curred. These note-books (of which I country (the Stuhlwagen) was literally a possess many dozens) were emptied out pliable basket on w beels, seated across, on my return home, arranged in Routes, which bent in conformity with the ruts along with such other information as I and stones it had to pass over. could gather on History, Architecture, On reaching Weimar, having been faGeology, and other subjects suited to a vored with an introduction to Goethe, the traveller's need ;.and, finally, I snbmitted great poet and philosopher of the time, I thein to my Father. He had known had the honor and pleasure of a personal nothing of my scheme, but thought my interview with the hale old man, who rework worth publishing, and gave it the ceived me in his studio-decorated with paine of

Handbook," a title applied by casts of the Elgin Marbles and other works him for the first time to an English book. of Greek art,-attired in a brown dressing, But these Routes would have been of com- gown, beneath which shone the brilliant paratively little value, except for the prin- whiteness of a clean shirt ; a refinement ciple and plan upon which they were laid not usual among German philosophers. down. I had to consult the wants and On this occasion I had the honor of preconvenience of travellers in the order and senting to Goethe the MS. of Byron's unarrangement of my facts. Arriving at a published dedication of Werner to him. city like Berlin, I had to find out what Later on-after a brief interview with was really worth seeing there, to make a Prince Metternich, to whom I was preselection of such objects, and to tell how sented by Baron von Hammer in Vienna, best to see them, avoiding the ordinary an acquaintance renewed afterward when practice of local Guide-books, which, in the Prince was an exile in England - I set inflated language, cram in everything that foot in Hungary, where I had the great can possibly be said—not bewildering my pleasure of becoming acquainted with the readers by describing all that might be enlightened patriot Count Szechenyi, who seen—and using the most condensed and had just completed his grand design of simplest style in description of special ob. steam navigation on the Danube. I was jects. I made it my aim to point out among the first to descend the Danube things peculiar to the spot, or which from Pesth to Orsova below Belgrade, might be better seen there than elsewhere. near the spot where the river, having preHaving drawn up my Routes, and having viously spread out to a width of five miles, had them roughly set in type, I proceeded is compelled to contract to 300 or 400 to test them by lending them to friends yards, in order to rush through a narrow about to travel, in order that they might gorge, or defile, split right through the be verified or criticised on the spot; I did range of the Carpathians, for its escape not begin to publish until after several toward the Black Sea. In a timber barge successive journeys and temporary resi- I swept over the reefs and whirpools in its dences in Continental cities, and after I bed, not yet fit for steamers to pass, adhad not only traversed beaten Routes, but miring the wondrous precipices descending explored various districts into which my vertically to the water's edge, as far as to countrymen bad not yet penetrated. the Iron Gate. All this is described for

I began my travels not only before a the first time in my Handbook, as well as single railway had been begun, but while the “writing on the wall” left by the North Germany was yet ignorant of Mac- Romans under Trajan, in the shape of two adam. The high road from Hamburg to rows of put-lock holes, continued for 12 Berlin, except the first 16 miles, which miles along the face of the precipice, made had been engineered and macadamized by for the wooden balcony road by which the an uncle of mine by way of example to invincible Romans had rendered this “im. the departments of Ponts et Chaussées, passe” passable and practicable for their was a mere wheel track in the deep sand armies. It is worthy of remark that from of Brandenburg. The postilion who the days of Barbarian invasion which drove the miscalled Schnell-post had to swept away the road, none other existed choose for himself a devious course amid on this spot until 1834–35, when the Austhe multitude of ruts and big boulders of trian Government blasted a highway which the sand was full, and he consumed through the limestone cliff along the left two days and a night on the dreary jour- bank of the Danube. My explorations ney. In those days the carriage of that ended at the Turkish frontier of Wal

lachia, which was not to be overstepped All these were pointed out to me by my in those days without the penalty of six guide ; but I observed that he passed over weeks in quarantine. I had already passed a glass-case which attracted my attention, the Hungarian military frontier, and its as containing three swords. I called him line of outposts like our coastguard, and back, and was then informed that the had penetrated into Carinthia and Carnio- central one was the dress-sword of Louis la, where I visited the almost unknown XVI., and the two broad blades which cave of Adelsberg, with its subterranean flanked it were the Eger executioner's lakes and fish without eyes, and I de- official swords : one was made at Sohlinscended the quicksilver mine of Idria, in gen and the other at Ratisbon, and they which it is death to work more than six looked very sharp. Perceiving that I had hours in a week underground. I have not come to scoff at him and his profesespecial pleasure in remembering that the sion, he became communicative, and refirst description, in English, of the Dolo- minded me that to die by the sword was a mite Mountains of Tyrol, not a scientific privilege of the noble Roman denied to one (Murchison and Sedgwick were before the common herd of criminals. me), appeared in my “ South Germany," The first of my Handbooks to the Confirst edition. I explored those scenes of tinent, published 1836, included Holland, grandeur in company with a geological Belgium, and North Germany, and was friend in 1831-32. Thousands of my followed at short intervals by South Gercountrymen now follow my advice and my many, Switzerland-in which I was asfootsteps yearly.

