again delivering university lectures in one of entered into the evolution of these systems the oldest hereditary seats of Scotch religious without getting back to the root sources. The reform. This would seem to indicate some Christian of to day, accustomed to take all the change of attitude among Scotch theologians. elements and doctrines of his religion as a One thing is beyond question. Whatever may matter of course, will be surprised to find what be thought of Dr. Robertson Smith's conclu- freshness of light and understanding is thrown sions, no one can dispute his weight as an au- on his conventional notions, when he follows thority in Arabic, Hebrew, and Cuneiform the track of research backward. Take, for exscholarship, and his competency to judge of ample, the sacrifice of Christ as a ransom for the religious institutions wbich grew up un. the sins of men. The New Testament doctrine der the conditions of Semitic life. We may of sacrifice is stated as an accepted fact, the assume, too, that the drift of the investiga- one way in which ransom was legitimately tions embodied in these lectures before the made. We trace this to the Old Testament students of Marischal College, Aberdeen, is and find that it is here only described histori. far less likely to arouse bitter controversy than cally. We have not arrived at the Genesis. the previous criticisms, which clashed at so By studying the primitive habits of the Semany points with the rigid views of a con- mitic nations and tribes, it is found that the servative school of thinkers on what they re- idea of sacrifice belongs in common to the garded as the very foundation of truth. Prob. whole congeries of Semitic tribes, of whom the ably, with the possible exception of Professor Hebrews, aside from their tremendous part in A. H. Sayce, Dr. Robertson Smith has no equal the spiritual and religious development of the in Semitic scholarship. His voice there, in his world, were a very insignificant part. We find specialties, is one, the lightest word of which sacrifices of the sume kind and very closely commands respect if not assent.

after the same ritual performed by the other These lectures concern themselves with the Seroites both before and after the Mosaic disprimitive institutions which marked the relig- pensation. Human sacrifice was character. ions of the Semitic races (Hebrews and other istic of the Semitic peoples from a very earlytribes of Syro-Palestine, Arabs, Phænicians, the earliest day. The Phoenician peoples of Assyrians, and Babylonians), and may be found Tyre, Sidon, and Carthage, raised it to a strongly stamped on them all. The book be- bloody cult unspeakably horrible, and the fore us is confined to a study of the relation Canaanitish tribes of Palestine, so closely al. of the Semitic gods to their worshippers and lied to the Hebrews in race, habits, and lanto nature in general; the superstitions attached guage were only less barbarous. Indeed, there to holy places and sanctuaries, and of sacri- can be no question that human sacrifice was fice-human, animal—and of the fruits of the more or less an Hebraic custom. We need only earth, on which bloody corner-stone the weight to go to the Old Testament itself to find very of Semitic religion so largely rests. In future distinct traces of it. lectures Dr. Smith will discuss the nature and The growth of Judaism, the acceptance of origin, the myths, the superstitions and beliefs one supreme God Jehovah or Jahveh, as the crystallized around the Semitic heathen gods ; king and ruler of all the world, was of very and lastly, he will measure the enormous im- gradual development. In fact, the doctrine portance of the intellectual and moral heritage taught by the priests seems to have had no which Semitic religion has transmitted to the very strong hold on the Israelites, who conworld.

tinually relapsed and worshipped the deities At the very start the author impresses the of Canaan, as if it made but little difference. fact on the mind that at the outset ritual The close kinship of the Hebrew tribes with was not only the body, but all there was of their neighbors, and their mental similarity, religion. Creeds, philosophies, intellectual made this change of worship appear a trifling speculations were after-thoughts. This is true watter. The grand spiritual significance of all religions, but there is reason to believe which was to be ultimately evolved when the that it was peculiarly so of the religions of the Jahvebistic conception was full grown was ut. Semitic races. Dr. Smith gives a practical terly wanting to the thoughts of the fierce and raison d'être for the pursuit of researches into ruthless tribes battling for their existence in these ancient institutions in the fact that out Palestine. Then God, like the other gods, of them grew Judaism, just as out of Judaism was only a tribal God. Even King David grew Christianity and Islam, and that it is not

