As though, when fields lie stricken

By gray. December's breath,
These lordlier growths that sicken

And die for fear of death
Should feel the sense requicken

That hears what springtide saith
And thrills for love, spring-stricken

And pierced with April's breath.

The keen white-winged north-easter

That stings and spurs thy sea
Doth yet but feed and feast her

With glowing sense of glee :
Calm chained her, storm released her,

And storm's glad voice was he :
South-wester or north-easter,

Thy winds rejoice the sea.


A dream, a dream is it all the season,

The sky, the water, the wind, the shore ?
A day-born dream of divine unreason,

A marvel moulded of sleep—no more?
For the cloudlike wave that my limbs while cleaving
Feel as in slumber beneath them heaving,
Soothes the sense as to slumber, leaving

Sense of nought that was known of yore.
A purer passion, a lordlier leisure,

A peace more happy than lives on land,
Fulfils with pulse of diviner pleasure

The dreaming head and the steering band.
I lean my cheek to the cold gray pillow,
The deep soft swell of the full broad billow,
And close mine eyes for delight past measure,

And wish the wheel of the world would stand.

The wild-winged hour that we fain would capture

Falls as from heaven that its light feet clomb,
So brief, so soft, and so full the rapture

Was felt that soothed me with sense of home.
To sleep, to swim, and to dream, for ever-
Such joy the vision of man saw never ;
For here too soon will a dark day sever
The sea-

a-bird's wing from the sea-wave's foam.

A dream, and more than a dream, and dimmer

At once and brighter than dreams that flee,
The moment's joy of the seaward swimmer

Abides, remembered as truth may be.
Not all the joy and not all the glory
Must fade as leaves when the woods wax boary ;
For there the downs and the woodlands glimmer,
And here to south of them swells the sea.





sponsible people who live on sensation."

A bad answer, truly. So long as states SOME time ago I was invited by the have existed, their peoples have been reeditor of this Review to give an account sponsible for their government. Quid. of the state of the German Press, and, quid delirant reges is an Employers' Liaafter due consideration, I cannot find it in bility Act that is written in the Book of my heart to refuse the request. For al- Fate, and, however unjust it may be in though, in the present state of Europe, individual cases, it will never adipit of bristling as it does with arms, it must seem much alteration. You may tell us ten more than ever a Utopian idea to talk of times over that your ministers are scounattempts to bring nations into great bar- drels or blockheads, who owe their elevamony with each other, and although, with tion to chance, and are disowned by the this in view, I could never make up my majority of the nation : if you attack us mind to join any Peace League, however at the command of your ministers, we honorable, yet it appears to me that, of all must fly to arms.

The French were very such attempts, the least useless is that indignant at the Germans for not retiring which endeavors to give the readers of one in quiet contentment to their hearths and nation a just idea of the conditions of an- homes after the battle of Sedan, when that other. I believe that most men gain on bad Napoleon, who was alone to blame Dearer acquaintance, and in a still higher for everything, had received the due redegree is this the case with nations, not ward of his deeds. But the nation had to only because they are more difficult to suffer for having allowed him to act as he comprehend, but because those who should did, not to mention the fact that they comprehend them—namely, the many- would certainly have emphatically claimed headed general public, which goes under as their right a share in his victories, had the name of Nations--have such remark- he gained any. Therefore, to all kind inably thick heads. The very first condition vitations to join Peace Leagues or to atfor the arrival at such a comprehension is, tend Peace Congresses, I invariably reply : of course, a mutual understanding of the “ All that we, the governed, discuss among modes of expression commonly employed ourselves is a mere waste of breath. The -I do not mean the understanding of only thing that will have any practical efidioms, because that is a purely mechanical fect in rooting out the existing frantic inexercise. In the present day more than ternational hatred is, that each pation ever before nations talk with one another should strive to provide itself with a rathrough their periodical press. Formerly tional government at home, and until this this was the affair of diplomatists, and is accomplished the tenderest declarations when their Latin gave out they took to the of affection which the chosen spirits of one

Even this latter mode of argu- nation exchange with the chosen spirits of ment has been to a great extent seized on another are so much labor in vain, and by the press.

