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tainly it is appropriate, for it appeals irresist- It has come to the knowledge of Messrs. ibly to the childish imagination. The illustra- Macmillan & Co., who hold the copyright of tions are good, and the execution, on the the works of the late Edward FitzGerald, says whole, all that could be desired

the Athenæum, “ that an American reprint of Omar Khayyám has recently been on sale in

this country. It is only fair to warn likely FOREIGN LITERARY NOTES. purchasers that this reprint is & piracy, and

liable, as such, to be seized by the owners of PROFESSOR JAMES DARMESTETER has nearly fin

the copyright. The Custom House authorities ished his great collection of Afghan songs with

have been requested to stop the entrance of prose translations into French. The Afghan the book into this country.” texts have never before been written down,

THE Marquis of Lorne has, it is said, writmuch less printed. Bound up with them will

ten a Canadian love story, which will appear be an Afghan grammar and dictionary. It

shortly in the new weekly journal Now, pubseems strange that all this should be left for a

lished in Glasgow. The tale contains pictures Frenchman to do when we have such a vital

of life in the North-West and elsewhere in interest in Afghanistan. The book is com.

Canada, some scenes being introduced in con. plete now except the introduction, and the

nection with the late Indian rising. The hero learned author hopes that it will be out of

is a young and well-educated Canadian, who hand by the new year.

becomes enamored of the daughter of an Ind. “ THE feeling of dissatisfaction which we ian chief. have mentioned,” says the Athenæum,

A BOOK of considerable importance in liter. felt by many who attended the Oriental Con.

ary history is announced for publication-the gress at Stockholm has led to the issue of a

letters of Friedrich Schlegel to his brother circular pointing out the desirability of hold- August Wilhelm Schlegel. It bas long been ing the next congress at Paris or London, and known that the Dresden Library was in pos. endeavoring to return to the scientific objects session of these letters. The originals were of the meeting. It has already been exten.

intrusted to Dr. Wetzel as editor, who has sively signed."

now completed his work. Ar the public session of the Academy of “At the last meeting of the Council of the Sciences at Munich on the 15th inst. the ven- Camden Society," says the Academy, it was erable president, Dr. von Döllinger, read a pa- resolved to issue for the year 1890-91 (1) the per on the dissolution of the Order of Tem. accounts of Henry Earl of Derby, afterward plars. The tendency of the paper was to vin. Henry IV., during his travels in Prussia and dicate the character of the Templars. Its elsewhere ; to be edited by Miss Lucy Toul historical fulness, critical power, and manner min Smith, with the co-operation of the His of delivery showed that Döllinger's capacity torical Society of East Prussia ; (2) the for work and keen delight in it are still un- Clarke Papers, vol. i., to be edited by Mr. diminished, notwithstanding his ninety-one C. N. Firth. The first of these books will years,

throw light upon the travelling expenses in CONCURRENTLY with the appearance of the

the east of Europe of one who took much the

Canthird English edition of Professor Rudolph von

same route as that of the Knight in the Gneist's“History of the English Constitution” terbury Tales ;' the other will bring forward and the second English edition of his “ History

most important evidence bearing on the aims of the English Parliament,” the venerable au

of the army and on the character of its lead. thor has been celebrating bis jubilee as a teach

ers, more especially on that of Cromwell, after

the conclusion of the first Civil War.” er in the University of Berlin. He gave his first lesson on November 18th, 1839, and throughout The death of the English poet Allingbam, the following half century has continued his familiar to all lovers of recent English verse lectures without a single break—“ohne in dem for his command of homely pathos and sweethalben Jahrhundert eine einige Vorlesung ver- ness, is thus recorded, with a sketch of the poet's säumt zu haben." Such a fact is perhaps with life, in the Academy : • Mr. William Allingout a parallel in academical history. The ham-whose death was briefly recorded in the " Jubilar" received congratulations and ad. Academy of last week—was born in 1828 at dresses from universities and literary societies the little seaport of Ballyshannon, Donegal, in in all parts of the world.