seems not to have got far beyond this notion, possible to fully understand all the forces that for he had often sacrificed on strange altars, though in his full-fledged royal prosperity he who read “ Across the Dark Continent,'' and was true to the God of Israel. Until the Is- were thrilled by that most stirring narrative raelites were consolidated into a kingdom, of the series of adventures which defined the with a royal capital and a temple, it seenus course of the river Congo, and gave what may pretty conclusive that essentially in their rites be called a new empire to the encroachments and ceremonies and in the general institutions of civilization, will find in Stanley's last ex. of their religion, they did not widely differ from pedition an epic of travel no whit less interthe other peoples of Syria.

esting. Perhaps it is a work of supererogaFor fundamental institutions, of course, we tion to recall the conditions which gave birth must go back of the Hebrews, who stand in to the enterprise, but it may be of use to some our minds as the typical Semitic race. Many readers. scholars bave settled on the Babylonians as Emin Pasha, originally a German physician, the most primitive race, whose Semitic institu- who had been in the Turkish service, entered tions could be studied to the best advantage. the service of the Khedive of Egypt in 1876 But Dr. Smith does not agree with this view. as surgeon and naturalist on the staff of Gen. The fact that the Babylonian civilization, even eral Gordon, who had just been appointed the Cupeiform characters in which their liter. Governor-General of the Soudan. Two years ature was recorded, was inherited from the after Emin was made Governor of the EquaAccadians, distinctly a non-Semitic race, and torial Province, as he had shown great talents probably closely allied to the primitive race for administration. In a very short time he of China, would seem to indicate that foreign had swept the province clear of the slave elements had very inuch modified the purely traders, and reorganized the affairs of the Semitic institutions of Babylonia and Assyria province. After the success of the Mohdi in It is to the primitive nomads of Arabia that the upper part of the province, and the cap. the lecturer looks for the earliest and purest ture of Khartoum, in spite of the near vicinity type of Semitic religious institutions. The of the English relief expedition, Emin was largest portion of the lectures in the present put in great danger ; but he refused to evacvolume is devoted to the significance and uate the region and thus remit it to the remethods of sacrifice as a system of atonement. newed domination of barbarism and the slaveThose who have studied the early religious trade. About three years ago the European manifestations of the Aryan races, even of world began to be appreciative of the heroic other savage and semi-civilized nations as and noble stand made by Emin in the very well, will be struck, however, with the similar. heart of savage Africa, and the final outcome ity of his statements to facts true in no less of this sentiment was the relief expedition degree of the latter. The lectures which are which Stanley gallantly offered to lead as a to follow the first series will be looked for with matter of love not of reward. keen interest by those interested in such sub- The explorer, whose experience in African jects.

matters surpassed that of any other man of

his time, determined to make the npper Congo STANLEY'S LAST ACHIEVEMENT.

his point of departure for the region of the THE STORY OF EMIN'S RESCUE AS TOLD IN STAN

Albert Nyanza, where Emin was believed to LEY'S LETTERS. Published by Mr. Stanley's be. The expedition, organized at Zanzibar, Permission. Edited by J. Scott Keltie, Li

sailed for the mouth of the Congo, viâ the brarian to the Royal Geographical Society.

Cape, and proceeded up the great river, which With Map of the Route. New York : Har.

Stanley had given to civilization, to the juncper & Brothers.

tion of the Aruwimi River, 1500 miles from In all the literature of travel so full of ro- the mouth of the Congo. An intrenched mance, adventure, heroism, and suffering, camp was left at Yambuya, near this place, there is no such entrancing story as that re- under the command of Major Barttelot. This lated in this little volume, the forerunner of rear column of 257 men and five white officers Mr. Stanley's more elaborate book, which we was to follow immediately that Tippu Tib, the may expect in due time. It was only a few notorious African slave and ivory-trader, filled weeks ago that the world was still in doubt as his contract with Stanley to supply 500 native to the success of the great explorer. We now pegazi or carriers. Stanley with four white know that he has emerged successful in his officers and 389 men pressed on to find Emin, mission after experiences almost unparalleled, who was sapposed to be in desperate straits, even in his own remarkable career. Those at once. The distance in a direct line to be traversed before reaching the Albert Lake is ordinary expedition. The ECLECTIC publishes 450 miles, and as Emin was known to have in its present issue an article on the same two steamers on the lake this feat of reaching subject written by J. Scott Keltie, who edited the Nyanza, and then of communicating with the book under notice for publication, which the Pasha seemed to be one pot attended with enters into Stanley's career—including his last remarkable difficulties. In practice, however, venture-at some length, to which the reader it proved to be an enterprise of stupendous is referred. The book before us is one of sur

