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correct; or that the American boarding- is incumbent upon us, who have inherited house keeper, who said she could the precious literary legacy of bygone hundred boarders, but could only sleep fif- ages, to hand it down to posterity as we ty,” used the verbs" to eat” and to have received it from our illustrious ansleep" in a sense that although it may cestors, of the seventeenth and eighteenth have conveyed the meaning to her uncriti- and now rapidly expiring) nineteenth cal auditory) was a savage assault upon the centuries. The abortive proposals of Dean head of

poor Priscian, and that its perpe- Swift are far more opportune in our day trator guilty of a worse mama Yankee than they

ý were in his, and the correction, outrage upon correct English. The slang improvement, and ascertainment of the of the streets and the stables, and of the English tongue are easier of accomplishwould-be witty and comic young men of ment by the quiet authority of a Minister the universities and great public schools, of Education, whom public opinion is rife is another predisposing cause of the in- to acknowledge, and whose efforts would creasing vulgarity of vernacular English. indubitably be supported by the highest Brevity may be the soul of wit, but there intellects of the time. The “ascertainis neither soul por wit in such fashionable ment" of what is really and truly the brevities as vet for veterinary surgeon, classical English language, freed from the exams for examinations, pub for public- slang, the volgar colloquialisms, the silly house, comp for compositor, Saturday coinages of new words, and what may be Pops for Saturday popular concerts, the called the “gabble” of the multitude,

overtask the mental energies of perquisites, thou for thousands, cit for any competent lexicographer whose work Zoo for the Zoological Gardens, perks for would the dog citizen, ad for advertisement, bizz for would receive the imprimatur of the Minbusiness, and such Americanisins as “he ister of Education. Such a man would goes out nights and works mornings." not need to wander in the bewildering

A still more prevalent and more deeply- mazes of etymology, where he would bo rooted inelegancy is the use of the posses- almost as certain to lose his way, as his sive case in such phrases as a friend of predecessors have done, but might marshal Mr. Jones's,” “a sister of Mr. Brown's," the literary words of the language into a

a whim of Mr. Smith's, ” where the scompact army without inquiring into the with the apostrophe is clearly unnecessary. pedigree of soldier in the ranks. It

ever The of” is quite sufficient as a mark of is these generals and commanders of the the possessive ; and the French in similar noble army that fights all the battles of cases would say, un ami de M. Jones,' civilization with p

ñ pensfond that ought

sword, and "une scur de M. Brown," and "une thoughts for cannon- 6-balls, fantaisie de M. Smith,” all of which could not to be encumbered with the ragged be correctly and clearly rendered in Eng- rabble of camp-followers who pollute the lish without the s. This colloquialism wholesome air with their crazy shibboleths should be left to the exclusive use of the and make nse of base slang, of no more illiterate, and never suffered to blossom literary value than the hissing of geese or

of 17 .

the lowing of cattle. Five hundred years are but a short time The correction and iniprovement of the in the history of a nation, but long in the language are more difficult now than they history and life of a language, unless the were in the days of Dean Swift, in conse. language becomes fossilized like Greek and quence of the unparalleled extension of an Latin, and only exists in the literature of imperfect education among the laboring past agés. The language spoken five hun- classes in this denjocratic age,

but its dred years ago in England, copious and certainment" is not impossible of accombeautiful as it was, is all but unintelligible plishment. The third of the proposals of to the men of the present day, except to a the Dean is easy, if the works of the clas few scholars; and the English of to-day sic authors of the present and the last two is likely to be as Australians to the centuries are to be the bases of the enterAmericans and the

of the fu- prise, and if the universities, the great ture as that of Beowulf to the School public schools, and the Government, by Board children and the shopkeepers of the agency of a responsible Minister of our tinie.

Education, will but unite their energies For this reason and for many others, it and work in concert.-Nineteenth Century.

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Even our spiritual advisers are begin. tively slight a factor in human history? ning to harp more, we think, than is Simply that the Greeks were an impatient wholesome on the gospel of change. Mr. people, that they had never been thorChapman, the eloquent and earnest Vicar ougbly annealed in the furnace which harof St. Luke's, Camberwell, who did so dens character, that they spent their time, much to teach the world the significance as we are told that the Athepians did in of what Father Damien had done, and to the time of St. Paul,“ in nothing else render his last years more fruitful of good than to tell or to hear some new thing." among the lepers of the Sandwich Islands, The Romans, on the contrary, with hardly was preaching only the other day to the a scrap of intellectual genius, almost idenCounty Council that amusements are of tified their history with the history of the the very heart of all healthy social life. world ; and why, except that they were Whenever a new amusement is promised the inost drillable of peoples, that they fell us, the world is half beside itself, as it is into habits of life which nothing could just now in relation to Barnum's big show, break through, which seemed as durable and was a inonth or two ago in relation to as thougb they were made of a kind of the big sbow in Paris and the Eiffel Tower. moral iron, and that the Roman legions Indeed, we are threatened with an Eiffel showed themselves capable of a discipline, Tower in London, on purpose that Lon. --which means, a constancy in adhering doners

may

have the same novel sensations to rules and respecting orders, -against which the Parisians seem to have enjoyed which no people in the world had any

