tionary on the indignities and insults that clude the National School as one of them. had been forced upon him. I endeavored in the midst of this discussion my cup feebly to stem the torrent of his indigna- overflowed by the announcement that my tion. At last even he had exhausted his mastiff Brenda had bitten our most imrage, and the door closed, and I hoped at portant tenant in the leg. Mr. Landcorn, it last that I might have a little peace and appears, had called to ask for considerable quiet ; but in this matter I

reductions. I was sorry for this, as I doomed to be disappointed. The other knew it would vex Jack, particularly as I indignant person of the story, hearing was afraid that after this occurrence Mr. through the friendly cook, to use his own Landcorn would ask for still greater reexpression, that his character was being ductions. taken away, also sought my presence. “ In the afternoon I drove with Jack, Then I heard a longer and still more in. and we tried together his new pair. At comprehensible tale, in which button- five o'clock I opened a music hall at Durnholes, cabbages, indignities and insults ford, and I made a little speech upon the were heaped one upon another. I listened development of musical feeling in the wearily enough, gave no opinion, and de- county. Stopping at the lodge on my termined from sheer inability to fathom way back, I got out and read a chapter of the cause of the quarrel to pursue a grand the Bible to my maid's old mother, who policy of laisser aller. After this domestic is dying of cancer. I was annoyed to find crisis I attempted to read, but the words that she had not had on that day her basin swam before my eyes, and my mind was of


from the Hall as usual. incapable from nervous irritation of fol- I only got back to the house just in lowing any argument closely. Just as I

Just as I time to receive my guests. They conwas beginning to regain my calm, the door sisted of a Whig peer, a Tory democrat, a was flung open and the twins came in with stockbroker, a celebrated actress, a philana request that I would go on the lawn, and thropic Jew, an editor, an Agnostic, a see them jump leap-frog. After that Mad- Jesuit, and a Protestant tempered by Ma. emoiselle joined us out of doors and in. hometanism. They all talked at dinner, formed me that

my eldest daughter's but I was too tired to take an active part manners and behavior toward her were a in the conversation myself.

There was subject of sincere regret, qu'elle était one little mishap—the fish did not arrive d'une impertinence incroyable' --and that in time. Jack grumbled at this, and said she begged under the circumstances to it was my fault ; that I ought to have regive me notice. Closely following upon membered to have called for it in the afthe heels of these events, the village ternoon when we were at Durnford. I am schoolmaster called to complain that the sometimes at a loss to solve the problem curate bad visited the National School on why a woman is always expected to do the Friday and had told the children to stand remembering for her family through life. up on his entrance. But that was a thing Memory is a special gift, and yet I never that he, Mr. Jones Thomas, representative heard of any fairy godmother putting it of the majesty of the School Board, as he into a child's cradle at her christening.' pictured himself to be, would not tolerate. Fashionable doctors speak and write He was good enough to say that he liked about two diseases alune ; gout they give clergymen in their proper places. Ap- to men, nervous exhaustion to women.parently, he was not kind enough to in. Nineteenth Century.



Those who have had the good fortune was reserved for the reception of clients. to visit Pompeii will remember that im- It was a covered gallery with columns portant Greek addition to the Roman round an open court, from which the prihouse, the peristylium, which became the vate rooms of the house received their air centre of domestic life, while the atrium and light. It was larger than the atrium,


and the open space in the centre was also raised and rounded edges, each of which much larger. While the atrium had its should have a path dug round it, by means reservoir, or impluvium, for receiving the of which access may be afforded to the rain-water, the peristylium usually had a gardener, and a channel formed for the fountain, or a piscina, surrounded with water needed for irrigation.” One pershrubs and flower-beds. This was often fectly isolated garden has been found with the sole viridarium or garden of the only a small habitation for the gardener house, but many of the houses have be- attached to it. This was likewise laid out sides a garden at the back, which had also in symmetrical rows of beds which looked frequently a fountain either in the centre more business-like than ornamental ; it or against the wall. In some of these was to all appearance a nursery-garden gardens, as well as in the peristylia the kept for mercantile purposes.

