid animal in such a manner cation of the remedy to one patient. He that he must necessarily die of rabies, his forgets that to draw such a conclusion health may nevertheless remain perfectly must necessarily be a mistake, simply begood for several weeks, though the treach- cause every bite from a rabid animal is not erous virus creeps on in his body, carried always followed by the breaking out of by the blood or finding its way along the the disease in the person so bitten. Now, nerves, until it invades the nervous cen- suppose a hundred people to have been tres. It is always first found in the latter, bitten by rabid dogs, how many will die and thence
passes into the salivary glands. of this terrible disease ? It is difficult to The first symptoms now make their ap- answer such a question. Moreover, the pearance : fear of water and of all liquids, number of victims varies for several reaintense headache, spasms of the throat, Nevertheless, it is generally supdilated pupils, haggard eyes, severe pain posed that if the deaths taking place or mere itching at the seat of the bite. among a large number of persons bitten In rare cases the patient tries to bite ; if by rabid animals be added up, and if so, he bites the bed clothes, but the peo- their seat and gravity be not taken into ple near him only in rare cases. He ex, account, the mortality among persons bit. pectorates frequently, while convulsive ten amounts to 15 or 20 per cent. In movements follow on the slightest breath other words, more than cighty out of a or draught of air. He is afraid of shin- hundred persons suffer no evil effects ing objects, and the slightest noise causes from the bite. It is easy therefore to be him to start. These are some of deceived as to the value of any preventive the striking signs of the disease. If one remedy. For, if we apply it to a small
several of these morbid symptoms number of persons, it will seem to have make their appearance, rabies is present, been successful in four cases out of five. and, whatever may be done, runs its own Is that not more than sufficient to warrant independent and fatal course, Death, a quack, whose advice is taken, to say
that his remedy is infallible, and to cause face of the brain of a chloroformed animal ignorant men to blindly share his belief? (dog, rabbit, or guinea pig) by means of
The experimental method judges facts a hypoderinic needle, after trephining, more severely. That method teaches us the animal thus inoculated will contract that, if we are to believe in the efficacy of rabies to a certainty, and that in a relativea preventive remedy against rabies among ly short time; that is, in a period not persons bitten by rabid animals, it would exceeding fifteen days or three weeks. be necessary, in the first place, to discover Do you wish, then, to test any remedy a process enabling the experimenter to re- which is said to prevent the occurrence of produce rabies in an animal at will. Arabies ? Take two dogs and inoculate number of dogs haring then been inocu- both of them with the virus in the manner lated with rabies, according to that proc- which has just been described. Now ess, would have to be divided into two give that remedy to one of the dogs before batches, the remedy being applied to one or after the operation, as many times as batch, and the disease being allowed to you like, and leave the other dog to take run its course unopposed in the other, its chance. You will then notice that rauntil death followed. It would be easy to bies makes its appearance as readily in the compare the course of the disease in the first as in the second animal.
Of course two lots, and the action of the remedy we have not tested in this way all the nucould thus be conclusively demonstrated, merous remedies praised by quacks, but provided rabies and death did not follow we have tried some which are said to have the introduction of the virus into animals proved most successful, without meeting treated by the remedy. We have tested with the least success. in this way remedies which are supposed Very different results are obtained if to be able to prevent the occurrence of the method which I explained before the rabies, and are said by their owners to be Académie des Sciences de Paris, on Octoinfallible, but we have never obtained any ber 16th, 1885, be used. That method satisfactory results.