Even in politics, half the charm thing comparable to produce ? Nimbleof Mr. Gladstone's policy for Ireland is ness is a most useful and fascinating quality that it promises a big constitutional revo. when it is engrafted on a fundamental conlution, and a great many lively discords as stancy of nature, because nimbleness inwell as harmonies in the predicted " Union volves the power of so changing the superof Hearts.'? And the new favor with ficial attitudes of the mind as to give greater which strikes are welcomed, and with and fuller effect to the deeper and perinawhich the prospect of immense changes in nent purposes that underlie all the deepest the social structure is viewed, is in great characters. But nimbleness without this part due to that eagerness for change, that fundamental constancy is a contemptible impatience of the old order, which is be. quality, which turns man into a poorer sort ginning to show itself in every direction of kaleidoscope, a kaleidoscope without in the public mind. Well, the old order even the kaleidoscope's uniformity of apis no doubt full of cracks and flaws. No. parent structure. Think only how many body who notes its aspects closely can of the highest qualities in man depend on doubt that. But the gospel of change for the power to resist the influence of change the sake of change is, to say the least, in what is now called, by a somewhat demuch more dangerous than the gospel of testable abstraction, bis" environment." sameness for the sake of sameness. For What is a man or a nation without good constancy is the most evident and the most habits? Well, habits are nothing but consignificant of all the attributes of God, in stancies of living. What is a man or a whom there is “6 no variableness neither nation without fidelity, without faithfulman, without constancy in every aspect of nothing but constancies of feeling and achis life there is no true character.

tion, and the reflection of constancy of acter” properly means the stamp, the im- feeling in constancy of action. A man press, the furrow which is made in man's who loves to change the objects of his life by constant repetitions of the same highest feelings is one who is hardly capamental and moral actions ; and till either ble of high feelings at all in any true sense. a man or a race has got a deeply marked A man who does

not continually adapt bis character, that man or race is without in- highest actions to his highest feelings, is fuence on the world.

What made Greece, a man in whom there is not enough same. with all its intellectual brightness, its vivid ness of purpose to render him capable of genius, its nimbleness of mind, so rela- exerting any lasting influence on the world.

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The cry against monotony of life is reason- be strongest in those who have the most able enough, if monotony only means that taste for frequent excitements. Why do semi-comatose kind of life which is incon- the various savage tribes crumble in the sistent with true viridness of any kind, presence of the European! Chiefly bewhich falls into half-mechanical modes of cause they cannot overcome that craving thinking and acting. But without non- for stimulating drink to which their proxotony of purpose, without monotony of imity to civilization exposes them. Why method, without monotony of habit, with. did Esau succumb to Jacob? Why did out monotony of emotion, and without the pastoral tribes soon supplant the buntmonotony of principle, there is no real ing tribes? Because their occupation was character capable of a history, or admitting steadier, less exciting, involving more cora development; for, after all, develop- stant and steady discipline ; and it is for ment, or evolution,” the great word of the same reason that agriculture proper, inodern science, has no meaning without when once it was introduced, proved more involving conformity to a type. The race binding and more steadying than even pasthat takes longest to develop all its qua!i- toral occupations. Almost in the same ties, is the race that lives the longest and proportion in which the masses of the peoeffects most for the world, for though de- ple have in any country taken kindly to velopment means, of course, gradual fixed rules of life and duty, in that prochange, it means change in the direction portion has that country prospered and of a fuller and higher exercise of the same its people spread itself over new areas. general and essential characteristics. Tenacity of purpose, perseverance, earnest