Round one root of the plants, the tiles round the beds of the beds a row of pots, consisting of and the leaden pipes for the irrigation amphoræ divided from their upper parts, have been found. In the house of Pansa, were found in the earth close together. one of the largest at Pompeii, in that of These were evidently meant to hold plants Epidius Rufus, and in another nameless or seedlings. " There are few establishhouse, the long, narrow, symmetrical ments at Pompeii,” says Overbeck, rows of beds, leaving no room for regular " which are so analogous to our own and paths, clearly show that the space had present such a familiar look. In the been devoted to the cultivation of vegeta. house of Sallust, where there was but little bles. There, no doubt, grew the re- room, the garden consisted of a pathway nowned Pompeian cabbage mentioned by running along a portico. Flowers were Pliny and Columella. These gardens are planted in boxes on each side, and the divided from the houses by a portico with outer wall was painted with fountain-jets, one small room opening out into it, prob. trees and birds to give an enlarged appearably that of the gardener. In Pansa's A charmingly decorated summer house all traces of beds have now disap- triclinium, or dining-room with an arbor peared ; they are preserved in that of opened into it. The stone seats, the leg Epidius Rufus, and behind the vegetable of the table, the adjoining altar for the garden of this house there is a raised libations, the marble basin for receiving piece of ground which may have served the fountain which sprang out of the wall, as a flower-garden. Mazois, the ardent are still there, and it is difficult to realize archæologist, who devoted the best years that the life that once animated this lovely of a short life to the excavation and study scene vanished from it more than eighteen of Pompeii * describes the garden of the hundred years ago ! house of Pansa and his emotion on seeing Representations in fresco of gardens a small plant appear on the freshly exca- such as those on the walls of Sallust are vated ground. He watched it from day very frequent at Pompeii, and though to day with eager attention, but alas ! it they are now unfortunately much faded, proved to be nothing but a wild pea com- they still throw a curious light on the armon to that neighborhood, which after rangements of the gardens in those days. the removal of the soil had been swept by They were introduced into mural decorathe rain into the ancient kitchen garden. tion by the Roman landscape-painter Lu"Il fallut,

says Mazois, renoncer au dius, in the reign of Augustus, and seem plaisir d'avoir trouvé de l'herbe antique, to have been much in favor. They were mais malgré l'extravagance de ma pre- especially intended for the walls of garmière idée, j'eus de la peine à prendre la dens and peristylia, but they have been vérité de bonne grâce, il me semblait found sometimes in other places-chiefly qu'elle me volait quelque chose.”

in bath-rvoms—both at Pompeii and in These vegetable gardens furnish an in. Rome, and even in a tomb. Pliny the teresting illustration of a passage in Pliny's Younger mentions paintings of this kind Natural History. Speaking of the way to in his villa in Tuscany. In the letter delay out a garden he says : “ The ground scribing his house and gardens he speaks should be divided into plots or beds with of a room,“ which being situated close to

a plane-tree enjoys a constant shade and * He died in 1826 before his work was com- green. It is sculptured in marble up to pleted. The architect Gau continued it. the podium, and above it is painted foliage



with birds among the branches, which is lifetime. The tomb has been described not less graceful than the marble. Under- by Padre Secchi, and Wörmann gives a neath there is a little fountain.'

very pretty German translation of the In a place like Pompeii, where the lines, which show that there existed in the houses and gardens were small, these ancient world, especially among the decorations had special advantages as they Greeks, as deep and genuine a love of were intended to represent an extension of Nature as could be found in modern times. space. The designs were very varied, as The paintings have been ruthlessly remay be seen from the fragments that re- moved, and it is not even known what main. Among flowers and groups of trees has become of them. there are fountains, statuary, trellis-work, In the Casa del Centenario, the relarge birds, such as peacocks—all of nat. markable house partly excavated in 1879 ural size,* and illustrating how much care at the time of the eighteenth centenary of was bestowed on the ornamental gardening the eruption, there is a small garden, with of that period. Of all the paintings of a frieze representing an aquarium in which this kind the best executed and best pre- zoologists have recognized the present served have been found on the four walls fauna of the Gulf of Naples. Two of the of a chamber in the

Villa ad Gallinas of groups—a fight between a polype and a Livia, excavated at Prima Porta near murena, and a lobster killing a murenaRome in 1863. They represent the whole are remarkably well executed. plan of a garden with trees, Rowers and In that beautiful and interesting house birds, and bear the stamp of a master's of the Faun, the garden is surrounded by touch. In the necessarily rapid fresco- a portico with fifty six Doric columns. In execution the salient features, such as the the so-called house of Diomed the garden character of the foliage by which the trees also has a portico, and it may be remem