of vaccination resembles in many of its It is not so easy as one might think at general characteristics the methods of profirst to successfully inoculate a series of phylaxis against contagious diseases which animals with rabies. We have formerly are based on the inoculation of attenuated called attention to the fact that, if dogs virus. The injection of such attenuated be bitten by rabid animals, the disease virus vaccinates animals, and thus enables does not appear in all of them. A direct them to resist the attack of the corresubcutaneous inoculation of the saliva of a sponding strong virus. rabid dog is hardly more successful. The Every virus, or rather all virulent and saliva contains, together with the microbe infectious microbes, may be attenuated by of hydrophobia, other microbes of various natural or artificial means. The virus of kinds which may give rise to abscesses small-pox in man is represented in an atand other morbid complications and thus tenuated condition by the cow-pox virus prevent the occurrence of rabies. In short, of bovine animals. The latter has been only a few years ago, experimenters would produced—at least so I am inclined to not have known where to find the virus in think-by accidental and successive inocua pure state, nor how to use it in such a lations of human small-pox virus on the way as to produce rabies and nothing but udders of cows, and its present state of rabies. Luckily, these two difficulties virulence has at last become fixed” were overcome at the same time by the there. In the same way the virus of rafollowing discovery. If the autopsy of bies is greatly modified by successive inan animal dead of rabies be made, and if oculations on monkeys or rabbits. a small portion of the brain, spinal cord, Similarly, again, the fatal virus of anor, better perhaps, of the thicker part of thrax is modified by the action of air and the cord which unites this to the brain-a heat until at last it is rendered harmless. part which is called medulla oblongata or It passes through intermediate stages, bulbus—be taken, and if this portion of bowever, in which it may still prove fatal the central nervous system be crushed in to animals of small size but harmless when a sterilized fluid, with all necessary anti- noculated into domestic animals, although septic precautions, and if a small quantity it vaccinates the latter against the attacks of this fluid be now introduced, on the sur- of the primitive fatal virus. In the same that a dog
way the virus of rabies may be attenuated men must not only be forbidden but, to any desirable degree by the action of moreover, must be considered as criminal. air and moderate heat, and may then, Nevertheiess, we are justified in thinking when inoculated into animals, enable them that results obtained on animals may, for to resist the action of the primitive fatal the most part at least, be obtained in man virus. In other words, one may produce also. Now it is
prove in a dog a state in which it is impossible previously vaccinated and so rendered infor that animal to contract rabies. Take capable of contracting rabies may be inoca dozen dogs, vaccinate them in the man- ulated under the skin with almost any ner which I have just mentioned, and then quantity of the purest and strongest virus, inoculate them at the surface of the brain without this inoculation being followed by with the pure virus of rabies. Then per- any evil consequences.
Vaccinated dogs form the latter operation, at the same have been inoculated on different occasions time, on twelve other non-vaccinated ani- with several cubic centimètres of virus mals. Not one of the first dozen will taken from the medulla oblongata of dogs contract the disease, but the twelve other dead of rabies, without noticeable evil animals will all die of it after exhibiting effects, although such inoculations were all the various symptoms typical of rabies, effected not only once but every day durresembling in every particular those pro- ing several months.
Vaccinated dogs duced by the bite of a rabid animal wan- during the year succeeding this operation dering about the streets. The experiments are not injuriously affected by the bites of which I have just mentioned, showing rabid animals. that dogs may be vaccinated against ra- Some years ago I brought together at bies, may be successfully repeated on other Villeneuve l'Etang many dogs vaccinated dogs even if they have been bitten by rab. during the year 1884, and placed them in id animals before the inoculations are be- a large kennel.
After having demongun, provided too long a period has not strated the fact that in 1885 and 1886 the elapsed between the time of the bite and larger number of these animals, though that of the protective inoculations. The not all (eleven out of fourteen in 1885, success of such a course of treatment de four out of six in 1886), had not suffered pends on the usually long period of time any harm from the inoculation of the rage intervening between the day of the bite des rues (street rabies) even when the viand the period at which the first symp- rus was deposited on the surface of the toms of rabies show themselves. The brain, I came to the conclusion that, after immunity due to vaccination is produced all, it was only necessary to know whether in animals before the period at which the such vaccinated animals would be able to acute symptoms of rabies ought to appear. resist the action of the virus when introThis is indirectly but fully proved by the duced by a bite. Accordingly, in 1887, fact that, if the period of incubation in 1888, and 1889, vaccinated animals were dog be much shortened, our method may merely bitten by dogs suffering from ranot prove successful in vaccinating that bies, and not inoculated under the skull. In animal. If the virus be, for instance, in- 1887, the vaccinated dogs suffered no evil oculated at the surface of the brain, the effects after being inoculated by the bite disease often follows as early as two weeks of a rabid dog. In the month of July, after the inoculation. It is noticeable that, 1888, five dogs vaccinated in the year 1884 in order to protect an animal efficiently were bitten, together with five non-vacunder these conditions, the whole process cipated animals. The five vaccinated aniof preventive inoculations must be carried mals are now (August, 1889) still in peron as quickly as possible, if that animal is fect health, whereas, of the five others, to be efficiently vaccinated before the fatal three died of rabies and two are living symptoms of rabies appear.