ger and obstacles. We must refer the passing interest; and the graphic personal reader for details to the book itself. Stanley style of letters written at first hand, when the reached the lake with only 173 men out of the peril and adventure undergone were fresh, original 341. Sickness, starvation, and the greatly enhances the vividness of the story. poisoned arrows of the fierce dwarfs of the The letters are for tbe most part from Stanley Congo forest accounted for the rest. But con. himself, but include several from Major Bart. siderable time and difficulty yet interposed telot, Mounteney Jephson, and others. Those before Stanley met Emin, and found him who love to read of heroic and hardy advenquite indisposed to leave Equatorial Africa in ture will not go amiss in perusing this little any case.

He could not easily make up his volume. It bas an excellent double-page map mind to forsake the region where he had done of Stanley's routes in traversing and retraverssuch wonderful work and thus make it a dead ing the hitherto unexplored region between fact. While the Pasha was coming to a deci- the highest bend of the Congo and the Equa. sion, Stanley returned on his old terrible track torial lake region. to bring up his rear-guard, about whom he had

PAILOSOPHY OF PHYSICAL EFFORT. begiin to be seriously alarmed. On arriving at Bonalga, 80 miles above Yambuya on the PHYSIOLOGY OF BODILY EXERCISE. By FerdiCongo, Stanley met the forlorn remains of his nand Lagrange, M.D. (International Scien. rear-guard-one wbite officer and 72 men out of tific Series.) New York : D. Appleton & Co. 257. Major Barttelot had been treacherously So much attention is being given in this age assassinated by the M rema carriers, Tippu to physical culture that any book discussing Tib had proved false to his trust, the other its problems from the standpoint of scientific white officers had been invalided, and most of analysis will be found welcome. Dr. Lagrange the men had died from sickness or deserted. does not attempt to dilate on his theme from This was twenty months after Stanley's start- the purely practical side. He does not tell as ing from the station at Yambuya.

why we grow strong in virtue of special exerAgain, Stanley, with the reunited party, cises. He does not give the lover of athletics started to traverse the savage and hostile re- a manual of culture for his guidance. But gion which he had twice crossed before, but getting down below all these pure questions so terrible had been the punishment which he of utility, he attempts to solve problems con. had inflicted on his assailants that his last nected with the primitive con tions of nermarch was not seriously hampered by foes, vous and musculnr energy. To be sure, in his though imminently threatened by starvation, later chapters, our author gives some imporBut the leader's heroic energy and endurance tant practical advice as to methods of physical vanquished everything, and he finally reached recreation. For example, he advises persons the lake for the third time, eight months after whose brains are not overworked to cultivate he had last left it. Fortune was again on the fencing, boxing, the gymnasium and riding side of his failure. Strange things had hap- school. All these forms of exercise tax the pened during eight months. Emin's Egyptian mind as well as the body. For those on the oficers had revolted against him, and placed other hand, whose brains are congested by in. him and Mounteney Jephson, Stanley's assist- tense application, such exercises as do not ant, who had left with the Pasha, in confine- excite the mind are more valuable, such as ment. After weary waiting for some solution long walks, running, ball-throwing, rowing, of this new dificulty, the deus ex machina ap- etc. Entire relief should be given to the mind peared in a fresh irruption of the Mahdists. in such cases, and only those exercises pursued The ultimate result was to so terrify Emin's which least tax close attention and voluntary rebellious people that the Pasha and his com- muscular action. These broad distinctions are panion were released, and all were willing to exemplified in a very interesting way, and accept Stanley's escort to the sea-coast. they clear the track of a good deal of rubbish