The cannon which thun- they will neither binder disaster nor heal dered in 1870 were loaded by the Parisian the mischief already done.” But nowa. journalists, and it is to be feared that the days, as is well known, the press is a part bombs which the Panslavist writers are of the government, even in more or less employed in filling from year's end to despotically governed conntries, and all year's end in the leading articles written that has been said above fits it as closely at Moscow or St. Petersburg will, sooner as it does rulers and statesmen. It would or later, explode into actual conflagration. not, indeed, be right to assert that every

Wben laments are made about the mis- nation had the government it deserved ; chief resulting from the mutual bad feeling one might as well say that a child that bad caused by the press of another country, I coine into the world with a club foot had have often heard it said by way of de- not deserved to have two perfect extremifence, “ But these journalists are not the ties. But so long as we cannot avoid nation ; they are only a handful of irre- punishing thieves and murderers without


regard to the acceptance or denial by phil- any country is to describe its political osophers of the theory of free will, so long status also. This needs no explanation. will nations remain as responsible for the Whatever, therefore, is said on this subfaults and sins of their press as for those ject must receive its stamp from the genof their rulers, and when they seek to es- eral political development and physiognocape from the consequences of these faults my of the country. Germany differs from and sins, we must answer : Provide the other civilized countries of the West yourselves with a better press, or endure in in the circumstance that it has only atsilence the punishment for its misdeeds." tained to an imperfect state of unity and

But you will now ask, “ If this is the liberty, that it has only lately got rid of case, if, in face of this fatality of action, its patriarchal, monarchical forın of govour information about your press, or ernment, and that it owes the modest your information about ours, is powerless portion of unity which up to the present to help, what is the use of talking about has fallen to its share, not to victorious it? How will it aid us to know that all internal revolutions, but to the reaction of that has been done to rouse our mutual in- external contests fought on international dignation was not intentional, but must be battle-fields, which induced the hereditary Jaid to the charge of certain misunderstand- rulers to consent to the limitation of their ings and delusions ?" My answer to that powers more from opportunistic reasons is as follows. The press of our country than from fear of irresistible struggles for derives no small portion of the authority freedom. That this threefold cause is and influence which it exercises over its still active is shown by the fact that public own countrymen from the value set on it opinion, in proportion to the power of the abroad, and its home importance shows its state, is considerably weaker in Germany practical working by reacting on the ner than in those other countries. The press vous system of the foreign press. I have is indeed here, as everywhere, a great remarked that those organs who regard it power ; but it is so herc, as everywhere, as their most meritorious task to set their only in the hand of the powerful, and as neighbors by the ears make it their busi- public opinion, as opposed to the power ness to hunt up in foreign newspapers such of the state, has not yet attained in any remarks as are calculated to make bad blood high degree to a consciousness of its imat home, and, while they consciously or portance, so the German Press has, up to unconsciously keep their readers in the the present time, shown itself to be a strong dark as to the obscurity or worthlessness weapon in the bands of the government of their sources of information, they do rather than in those of any opposition par. their best to accentuate all international ty. The energy of opposition displayed misunderstandings and ill-humors. It has by the Roman Catholic Church and by Sofrequently happened to me to be called to cial Democracy did not proceed from the account by foreigners for a writing or a power of their press, but from the ease newspaper article as if it were a manifes- with which the servants of the Church and tation of German opinion, which no rea

the leaders of the workmen were able personable being in the Empire knew anything sonally to make propaganda among those about, much less had taken any notice of. around them. It is the same with the Some rag-picker or other had pulled the press as it is with the Parliament, and, as notice in question out of the gutter, and credit depends entirely on actual strength, set it up before the eyes of foreign coun- so the credit of the press, like that of the tries in fiery letters visible from afar. And Parliament, is much less in Germany than the like happens to us also, and hundreds in the other great Western states. Here, of pens labor all the year round to spread as in all following considerations, I pass filth like this.

over in silence the question as to the gain Here, perhaps, a little may be done—a or loss occasioned by such a state of things, little, I say, not great things ; for great because we are only concerned with the things are never done ; they come one representation of facts and not with their knows not how, and are therefore irresist- valuation. ible.