Of all the qualities of character which ness, stability, doggedness,—these are the are not constant for evil, perhaps fickle- qualities as well of the races that have led ness is the most dangerous and contempti- the way in civilizing mankind as of those ble. Indeed, in some sense, even con- that have led the way in spiritualizing manstancy for evil is preferable to ficklencss, kind. You see throughout the first half because constancy of any kind, if its of the Decalogue, how essential it was to spring of action can once be purified, inay the Jews to learn that God, who had return into constancy for good, while in vealed himself as “I am that I am, fickleness there is no hope of anything but would not allow of any caprice or change. change for the sake of change. We must fulness toward himself ; and in the second take care in the new and, so far as it has half of the Decalogue, how faithfulness yet gone, perhaps perfectly legitimate de- and constancy which were demanded in sire to give the hard workers of the world worship because they were the faint refleca glimpse of the refreshments of life, no tions of the divine righteousness itself, less than of its toils, that we do not im- were demanded also in the conduct of men plant in them that impatience of monotony toward their fellow-men. All true life is which, if once implanted, is fatal to every monotonous in its temper, and in the pringreat quality both of the heart and of the ciples of its growth, though there are mowill. After all, though it is a good thing ments when its uniformity is broken by to unstring the tight-strung bow, it is a seasons of rest and of blossom and fruit. very bad thing to be always unstringing it, Wherever there is little monotony, there to encourage restlessness while it is is less fruit.

As regards human character, strung till the time for unstringing it ar- change itself loses its usefulness as refreshrives ; and that is what the appetite for ment unless it have a sort of root in somechange, if it is once fostered, very soon thing permanent and enduring. Change comes to. As the lady who married very which does not itself spring from somelate in life began almost immediately to thing like a law in a man's nature, is complain of her husband on the ground change which unsettles instead of stimuthat it the same dish every day," lating growth. Indeed, without constancy so people who have been used to little but of nature, change is revolutionary and monotony, if they ever get the appetite dizzying,—subversive of the very essence for change, are very apt to find even one of personality ; but with constancy of na. kind of change insufficient, and to crave ture, change is only subordinated to that for more and more change, and even for constancy, and means only the gaining of change in the manner of their changes. a new starting-point for another reach of There is somewhere in human nature a upward movement and progress toward tendency to crumble away, which seems to the life divine.—Spectator.

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LITERART NOTICES. 1243 0933 21:43 RAIVIS TIO Doktor Di

2002 asti. Tois RECENT ECONOMIC CHANGES. And their Effects conditions which give significance to the disr on the Production and Distribution of cussions in his book in the following language : p)? Wealth and the Well Being of Society. By "It would seem, indeed, as if the world

David H. Wells, LL.D., D.C.L., Membre during all the days since the inception of civ: Correspondant De L'Institut de France ; ilization has been working upon the line of Correspondente Regice Accademia dei Lin- equipment for industrial effort—inventing and cei, Italia, etc. New York : D. Appleton & perfecting tools and machinery, building workCo. 167 JOU sino

shops and factories, and devising instrumenThe papers of which this book is the devel. talities for the easy intercommunication of opment in a more perfect and elaborate form, persons and thoughts and the cheap exchange were originally given to the public in the Pop- of products and services ; that this equipment ular Science Monthly, and attracted much at- having at last been made ready, the work of tention in their serial issue. They have been using it has for the first time in our day and largely rewritten and otherwise thoroughly re- generation fairly begun ; and also that every vised and made logically consecutive. As a community under prior or existing conditions book this contribution may be fairly estimated of use and consumption is becoming saturated, as one of the most valuable and suggestive as it were, with the results. As an immediate contributions to the science of economics consequence the world has never seen anything which has been made for many years. Works comparable to the results of the recent system treating subjects so grave and difficult are of transportation by land and water; never usually technical and obscure so far as the experienced in so short a time such an expan. grasp of the ordinary intelligence can compass sion of all that pertains to what is called busithem, therefore only adapted to the “ expert? ness; and has never before been able to ac. reader; or they are written in a so-called pop- complish so much in the way of production ular vein, with the very substance and value of with a given amount of labor in so short a the thought so diluted as to be of little value, time. Concurrently,” Mr. Wells goes on to except for the most superficial and, perhaps, say, or as the necessary sequence of these misleading information. Mr. Wells's book is changes, has come a series of widespread and not only a fascinating treatise to the general complex disturbances, manifesting themselves reader, but it is so full of intellectual meat in great reductions of the cost of production that the student of economics will welcome it and distribution, and a consequent remarkas an important addition to his library. The able decline in the prives of nearly all staple style is bright and lucid, and the application commodities ; in a radical change in the relaof economic laws to the important problems tive value of the precious metals ; in the abof the day so masterly that no one can fail to solute destruction of large amounts of capital be interested. The author is one of those who through new inventions and discoveries, and know how to make statistics eloquent, and in the impairments of even greater amounts surely no higher test of a writer's command in extensive reductions in the rates of interest of his subject could be demanded. Mr. Wells, and profits ; in the discontent of labor and in as is well known, is an advocate of free trade, an increasing antagonism of nations incident at least so far as the unloosing the shackles of to a greatly intensified industrial and commercommerce to such an extent as will barely suf. cial competition. Out of these changes will, fice for the raising of a revenue would permit. probably, come still further disturbances, which But his opinions are not put in a form so to many thoughtful and conservative minds dogmatic and arbitrary as to make his facts seem full of menace of a mustering of the bar. unwelcome to the protectionist" reader. barians from within rather than, as of old, They rather show themselves by implication from without, for an attack on the whole than by direct deduction. Still no intelligent present organization of society, and even the reader can fail to see that the general current permanency of civilization itself.'' of the reasoning favors a repeal of those laws Here we have a summary of the questions which place a heavy tax on the income of the which the author treats in a spirit so thoughtnation by “protecting" manufacturing inter- ful and earnest, yet with a method so lucid ests at the expense of the many. erant and trenchant, as to add something to the