distinguished, have been vividly bered that close to the gate were found brought out, and it is thought not improba- two skeletons, believed to have been those ble that they may be by the hand of Ludius of the master and his slave who tried to biipself. But though inferior in execuie escape while the other members of the tion none have come down to us with family had hidden in the cellars. With more touching associations than those the assistance of the Pompeian pictures, which were found in the tomb of a Greek and especially the description given by the family near Rome on the Latin road be. Younger Pliny of his villa in Tuscany and tween the tomb of the Scipios and the various passages in the Elder's Natural Columbarium. In a frieze above were the History, it is not difficult to reconstruct portraits of the different members of the the leading features of the Roman gardens. family, twelve in number, with the names They must have borne a close reseminscribed, and below it there was a paint- blance to those which Le Nôtre laid out ing of trees and birds with the blue sky in the seventeenth century, and of which seen through the foliage. On a stone in we still find traces in old-fasbioned counthis tomb a remarkable inscription in try houses. This style had in fact grown Greek verse was found. The owner, iden- out of various attempts inade at different tifying the painting with the reality, re- periods, especially since the Renaissance, joices that no thorns and brambles grow to reproduce the classical gardens of anround bis tomb, and no night-birds shriek tiquity. Straight alleys, not upfrequentnear his resting-place, but that his shrine ly converging to a centre, tho so-called is surrounded with beautiful trees and quincunx, symmetrically laid-out flowerfruit-laden bougbs, the cicada, the swal- beds surrounded with box or tiles, close low and nightingale singing their melodi- and double plantations of trees, shrubs ous songs.

His naipe was Patron. He clipped into hedges, pyramids, and somedid good to men on earth that in Hades times men, animals, ships, letters, with also some lovely place might fall to his lot. . the trellis-work, statuary and fountains we He died in his youth, and all that now re- see in the Pompeian pictures-such were mained was the work he had done in his the main features of the gardens in the

first century of the Empire. The tradi

tion of them was more or less preserved in * This refers only to the garden representa. tions that cover the wall. There are other the monasteries all through the Middle smaller ones in imitation of panel pictures. Ages, and before Le Nôtre's time there

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had been a growing taste in Italy, in Eng- else is thinned and lengthened out in the land, and notably in Holland, for reviving various designs employed in ornamental the tree-sculpture of Pliny. Horace Wal- gardening to represent scenes of hunting, pole speaks of a piece of ancient Arras fleets and various other objects ; these it tapestry at Warwick Castle in which there

covers with a small leaf which is always was a garden exactly resembling those he green. had seen in the Herculaneum paintings : It scarcely required the testimony of “Small, square enclosures formed by Pliny to convince us that this ars topiaria, trellis-work and espaliers,' and regularly or art of ornamenting the gardens, was a ornamented with vases, fountains and growth of Roman soil and not of Greek caryatides, elegantly symmetrical and origin. With the increasing luxury in the proper for the narrow spaces allotted to latter days of the Republic, when the Rothe garden of a house in a capital city.” inans began to build villas all round the Tbis tapestry could only have reproduced Bay of Naples and on other beautiful the garden of the period, for neither sites, the taste for gardening had greatly Pompeii nor Herculaneum had been ex- increased. The old idea that the garden cavated. We know in fact that Hentz- was for utility only was superseded by an ner, who travelled in England in Queen excessive love for ornamental gardening Elizabeth's time, saw gardens very like which developed—probably under Orie those representations, “ groves ornamented tal influences-into the ars topiaria. It with trellis-work,” “ cabinets of verdure,” was said to have been invented by Caius whole walls covered with rosemary, marble Matius, surnamed Calvena, a man of noble columns and fountains, all reminiscences character and varied accomplishments, the of classical times.

friend of Julius Cæsar, Cicero and Augus. Le Nôtre, who had studied painting, tus. He is best known by the beautiful utilized what was best in the efforts of his letter he wrote to Cicero after the murder predecessors, aiming above all things at of Cæsar ; he is believed to have transunity of design, whence his acknowledged lated the Iliad into Latin ; he wrote a superiority and the credit he often re- book on cookery and he gave his name to ceives of having initiated the style. In the Matian apple. The very name of the the Roman days, as well as in later times, ornamental gardener, topiarius, and the the box was chiefly used for the purpose fact that Pliny in bis Natural History of clipping, but the laurel, the cypress, specially distinguishes those plants which the myrtle, and the pitch-tree were some- were suited for this kind of gardening, times treated in the same way, and the show how general the practice was. Luivy was made to cover the trees and walls. dius, the contemporary of Matius, reproPliny's gardens were elaborately laid out duced it in his paintings, and examples of in this fashion. “In front of the por- it have been found on the Pompeian walls. tico,'' he writes, “is a sort of terrace, At the same time the unconventional beauedged with box and shrubs cut into differ- ties of Nature were not lost sight of. In ent shapes. You descend from the terrace Pliny's villa the two aspects were brought by an easy slope adorned with the figures into sudden juxtaposition to set off better of animals in box, facing each other, to a the merit of each. Jane overspread with the soft and flexible The Romans had received most of their acanthus ; this is surrounded by a wall en. cultivated plants, like all that was best in closed with evergreens shaped into a vari- their civilization, from the Greeks who ety of forms. Beyond it is the gestatio had themselves imported them from Asia. laid out in the form of a circus running Little is known of early Greek gardening round the multiform box hedge and the beyond the Homeric legend of the gardens dwarf trees which are cut quite close. The of Alcinous, where the flowers never faded whole is fenced in with a wall completely and the trees gave their fruit all the year covered by box cut into steps all the way · round ; Herodotus also speaks of the garup to the top.” The Elder Pliny de- den of Midas, son of Gordias, full of frascribes how the cypress was manipulated : grant wild roses with sixty leaves. GarFor a long time it was only used for dening in Greece was greatly stimulated marking the intervals between rows of by Alexander's campaigns, which made pines ; at the present day, however, it is the Greeks acquainted with a new vegetaclipped and trained to form hedgerows or tion and with the celebrated gardens of the East. Pliny describes the trees which Pliny,“ rise those hills clad with vines, created the admiration of the conqueror the juice of whose grape is extolled all of this new world, and Diodorus of Sicily over the world ; this happy spot where, relates how he turned out of his way in as the ancients used to say, Father Liber his march from Celænæ to the Nisæan and Ceres are ever striving for the masplains to look at the gardens of Semiramis tery.” at the foot of Mount Bagistanus. The The vine, the olive, the laure), the first botanical garden was subsequently myrtle, the fig, the pomegranate, the founded at Athens by Theophrastus, the quince, the rose, the lily, the violet, had disciple and successor of Aristotle and the all probably been introduced into Italy at earliest known writer on botany ; while an early period by the Greek colonists,* private gardens came into use through The cypress, called by Pliny “an exotic Epicurus, who is said to have been the difficult to naturalize," is believed to have first to possess one.