now. At the time of writing a similar exIt is necessary to demonstrate by ex- periment is in progress on another group periments that an animal may acquire im- of animals vaccinated in 1884. If these munity against rabies if it be submitted to animals resist, and if all or some of the the prophylactic treatment of which we non-vaccinated animals die of rabies, it have spoken here. Of course, all experi- will be a positive proof that the artificial ments demonstrating this fact must be immunity against fresh bites from rabid made on animals only, and all trials on animals may extend over a period exceed.
ing five years. However great the ad. to summon op courage enough to make vances made in our knowledge of the etiol- that trial and to overstep the frontier ogy and prophylaxis of rabies among ani- which separates man from animals. If it mals may have been, these results were be true that the Goddess of Chance helps interesting, chiefly because they justified men who are determined to find out the us more and more in hoping that the pre- truth, we are certainly justified in thinking ventive methods against rabies might be that she did so under the circumstances successful in the case of men bitten by which I am about to relate. —New Revier. rabid animals. But the question was how
(To be concluded.)
SCEPTICISM ABOUT ONE'S SELF.
tv And yet,
It has been said by devotees of Shake- but he thought otherwise. The feeling speare that everything can be found in his spreads, however, to all classes, except, plays; and certainly the best description indeed, poets--at least, we never heard of of the newest intellectual foible of man- a poet who disbelieved either in poetry or kind is to be found there. The native himself as a poetry-producer-even to hue of resolution” was never 80 sicklied business men, who are occasionally baro'er with the pale cast of thought" as it assed to a degree tbeir most intimate is nowadays, when scepticism attacks other friends do not know as to the lawfulness things than belief in theology. Not only or the utility of their particular trades. have men begin to doubt the creeds, and "I doubt about banking very much,'' said the accepted moralities, and, in a certain
a prosperous banker, leaning over the gate number of cases, the existence of a sen- into a cornfield ; where does my right tient Creator ; not only do they call on all to profit above the interest of my capital institutions to give a valid
reason for their spring from ?-but farming must be good, existence, but they are inclined to doubt for it begets food."
he their own right to be or to act, to ques- added immediately, “ I am not quite sure. tion whether they are not themselves mis. Every field of corn I grew would help to takes, and to argue that it would be either overfill the market, and so lower laborers' morally or intellectually wrong to resist wages.' Judges grow greatly troubled those who intend to sweep them away. when sentences must be heavy, asking They have, to use popular language, no themselves if crime may not, after all, be
confidence in their own position, not lunacy; and lawyers, when they happen on account of any want in the position it to think that every man should seek to self, but of an inner scepticism either as promote pure justice instead of his client's to their capacity to fill it, or more gen
We have known soldiors who erally-self-conceit showing no sign of ap- doubted whether war was not wicked ; proaching death-of the rightfulness or and editors who held that, on the whole, utility of the position itself. The feeling a free Press was more of a nuisance than was exactly expressed by a retired Anglo- a blessing ; while the number of doubtful Indian of eminence in 1861. He had clergymen-doubtful of the use of clerigoverned a province unusually well, and cality, we mean, not of doctrines—is aldone a quantity of great work which most legion. The doubt is, however, most needed doing, but he congratulated him- keen in aristocrats and Kings. A certain self heartily that he had retired before the proportion of the English Peerage doubt Mutiny. "I could never have fought their own right to be, and would vote hard, he said, “ for I could never make against the House of Lords ; while the up my mind whether onr conquest of number of Kings who question the sancIndia was a divinely inspired act or a great tity of Kingship increases every day. dacoity.” He had gone on governing, Louis Philippe could not, they say, bring bat did not know if he had a right to gov- himself to fire upon the mob of ?48, beern, and in the great emergency he thought cause to his own inner mind he was a he would have failed. As a matter of usurper, and in his thought he held confact, he would probably have fought very stitutional kingship to be an absurd farce. well, the fighting temper being roused; A legitimate King had great rights, and NEW SERIES, VOL. LI., No. 1.