sisted by my good friend and fellow-trav. On another occasion, while travelling eller William Brockedon, the artist-and through Bohemia, I paid a visit to Ko- France. These were all written by me ; nigswart, the family seat of Prince Met- but, as the series proceeded, I was fortuternich, partly for its owner's sake, partly nate enough to secure such able colleagues on account of a Natural History Collection as Richard Ford for Spain, Sir Gardner deposited in it, which I found described Wilkinson for Egypt, Sir Francis Palgrave in one of Goethe's miscellaneous works. for North Italy, Dr. l'orter for Palestine, He became interested in it on account of Sir George Bowen for Greece, Sir Lanits founder, one Huss, an intelligent, edu- bert Playfair for Algiers and the Meditercated, and upright man, whose fate it was ranean, Mr. George Dennis for Sicily, &c. to be “ The Headsman of Eger.” It was 'In 1839 appeared the first of Baedeker's an hereditary office, handed down to him long series of Guides, that for Holland from a long line of ancestors, but it came and Belgium, written in German. The to pass that Eger was stripped of its crim. Preface contained an acknowledgment of inal jurisdiction, so the headsman's occu- the compiler's obligation to "the most pation was gone. The Prince hearing of distinguished(ausgezeichnetste) Guide-book this, not only generously purchased the ever published, "Murray's Handbook for collection, but in order not to separate the Travellers,' which has served as the founowner from his treasures when transport- dation of Baedeker's little book.” * He ing it to Konigswart, made him its custodian with a pension for life.

**I give a few extracts taken from one or shown round the Museum by Mr. Huss two of Baedeker's Guides :himself, a mild-looking old gentleman, ausgezeichnetste Reisehandbuch, welches je

Aus Grundlage hat diesem Werkchen das and found that besides specimens illustrat- erschienen ist gedient ‘Murray's Handbook ing the geology and natural history of Bo- for Travellers on the Continent."" —Baedeker's hemia, it contained inany historic relics “ Handbuchlein : Holland," 1839. of the Metternich family of great interest, “ Die Brauchbarkeit der von dem Buchhänamong them a series of winc-glasses rising dler Murray zu London herausgegebenen from two to four feet each, blown on the Reisebandbücher ist eine von den Engländern, elevation in rank of a member of the fam

dem unter allen vorzugsweise Reisenden

Volke, so anerkannte Thatsache, dass man ily, that his health might be drunk out of kaum einen derselben ohne das sogenannte it. Here were flails and scythes, the rude rothe Buch'umherwandern sieht. Sie führte weapons of the Bohemian peasants used den Herausgeber des vorliegenden Handin the Hussite War; the rings of John Deutschland, trotz der Nachbarschaft, wenig

buchs fruher Schon auf die Idee, zwei in Sobieski and Matt Corvinus, and Napo- gekannte Länder nach jenen Murray's chen leon's washband-basin brought from Elba. Handbüchern für Reisende zu beschreiben

I was

began his Guide to Germany, published character on these books. My taste, 1842, by again referring to Murray's Red studies and predilections mark the origiBook as having "given him the idea of nality of my writing, and it is impossible his own, though as his work progressed, but that any one following and picking up he found he could retain only the frame my threads one after another should not of his original." No doubt, with my betray himself as a copyist. book ready made to hand, he was enabled Messrs. Baedeker have long ago proved to use the plan and arrangement, to cor- how easy it is with a book ready printed rect, enlarge, and fill in with such infor- and published to produce another book on mation as he thought useful to Germans, the same subject and identical in planas for instance by sedulously pointing out availing themselves of its information, where the best Bierstuben were to be found. sending them out in the same Red Cover, The acknowledgment of obligation yet not infringing the laws of copyright. amounts to this : ‘in my first edition I I do not complain of them, they were copied, extracted, and even translated legally entitled to do what they have freely from Murray's books. As I pro- done ; but after they have dogged my ceeded I found I was able to do without footsteps from one country to another

Still fragments of translated pas- through Holland, Belgium, Germany, sages long survived, and may be even now France, Switzerland, Italy (North and detected by such a blunder as the follow- South), Greece, Syria, Egypt, England ing. In one of the southern Swiss valleys and Scotland—I was surprised to find one Murray says