This is but a meugre skeleton of an extra- which has been spoken and written on the

He ex

[ocr errors]

philosophy of exercise. How far they would will greatly overtax his lung power. There is modify the interesting problem of college hardly a college rowing match where one or athletics, if rigidly obeyed and applied, would more of each crew are not completely knocked be a curious query.

up for some hours by the violence of the The larger part of Dr. Lagrange's book is work. Every captain of a rowing crew, there. devoted to the scientific analysis of muscular fore, aims to husband the resources of his men motion, its causes and consequences. He be- for the final spurts, and to study those forms gins with a sketch of the apparatus of the of movement which do the most effective muscular system and of the nerves.

work with the least expenditure of breathing plains the processes of heat and combustion power. It is not fatigue of the muscles which as carried on by the organs of the body, and is to be dreaded at such times, but fatigue of proceeds to tell why we become fatigued, the lungs. breathless, and stiff from overwork. The Our author's inquiries into the nature of physiology of fatigue and difficulty in breath- that after-phenomenon of violent exercise ing, as a consequence of violent exercise, is which we characterize as stiffness, are a good very clearly explained, and should be a guide example of his careful method of investigation. to all those who study the laws of physical Without attempting to follow his analysis we culture. Those exercises which expend a will state his conclusion. He tends to believe great deal of force in a very short time-in that just as breathlessness is the result of other words, which send more blood to the temporary asphyxiation or poisoning by car. langs than the aerating apparatus can proper- bonic-acid gas, which has not been eliminated, ly oxygenate, are the ones which cause breath. 80 tho cumulative effect of fatigue, which we lessness. The respiratory organs in their at. recognize as stiffness, is also a semi.paralysis tempt to keep up with the demand become brought about by the action of the products fatigued and cannot do their work ; the per- of activity on the body. The arates in the son then becomes asphyxiated or temporarily blood are carried off by insensible perspiration poisoned by the carbonic acid gas which is and by the kidneys. If these are more rapidnot thrown off in its proper course, and the ly generated by combustion than the natural retained gas causes a stupefaction of the outlets can accommodate, their action on the powers. Mere muscular fatigue, on the other muscular fibre may be supposed to have some hand, may be caused by a continued tax on transient effect of a septic character. We any portion of the body without being accom- venture to suggest a parallel illustration, panied by any respiratory difficulty, except which may throw a little light on Dr. Laof a purely temporary nature. Breathlessness grange's analysis. Excess of urates in the affects the whole system, and is not relieved blood in the case of those who take tou little at once. Any one, who without proper train- bodily exercise is exhibited in renal colic, ing. has run a considerable distance, realizes goat, and rheumatism. Many persons genthe distress paralyzing to all effort which is the erally good in health have severe attacks of inevitable result. The less trained the mus. lumbago, which may be specialized for our cles, the more blood is summoned to them to purpose. This is practically muscular rheu. force them to their work, and the more violent matism of the loing and lower back. Extreme the respiration to purify the excess of venous stiffness from fatigue is almost precisely the blood which the heart pumps into the lungs. same feeling as the pain resulting from lumThe perfection of exercise is that which so bago. The fact that moderate exercise, cold husbands the output of force that it brings bathing, and vigorous massage of the skin will into perfect balance the production of car- most surely relieve both of these troubles in bonic acid gas and its elimination by the a healthy person, would seem to point to a lungs. Of course persistence in exercise similar cause. which expands the lung volume and strength Among other chapters which will be found enables the man to do more and more work interesting are those especially which consider and meet bigger demands by an increase of the effects of habitual work and the scientific respiratory resources, The lungs grow, as

classification of exercises. He also show what well as do the muscles, by use, and if the heart an important part the brain plays in exercise, action is all right, their power can be tre- and how it operates on the muscular system. mendously augmented. Yet there is a limit This part of the work throws light on many to this, and the competitor for athletic prizes side issues which relate to psycho-physiology, is liable at any time to put forth efforts which and are connected with curious problems seemingly far distant from questions of phys- signs of progress and improvement blossomical exercise. The book is one of the most ing forth full of promise for the future. Peru valuable and suggestive in matters of every day has not yet fully recovered from the crushing interest which has been published in a long effects of the war with Chili, but it would series, that has already covered such a wide seem only needs public spirit and a sense of range of topics.