At the same time come in somewhat later. Among the many attempts at acclimatization were earliest plane-trees were those brought made in various parts of Alexander's Em- over from Sicily by the elder Dionysius pire, whence the plants passed into Italy. and planted in his garden at Rhegium, The worship of trees bad been from the where they were looked upon as a great earliest time a great factor in the distribu- curiosity, but did not thrive. The planetion of plants, as without the tree which tree was famous throughout Greek antiqthe divinity had selected for himself, no uity, interwoven with many myths and temple could be erected to him, nor could sung by many poets. It was also much his religious rites be performed. Thus valued for its shade by the Romans, who the oak was sacred to Zeus, the laurel in the latter days of the Republic planted to Apollo, the olive to Athene, the myrtle it extensively in their villas and gardens. to Aphrodite, the poplar to Heracles ; There existed a superstition that wine was and wherever the worship of these divini- nutritious to their roots, and a story is ties was carried, a cutting from the holy told of the orator Hortensius asking Cicero tree of their temple had to be planted to take his turn in the law-court, because These attempts were of course not always he had to go and give wine to his planesuccessful. Pliny relates on the authority trees at Tusculum. The leafless trunk of of Theopbrastus that Harpalus (Governor the plane-tree appears in the beautiful of Babylon under Alexander) vainly tried mosaic of Alexander's battle found in the to naturalize the ivy, the plant of Bac- bouse of the Faun, and now in the Naples chus, in Media, and he elsewhere mentions Museum. The date palın, which belongs that at Panticapæum near the Ciinmerian essentially to hot climates, did not find in Bosporus (now Kertch in the Crimea), Italy suitable conditions to fulfil its desMithridates and the inhabitants of the tiny. It lived and gave an Oriental beauty place made unsuccessful efforts to cultivate to the scene, but became sterile. The the myrtle and the laurel for certain relig. dates found in the Scavi were probably ious rites. Sometimes, according to tra- imported from Africa, for even Sicily lies dition, gods had planted their own sacred outside the zone where they habitually trees ; Demeter brought the first fig tree ripen, and the limits of the fructifying to Attica, Athene planted the olive on the palm were exactly the same in ancient Acropolis at Athens, and Aphrodite the times as they are now. The palm-tree pomegranate at Cyprus. The sacred trees probably came to Italy with the worship and groves where the divinities dwelt af- of Apollo, to whom Latona had given forded, like the altar, protection and right birth under the famous palm-tree at Deof asylum and were in their turn protected los, but its name, palma, which is derived from injury and might not be cut down. according to Hehn from the Semitic tamar, Where the tree prospered, the god grew shows that it must have first become in favor. Sophocles speaks of the sway known to the Romans through a different Bacchus held over Italy, and there can be source. The earliest date with which the no doubt that the ascendency of the Dio- existence of the palm-tree in Italy can be nysian worship was owing to the volcanic connected is 291 B.C., when during a soil of southern Italy being so peculiarly

* This must be understood of the cultivated favorable to the culture of the vine.“ In plants only, for the vine, the myrtle, and the this blessed country Campania," writes laurel grew wild in Southern Europe.

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