" the slate rocks here are full of their compilers sinking my name and of red garnets," rendered by B. " are existence altogether, and claiming for them overgrown with red pomegranates," a mis- the merit of originating this class of Handtake which runs through many editions, books.* but which I find corrected in that of 1873. I will, therefore, in winding up my Nineteen travellers out of twenty would statement, content myself with this rehave passed the garnets unnoticed ; the mark, that although Messrs. Baedeker accident of my having devoted some time have brought out some eighteen different to the study of geology caused me to no- Guide-books, every one of them has been tice the garnets, a not unusual occurrence preceded and anticipated by a Murray's in slate rocks. Throughout the Hand- Handbook for that particular country. -books


be traced other results of my Murray's Magazine. private reading, which stamp a special






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The most superficial student of folk-lore most remote from each other, and among and tradition cannot fail to be struck by the most diverse races, of certain myths, the constant recurrence, in regions the legends and märchen, not merely identical

in their more essential features, for this und nach ähnlichem Plane eine bekannte might be accounted for by the identity, Rheinreise bearbeiten." Baedeker's “ Handbuch für Reisende durch Deutschland," 1842.


Das vorliegende Buchlein erschien, auf My copy of this work contains the follow. das berühmte Murray'sche Handbook for ing inscription in Herr Baedeker's own writ- Travellers on the Continent' gegründet zum ing:

erstenmale vor zebn Jahren." -Baedeker's "An Herrn Murray richtet dieses Buch in Holland," 1851. dankbarer Anerkennung der grosse Hülfe “ Die Grundlage bildet auch hier Murray's welche bei Abfassung desselben die vortreffli. berühmtes Reisebandbuch,"-Baedeker's." Die chen Reisebüchern Northern and Southern Schweiz,” 1851. Germany' gewährt haben mit der bitte um * The late Dr. Porter complained to me seferneres Wohlewollen der Herausgeber, riously of the use made

of his “ Syrian Hand“K. BÄDEKER." book " by the German Baedeker, without any Coblenz, Aug. 1841."



all over the world, of that subsoil of hu- most complete forms of this myth, is that man nature in which tradition takes root, of the German Emperor, Frederick Barbut bearing a strong resemblance to one barossa, or Rothbart, who, tradition tells, another, even in those minuter details is not dead, but dwells in a cavern in the which we might well expect to vary with heart of the Kyffhausen mountain, until the circumstances of time, place, and sur- the appointed time is come when he shall roundings, or with the fancy of each nar- issue forth, and rule over a united Gerrator. Several explanations of this phe- many in power and might. He now sits nomenon have been suggested by the within his inountain ball, asleep at the mythologists. Setting aside the theory of head of a massive stone table, through direct borrowing, which in many, perhaps which his beard has grown, half waking, in most, cases appears wholly untenable, from time to time, to partake of food and the two most probable opinions are the drink, with which he is supplied by an old following :—First, that human nature is man, his attendant. His subterranean everywhere essentially the same, and that abode is not hermetically sealed ; many this sameness appears in the products of have found it from time to time, or have the human intellect and imagination ; sec- been conducted thither by the old man ondly, that throughout the ages during who waits upon the slumbering monarch. which men have dwelt upon the globe, a These favored individuals generally seem constant interchange of traditions and be- to have been liberally treated, and disliefs has taken place among them, leading missed with gifts of gold of ancient cointo the gradual but complete diffusion age, and wine such as they had never bethroughout all nations of the myths and fore tasted in the course of their lives. traditions of each. Both of these agen- However, like most recipients of supercies have, no doubt, been very largely at natural bounty, these persons oftener than work ; but, though sufficient to account not forfeited their gifts by their own misfor the sameness apparent in the broader conduct. Whenever a stranger finds his features of these myths, they are alto- way, or is led, into the ball, the Redbeard gether inadequate to explain that coinci- raises

his head, and asks, '., Do the ravens dence in point of detail to which we have still fly about the hills ?” before alluded—a phenomenon for which being told that they do, he rejoins, a satisfactory explanation yet remains to “ Then I must sleep for another hundred be found.

years. However, our present task is not to in- Mr. Patrick Kennedy * records an Irish vestigate the causes which have led to the legend, which bears a remarkable likeness universal diffusion of these world-myths, to that of the German Emperor. as they may be called, but to examine one upon a time," Gearoidh Iarla (i.e. Earl single class of them, a class which yields Gerald), a scion of the great house of to few, if any, in the favor it bas enjoyed Geraldine, was a mighty chieftain in Ireamong all nations and in all ages. In land—a lover of justice, and the mainstay every part of the world, and among peo- of his countrymen in their resistance to ples in every stage of civilization or bar- English tyranny. He was also a great barism, we find legends relating how some “ medicine man," and possessed the pow. national hero or sage, at the end of his er of transforming himself into any animal earthly career, is transported to some su- he pleased. His wife often wanted him pernatural abode without having tasted of to let her see him in some of these shapes, death. Tbe story often concludes with a but he always refused to comply with her prophecy that the vanished hero shall desire, alleging that, if she experienced some day come again to establish a reign any terror at such a time, some calamity of righteousness and prosperity among his would befall him, from which he would people. This myth, in one form or an- not recover until many generations of men other, exists among the Hebrews, Greeks, had passed away. At length, however, Romans, Hindus, Persians, Germans, he yielded to her importunities, and asFranks, Irish, Welsh, Cornish, Bretons, sumed the form of a beautiful goldfinch. Danes, Finns, Aztecs, Algonquins, Hu- The lady, though startled at first, was rons, and many other nations, both civil- highly pleased by this demonstration of ized and savage. One of the best known or, at