which county his ancestors had, we believe,


been settled for several generations. While nent, the teaching of Karl Marı, Henry quite a young man he began to contribute George, Mill, Comte, and those whom each verses to English periodicals, and was thus of these has influenced, have continually introduced to literary society in London, broken up the old economic purism, the gosHis first volume of collected poems appeared pel of laissez faire and unlimited license to inin 1850; and this was followed four years dividual selfishness. Along with these have later by. Day and Night Songs,' a subsequent worked an immense body of organized moveedition of which was illustrated with draw. ments, with many different schemes and with ings by Rossetti, Millais, and Arthur Hughes. widely divergent creeds, such as the Salvation His most ambitious work was 'Lawrence Army, Toynbee Hall, Newton Hall, the Social Bloomfield in Ireland (1864)- an attempt to Democratic Federation, the Land NationalizaDarrate, on almost epical scale, the endeavors tion Societies, and all the other agrarian of a young landlord to improve the condition movements in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and of his tenantry. But his poetical reputation England, with Guilds, Leagues, and societies will rest upon his shorter lyrics, many of innumerable ; such inquiries as those of the which-apart from their metrical charm—are Industrial Conference of 1885, Mr. Charles inspired with a genuine love of nature and Booth's Analysis of Labor in East London, with homely pathos. Of late years Mr. Alling- 1889, the Trades-Union Annual Congress, and ham had published little that was new, being all the various types of Christian Socialism content to bring out revised editions of his that are weekly preached in Church and earlier volumes, with a few additional pieces. Chapel. Socialism in any systematic or defi. One of such volumes he is understood to have nite form, as a scheme for superseding tbe in. Jeft ready for the press.

stitution of Capital, bad not in my opinion “ In 1864, Mr. Allingham-who had previ- made any serious way. At least I know of no ously held a subordinate appointment in the coherent scheme for eliminating individual Customs—received a pension of £60 on the ownership of property which can be said to Civil List, in consideration of the literary bave even a moderate following of rational and merit of his poetical works. Among the convinced adherents. The enthusiasts who, pensioners of the same year are to be found here and there, put forth such schemes are the names of Miss Eliza Cook, Mrs. Sheridan not really understood by those whom they get Knowles, and Miss Didah Mulock. In 1874, to listen to them. But Socialism, as mean. he married the well-known water-color paint ing the general desire to have all the arrange

Miss Helen Patterson, who, besides several ments of society, economic, legislative, and children, survives him. In the same year he mora), controlled by social considerations and was appointed editor of Frazer's Magazine, in reformed to meet paramount social obligations succession to J. A. Froude ; and at about this this kind of Socialism is manifestly in the date he settled at Chelson, in the immediate ascendant. Such Socialism, I mean, as is neighborhood of Carlyle and Rossetti. On found in Henry George's powerful book called resigning the editorship of Frazer's he moved " Social Problems," where we have his view to Witley, in Sarrey—a district dear to artists of the problem apart from his sophistical and authors. It was only in the present year remedy." The old Satanic gospel of laissez that he moved again to the house in Lynd- faire is dead; and, in the absence of any other hurst-road, Hampstead, where he died (after gospel of authority, a vague proclivity toward a lingering illness) on Monday, November 21st. Socialism comes to the front. Whatever name In accordance with his express wish, his re- we give it, a settled conviction has grown up inains were cremated at Woking."

in the conscience of serious men of all schools, that society in its present form

presses with terrible severity on the whole body MISCELLANY.

of those who toil in the lowest ranks of labor.

And from Bismarck and the Pope downward THE NEW TRADES-UNIONISM.—Along with a all who bear role, and all who teach, are comre-casting of our whole political system into ing to feel that society is in a very rotten state democratic form, there has gone during the while that continnes. We are all waking up last twenty years an immense movement in to see what many of us have been preaching social philosophy and social politics. The for years) that it will not do, and must be Commane in France, the land struggle in Ire. mended or ended. Hence when 100,000 men land, the growth of Socialism on the Conti. along the river side rose up to protest against

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their casual employment and their miserable alized by opinion, not recast by the Statemor. pay, the world very generally, both of rich and alized by education, by morality, by religion"." poor, thought that they were right, and gave the Socialist with a system and the impatient them encouragement and help. People know reformer goes off with a laugh or something definite about the East End and Well ! but this is what has just happened. :) London Labor. The Mansion House Com- Public Opinion has been changed, and it has mittees, the House of Lords Committee on worked great results. Capital, to a certain ex. Sweating, the Royal Commission on the Hous-tent, has been moralized, and Industry also ing of the Poor, the Industrial Conference of has been moralized. The very poor have been 1885, the experiences of Beatrice Potter, the taught to feel self-respect and self-reliance, to." studies of Charles Booth and his friends, and bear much for a common cause, to practise all that for years has been said and done in self-denial for a social benefit. The rich have Toynbee Hall, Bedford Chapel, Newton Hall, been taught to listen with more sympathy to the Working-Men's College, the Hall of Sci- the poor, and to know themselves as respon. ence, the City Temple, and a thousand plat- sible for the sufferings of those they employ. forms, pulpits, and clubs—had made men What has happened is a great lesson to rich think and given them matter for thought. and poor, to employers and employed, in the Public opinion has passed over to the side of imperishable and paramount force of Social the laborer ; and when he made his effort, Duty in the long run, The immediate results public opinion helped him to success.