patriotic honor among its leading men to ad

vance rapidly. It is to be found that the lack A TRAVELLER'S NARRATIVE.

is a radical one. Public men are logical offAROUND AND ABOUT SOUTH AMERICA, By Frank shoots from the masses of the people. If the Vincent. With Maps, Plans, and Illustra

former are rascals and self-seekers, it is betions. Now York : D. Appleton & Co. cause they have sprung from. a congenial soil

Mr. Vincent, among those who may be called which produces such weeds as & natural literary travellers, or those who make long growth. journeys in strange countries to write about Our traveller has much to say about the them for the pleasure of the stay-at-homes, is people of the different countries, especially one to whom the reader will turn with inter- the women. This is always a topic which one est. He has made himself a pleasant reputa- can find plenty in to discuss in a way to please tion as an entertaining narrator, whose eyes the general public. The theme is one of uniare wide open in his globe-trotting, and who versal fascination. The beauty of South knows how to make his readers see things with American ladies of good birth, when young, is something of the vividness of first sight. He widely known, for they have shone in all the knows what to tell and how to tell it, faculties capitals of the United States and Europe. The not always equally yoked in those who write belles of Quito and Lima are painted as houris, books of travel. South America is a large who would have delighted the soul of Moham. field of description, containing as it does a med himself, wbo invented the houris. The dozen different nationalities, widely differing only drawback is that they will bury their in character and country, in spite of the fact lovely faces under paint and powder, a habit that they are mostly of the same blood. Mr. which is going out of date, we are glad to say, Vincent has skill in differentiation, and gives in more civilized cities, except in those cases us clean-cut sketches, lively and agreeable ad- where time has made serious ravages on beauventure, and any amount of information served ty. The most interesting fact connected with up with its proper sugar-coating. What more his pictures of femininity in Chili is, that the can one look for in the casual book of travel richest woman in the world lives here, Señora which one could do just as well without? His Cousino, known as the “ Countess of Montejourneyings covered about twenty months, and Cristo." This lady is a living example of took him not only through the civilized parts, the woman's-rights” party's idea of the posboth city and country of Brazil, Argentine Re- sible capacities of woman for a man's busipublic, Chili, etc., but enabled him to make

The Chilian Queen of Golconda owns some personal acquaintance with the mighty millions of acres of land, millions of cattle, river system of South America by ascents of the coffee plantations, and ranches by the score, Amazon, Orinoco, Parana, Paraguay, and silver, coal, and copper mines which are Magdalena rivers. Mr. Vincent, like all other measured by square miles, fleets of steamtravellers, has occasion to observe the remark- ships, smelting works, railroads, hundreds of able difference between such countries as the houses in Santiago and Valparaiso, etc. And Argentine Republic and Chili, on the fone she manages her own business. Her income hand, and Peru and Ecuador on the other is supposed to be not less than five or six millhand. In the one case national life vibrates ions of dollars. It was reported, two years with intense energy and progress. In the ago, that this lady was coming to spend the other, society is a curious survival of sloth, winter in New York, and it caused a vast flutsensuality, and medievalism. The modern ter among the plutocrats of New York, espeman will find himself as much at home in cially as she has a young and very lovely Buenos Ayres and Valparaiso as in New York daughter. or London, but in Lima and Quito the clock Mr. Vincent was very agreeably impressed of time seems to have been turned back a with Buenos Ayres and Montevideo, the latter oouple of centuries. Mr. Vincent, however, being the capital of Uruguay, and a beautifulhas much of the pleasant and commendatory ly built city, even more so than the Argentine to say about Peru and its capital, and finds capital. He pays due tribute to the energy


« VorigeDoorgaan »