The weakness of independent national II.

consciousness contributes as much as the

multiplicity of the centres of public life to To describe the status of the press of the enfeebling of public opinion and the


organs that should express it. Even if Magdeburg, and is of very little account Germany possessed real unity like Italy, compared with the influence of the great the Regionalism which, until quite lately, organs of other capitals, which are aware pervaded everything, would still maintain that their spirit and their thoughts will its right. It maintains it, even in Italy, penetrate the minds of the country at large, very strongly, although Rome, as a capital, because they are read everywhere, and is much nearer to the hearts of all Italians that their ideas are sure to come on than Berlin is to the hearts of many Ger- 'Change in the market of public life. A

It is, therefore, a recognized fact newspaper not published in Germany at that the Berlin press exercises no predom- all, like the Vienna Neue freie Presse, can inant influence over the German public at boast of large and devoted circle of readlarge either morally or politically. If cer- ers such as few dative journals possess. tain organs with specially noteworthy in- It is just this extramural position which formation make their way through the procures for it a wide circulation entirely whole of Germany, it is not because they independent of regional limits, and the appear in Berlin, but because they are no- vivacious tone it derives from its Viennese toriously the mouthpiece of the govern- atmosphere exactly suits the taste of a inent, and of a government with such an certain circle of readers, who seldom find interesting personality at its head, that all in the productions of German publicists an its movements are followed with the great- opportunity for indulging their liking for est attention not only by Germany, but refinement in style and contents. It is also by the rest of the world. When that true that there are in Berlin several noninteresting personality is no longer there, government organs that possess adherents the organs made use of by him will most all over the Empire ; but, although they probably fall under the universal law of had their seat in Berlin even before it beregional limits. One can see this pretty came the capital of the Empire, they do well from the fact that organs which do not owe their numerous clientèle to this, not appear in Berlin, but which also serve but to the circumstance that they are the as heralds to the ruling personality, have recognized organs of a party that is closely extended the circle of their radiance. united by ties, in most cases of a confesBut, apart from this, the regionalism sional nature, and its members are in a which existed in the


before the erec- measure bound to bend their ear to the tion of the German Empire still maintains mouthpiece of their party. But everyits ground, and those newspapers which thing that merely contributes to a free and formerly guided the public opinion of its untrammelled exercise of the mind dies alouter limits have not lost

of their au-

most at the boundaries of Berlin. There thority. The Berlin newspapers have is a certain number of journals in Berlin gained nothing, at least nothing that can that are abundantly furnished with all be compared with the way in which the necessary intellectual and financial intelligreat London journals represent the voice gence, but the population of the provinces of the country to Great Britain, her col- only accidentally learn now and then someonies, and the wbole world. I say noth- thing of their contents, and have no idea ing of Paris, because Paris, as the great to what party they belong, and yet the inabsorbing central organ of France, does habitants of the capital derive their mental not present a state of things desirable for sustenance from them, and imagine themimitation. With the exception, then, of selves to be in full communion of ideas the well-known organs of the eminent rul- with all the rest of their fellow country. ing personality, there does not exist in Now and then some enterprising Germany a single newspaper of which one newspaper owner manages to break through could say that the information contained the charmed circle by employing a highly in it would be likely to come under the perfectioned apparatus of industrial propanotice of a large proportion of those who gation ; but these are rare exceptions, and would be specially interested in the matter depend entirely on the individuality of the under discussion. Here and there some, persons concerned in them; and even thing particularly noteworthy may be brilliant successes do not lead to the cerquoted from a Berlin newspaper by an. tain result of binding the circle of readers other ; but that happens also to journals into one great community of thought all published in Hamburg, Frankfort, or over the country.