Mr. Wells concisely maps out the general stores of thinking even in his case, who has

66

made a specialty of such themes. The chap- bition to imitate those of greater wealth in ters devoted to the problems of over-produc- expenditure and show has become a sort of tion, the changes of relative value in the pre- dry rot. To this it is probable our universal cious metals, governmental interference with system of public schools and the methods unprodnction and distribution, and labor dis- der which they are conducted, with all their content are specially suggestive and interest- more than overbalancing advantages, have ing. The latter subject, the most threatening largely contributed by their results of halfand difficnlt of all the problems of the age, education, or of education on the surface. will be turned to, as represented in our au- They have stimulated the sense of intellectual thor's discussion, with much curiosity. -1 Of and social need, without training that keen course Mr. Wells, as an advocate of the laisser sepse of discrimination which teaches what is faire doctrine in social and political life, is a dis- essential to the right gratification of such ciple of the law of individualism, or the fullest need, or what is sham and illusion and what possible play of the powers and capacities of genuine in the ideals and rewards of life. The each person to do for himself, so far as these truly rich man is the man of few needs, or are consistent with the rights of others. That such as can be answered without great ex80 far has shown itself to be most favorable to penditure, and the greatest men bave been the rapid growth of civilization, as it puts men of simple tastes. This is the me diffievery man on his mettle to do the best possi- cult lesson for the poor man to learn, as he is ble within his conditions, and fixes a premium apt to measure happiness by the power of on energy, hard work, and intelligence. But spending money without regard to cost. It is again it has intensified competition in an ex- peculiarly so in America, where money is the treme degree, and has made the realization of touchstone of success in life more largely than the rewards of energy and intelligence the in many far more undemocratic countries.com more onerous ; or, to put it more accurately, Mr, Wells does not give quite the promit has made it the more difficult for any except inence to this cause of discontent among the those possessing the qualities of success in a laboring classes, and under this title we must high degree to reach any but the most mod. include many who work with their brains as erate stage of achievement. The faults, well as with their hands. Yet what he does blanders, and weaknesses of those striving for say is very pointed and forcible. He suma goal are more searchingly tested than ever marizes his views on this subject as follows: before in the strain of rivalry, and count the " The widening of the sphere of one's surmore surely in determining results. The roundings and a larger acquaintance with problem is a very serious one, and leads us other men and pursuits have long been recoginto all sorts of remote causes inherent in hu- nized as not productive of content. • Writing man nature and in the social structure.

to his nephew more than one hundred years -Mr. Wells points out the fact that in spite ago, Thomas Jefferson thus concisely exof the increasing cheapness and abondance of presses the results of his own observations. the most desirable things, and of the larger Travelling,' he says, makes men wiser, but proportionate wages of the working classes less happy. When men of sober age travel than ever before, popular discontent, instead they gather knowledge, but they are, after all, of lessening, is continually increasing. This subject to recollections mixed with regrets ; is principally owing to the fact that the in their affections are weakened by being extend. crease in intelligence or general information ed over more objects, and they learn now on the part of the masses in all civilized coun- habits, which cannot be gratified when they tries has been even greater than their increase return home,' Again, as the former few and in the means to acquire the objects which they simple requirements of the masses have be. wish to possess. Their tastes and appetites come more varied and costly, the individual have expanded enormously, disproportionably effort necessary for the satisfaction of the with their ability to earn, even in this day of latter is not relatively less, even under the increased opportunity and cheap comforts. new conditions of production, than before, One must have luxuries where formerly he and in many instances is possibly greater. was satisfied with the gratification of substan. Hence, notwithstanding the large advance in tial needs. Pianos and Brussels carpets are recent years in the average rates of wages, and not essential to the happiness of a mechanic the greatly increased purchasing power of or of a small farmer, but many of these classes wages, there is no less complaint than ever of have come to regard them as such. The am. the cost of living ; when (as M, LeroyBeuu

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