are not very great. But it is a beginning! There are lessons enough for every one in and much may come of it. In the mean time, what has just happened. The Socialist of the the persistent appeal to the public conscience Karl Marx School may reflect how sterile a on moral and social grounds has done, what thing Socialism has proved all these years that Trades-Unionism, per se, has failed to do in it has been raving out its fierce conundrums forty years, and what all the schemes for conabout the wickedness of private property, and fiscating private Capital and nationalizing prihow solid are the results to be won when it vate property have only succeeded in hinder. consents to enter on a practical business bar ing and delaying being done.Nineteenth Cengain. The violent assailants of Trades-Union- tury. ism may reflect that they have done nothing practical, until they resorted to Unionism THE LEPERS OF CRETE.-If uncleanness bo themselves and adopted its familiar tactics the chief factor in the generation or promotion and its well-tried machinery. The old Union- of leprosy, one may well understand why there ist may reflect that, in forty years past, the are so many lepers in Crete. The science of conventional Unionism has proved utterly hygiene is not studied in the East as with us. powerless to effect what in a few weeks two The traveller who stays but a day in any of or three prominent Socialists have done. The the large Cretan villages will not soon forget men who grow hoarse in declaiming about the his experience of the prevalent filthiness. selfishness and brutality of the middle olasses There is a reek of ordare in the air that tells may think of the solid assistance they had very decisively how sanitary arrangements are from the middle classes in sympathy and in totally neglected ; and this in spite of a clear money.

And the middle-classes, who were stream of water from the mountains running wont to regard the East End laborer as a feck- down the streets, and the sweet perfame of less or dangerous loafer, may ponder on the the blossom of orange and lemon trees in the discipline, honesty, endurance, and real hero. gardens. The houses are, a rule, clean ism which, in defence of what they knew to enough outside, but they are of the whited." be a just cause, 80 many thousands of the sepulchre order of things. Within, if the poorest of the poor have shown. The Social building be of but one story, the floor is the ist with a system and the impatient reformer native ground. Daring the rains, therefore, generally have often turned with mockery from when the soil is saturated, and the urban all reliance on public opinion and from any sewage is absorbed by the earth as if it were al such doctrine as the moralization of indus. sponge, foul exhalations poison the houses. try." When they have been told that-"the Fevers are the certain consequence ; and con...3 true Socialism is this: the use of Cupital must stitutions weakened by sucoessive attacks of be turned to social objects, just as Capital arises

fover or with a scrofulous tendency are, it may from social combination : "<when it has been be imagined, well prepared for the insidious preached to them that “industry must be more approach of leprosy also. The disease is very u


rare in the large towns, in Greece as in Crete. difference in diet and cleanliness fairly exThat may be, in a measure, explained by the plains why they suffer. greater regard for cleanliness in the public We have applied the word " patients” to the places, by the paved streets, and by the ne- lepers of Crete. In their case the word indi. cessity there of some more enlightened way of cates them as suffering men and women, 'not disposing of the sewage.

as persons under constant medical treatment. The country Cretans are as reckless in their Indeed, the current belief that the leper is in. diet as about the condition of their houses and curable seems to exempt them from the need the surroundings. They are not gluttons i of such attentions. It is supposed that the the Christians among them conform strictly disease may be retarded slightly by arsenical to the fasts of the Greek Church, which forbid treatment, sulphur baths, and“ a rigorous ap.! them to eat meat on about two hundred days plication of the rules of health ;" but even this in the year, but they are fond of the very is not certain. There are no leper hospitals things which tend to foster leprosy. As good in the island. At one time there was talk of Christians, they consume an immense quanti. segregating all the lepers upon one of the ad. ty of salt fish, which journeys to their island jacent islets ; but, as might have been exfrom the north seas, after divers tranship- pected, so active a measure has eventuated in ments which do not improve it as an article of nothing. Indeed, for the sake of the lepers food. Crete being so productive in olive trees themselves, one may be glad of it. The com(in 1883 the island exported 19,500 tons of munity at large might benefit; there would olive oil, worth no less than £567,000), oil is be less opportunity for the spread or even con80 plentiful that they use it in excess. Their tinuance of the disease, but the miserable passion for pork, especially in the form of victims would be deprived of the measure of sausages of an inferior kind, which they eat entertainment which, as spectators of the lives summer and winter alike, is perhaps the of others, they certainly still obtain. They crowning evil. In certain parts of Greece, would have nothing to occupy them except the where the oil is of good quality, there are no recollection of their own misery. They might lepers ; in the contrary case, lepers are com. even sink to the degree of torpor and degrada