It very


One can well imagine how the sum total having become known beyond the circle of of all these conditions reacts on the pro- the initiated. One of the greatest pleasfession of journalism. Talent is not want- ures connected with this profession in ing, and the information necessary to the other great countries, and, in fact, its real work is probably more generally diffused raison d'être, is entirely wanting here, and in Germany than in any other country in a certain peevish spirit which manifests itthe world. I believe I am not exaggerat- self in the German Press is probably acing if I say that there lie hidden among counted for by this circumstance. the editors of newspapers, as among many seldom happens that a journalist attains a other classes of society in Germany, nota- high political position-indeed old bubly the teacher class, greater stores of his. reaucratic and aristocratic traditions would torical and geographical knowledge than bar his way to that—but even a transition could be found in those of England and to a parliamentary carcer is rarer here than France put together. In the quiet times elsewhere. between the wars of the first Empire and In connection with these circumstances the year 1866 (the short episode of 1848 stands the fact, that our great newspapers excepted), a certain kind of learned jour. are only in very exceptional cases the ornalism was a much more satisfactory career gans of particular parliamentary parties. tban it is at present, because a widely ex- They will perhaps patronize one of them tended and superior class of readers was at some special time, but they would rethen as much attracted by learning in the gard it as lowering to their dignity to be columns of the daily papers as by politics, charged with serving any party. There perhaps even more so. In those days, exists a sort of mutual jealousy. It conthe Allgemeine Zeitung (which Schiller tinually happens that the editors of a helped to start), published in a Bavarian newspaper protest against being considered provincial town by Von Cotta, the re- to stand in the service of a certain party, nowned firm for publishing German clas. or that a party will protest against the supsical works, was able to extend its circula- position that it is represented by a certain tion throughout all the German Federal

newspaper. German individualism, and States-Austria included—and thence the extreme improbability of being able to throughout the whole cultivated world. pass from a liberal career into the political Its editors and contributors attained a hierarchy, tend here, as in many other literary renown. Traces of those past situations, to dissipate forces and weaken glories still exist, but they are only beaux all satisfaction in work. I think I have restes. The tumult of party politics has already remarked that German corresponddrowned all this, and forced all literary ents in foreign countries write their reports work of the bigher kind into the net of with more knowledge of their business Regionalism. It is no longer permitted to than their other colleagues ; but they journalists to satisfy either their literary mostly see the events they describe through ambition or their desire for a widely ex- sad-colored spectacles. tended sphere of influence, and those few The insufficiency of the German Press who succeed in making themselves gener. resulting from the conditions above deally known, because they act as thunderers scribed is made up for to a certain extent in the service of Olympus, are, with rare by the publicity of the Parliament, more exceptions, of an inferior quality ; for especially of the Reichstag. Whatever is Olympus follows in great things as in small spoken there penetrates into every corner the maxim of the first Napoleon, that his of the Empire, though occasionally in a assistants needed no intelligence, because somewhat mutilated form, and this alone he had enough for all, and theirs might is a sufficient reason for the existence of make them unreliable. There exist both the Reichstag, though it

the Reichstag, though it possesses less auin and out of Berlin clever and learned thority than any other house of popular men, who, for a generation past, have been representatives. It is the only place where writing for the press without their names a man, even though he is not on the side

of the government, may be quite certain * The old so-called Vossische Zeitung in Ber- of gaining a hearing. It supplies the place lin has, after the title which it has borne ever

of a central press, and its functions are the since it was first started, the words Von Staats. und Gelehrten-Sachen (on state and literary

more important because it has full liberty affairs).

of speech-a benefit which, as is well

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