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Legendary Fictions of the Irish Cells.

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her husband's power ; when, suddenly; boo-oën, and, indeed, with the medicine as the transformed Earl was charming his men of most rude tribes. In fact, the wife with his song and graceful flight, a heroic legend would appear to bave been hawk flew into the room. The Earl took grafted upon a story of much earlier date, refuge in his wife's bosom, pursued by a hypothesis which would explain the the hawk, who, however, dashed against want of connection between cause and the table and fell dead ; but the Countess, effect, apparent in the Earl's enforced seterrified by her husband's danger, uttered clusion, consequent upon the trivial inci. a loud scream. Immediately the Earl dent of his wife's alarm. vanished from her sight and from the sight According to another Irish legend, the of men.

“ Himself and his warriors are giant Mahon McMahon, a contemporary now sleeping in a long cavern, under the of Finn MacComhal, sleeps with his folRath of Mullaghmast. There is a table lowers in the recesses of Carrigmahon, running through the middle of the cave.

county Cork. In this legend we find the The Earl is sitting at the head, and his incident of the sleeper's beard growing troopers, in complete armor, down along into the stone table, as in the Barbarossa both sides of the table, and their heads story. * resting on it ;' behind them stand their Bruce's invasion of Ireland sowed the horses in their stalls, ready saddled and seed of a plentiful crop of legends, one of bridled. “ When the day comes, the which is pertinent to our present subject. miller's son, that's to be born with six It tells how the hero is not dead, but fingers on each hand, will blow bis trum- sleeps, surrounded by his chief warriors, pet, and the horses will stamp and whinry, in a cave under a ruin


Rathlin Island the knights awake and mount their and, known as Bruce's Castle,” the steeds, and go forth to battle.'' Then entrance to which is visible once every will the Earl rout the English in a great seven years, as in the case of Earl Gerald. battle, and reign king of Ireland for two- A man once found his way in, and saw on score years.

One night in every seven the ground at his feet, in the midst of the years, Earl Gerald issues forth from his sleeping warriors, a sabre half-unsheathed. cavern, and rides round the Curragh of “On his attempting to draw it, every man Kildare. On this night the door of the of the sleepers lifted up his head, and put cave stands open, and any one who can his hand on his sword.” The man fled, find it may enter in. About a hundred but heard them “ calling fiercely after years ago a drunken horse-dealer actually him, 'Ugh! ugh! Why could we not

Startled by the unexpected sight, be left to sleep?' and they clanged their he dropped a bridle which he carried in swords on the ground with a terrible noise, his hands, whereupon one of the sleepers and then all was still, and the gate of the half raised his head, and asked, “ Is it yet cave closed with a mighty sound like a time?" The fellow had the presence of clap of thunder.” When Bruce and his mind to reply, “Not yet, but it will be followers awake, they will unite Ireland to soon,' ” and the trooper's head dropped Scotland. again-upon the table. When the Earl be- Ireland is rich in traditions of vanished gan his septennial rides, his horse was heroes. Of a different character from shod with silver shoes, half an inch thick ; those just narrated is the story of the when these are worn as thin as a cat's ear Good O'Donoghue," a chieftain, who, the day of Ireland's deliverance is at hand. in old times, ruled over the neighborhood The last time the Earl seen, his of Killarney, renowned alike for prowess horse's shoes were no thicker than a six- in war and for justice and beneficence in

time of peace. The account of his disapThis grand legend is remarkable for pearance is given by T. Crofton Croker as combining with the heroic myth a story follows : “At one of those splendid feasts of a much more primitive cast, in which for which his court was celebrated, surche hero is endowed with the usual sor- rounded by the most distinguished of his cerer's power of transforming himself into animal shapes a power which he shares,

* T. Crofton Croker, Fairy Legends of the not only with the gods of the Greek and

Soulh of Ireland. Hindu mythologies, but also with the

| Lady Wilde, Ancient Legends of Ireland, i, Australian birraark and North American 161.

did so.



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