This applies also to Crete, where the tion that seem to characterize the lepers of processes of crushing and refining the oil are Robben Island. As it is, however, the person very primitive. The country Cretans cook whom the municipal or provincial doctor cer. almost everything in oil, they even add oil to tifies to be a leper, though he is at once com. the milk of a rice pudding ; but, as if in de- pelled to leave his home and join the other fiance of absolute rales about this disease, we lepers of the nearest "leprochorion, find a certain village high up on the slopes of tinues to have a certain spectacular interest in Mount Ida peopled entirely by shepherds who life. The “leprochorion" is close to the gates live on the produce of their flocks and use oil of the city. There is constant passing to and bat scantily, and who nevertheless suffer much fro in front of his little white house of a from leprosy. It seems doubtful whether wine single room. Nor is he shunned altogether by is in any degree a deterrent or a provocant of his earlier friends and acquaintance, though the disease. The Cretan Christian men are, he is separated from them. If he had proper. upon the whole, rather bibulous ; but not so ty before his exile, his sentence as a leper does the women. Further, the men lead more ac- not deprive him of it. His estate is adminis. tive lives, in times of insurrection have more tered for him by others, who are responsible to harass them, and, generally speaking, in. to him for the returns. If, on the other band, car more risks than the women. This may he is indigent, the public treasury allots him account for the greater number of male than a loaf of bread daily as long as he lives, and female lepers. The Moslem Cretans suffer the alms he receives from wayfarers enables much less from the disease than their Chris.

him to supplement this allowance with sonie tian compatriots. They certainly consume of the minur laxaries of life. There is less of plenty of oil; but they are cleaner in personal the apathy of despair in a Cretan leper village matters, they abhor pork, and they eat less than one would suppose. The lepers them. salt fish. In one district, however, that of selves realize that they have the sympathy of Monophatsi, Mobammedan lepers are some- their fellow-creatures. – Nutional Review. what common ; but the Moslems of this com.} munity are notorious for their loose observanced DANGERS OF Raw MILK.--Careful observers, of the injunctions of the Koran, and their in. who are by no means inclined to the creation



this way.


of public scares,” are decidedly of opinion raw, but boiled. Milk needs to be cooked as that there is a considerable degree of danger much as beef or pork. Many persons, school. in the use of uncooked milk as food. It is be- boys especially, profess a strong objection to lieved that not only are certain exanthematous cooked milk. That is probably because no fevers communicated to consumers of raw skill is exercised in the cooking. It may be milk, but that tubercle itself, in some of its cooked in half a dozen different ways ; but forms, may also arise in the human subject in two, at any rate, of these are so simple that it

An important paper was recently is inexcusable not to try them. A little sugar. read at the Pathological Society of London, added to milk when boiling gives it quite a by Mr. Shattock, on Tubercular Abscess of new flavor, and makes it to many boys more the Breast." In the course of the paper, it palatable than uncooked milk. For those was stated that in the cow “tubercle of the who do not like what is sweet, a pinch of salt udder' was a well-known disease, so much so may be put in ; and that, again, produces a that on the Continent its hygienic importance substance having a totally different taste from was generally and practically recognized. Ten plain boiled milk. Other methods of making or twelve years ago the minute structure of cooked milk palatable will suggest themselves the tubercle bacillus which is found in the to the conscientiously careful mother or to the cow's udder was figured and described by Ko- experienced cook. There can be no good realessnikow in Virchoro's Archiv. It was found son why anybody should be asked to take raw also by experiments on animals that the milk milk ; still less ought there to be any excuse from tuberculous udders contained bacilli and for preferring it raw on the ground that when was rapidly infectious. Most people are fa- cooked it is less palatable.Hospital. miliar with what is popularly known as sumption of the bowels” in children.


AINHUM, A BRAZILIAN DISEASE, - Ainhum Hamilton, a distinguished Aberdeen professor, was first systematically described by a Brazilhas expressed the opinion that tuberculous iad surgeon as attacking colored races in Bra. milk from cows may often be the cause of that zil. The merit of its actual discovery, as Dr. distressing and fatal malady. In this connec. Radcliffe Crocker and others have pointed out, tion a case is recorded of a perfectly healthy is due to Dr. Clarke, who described the dischild, born of equally healthy parents, which ease before the Epidemiological Society, in was given to a wet-nurse to be suckled. The 1860, as a dry gangrene of the little toe among woman was tubercular, and the child very the natives of the Gold Coast. Dr. Da Silva, quickly contracted tubercular meningitis and Lima, however, described ainhum as a disdied. The nurse's milk, on examination, was order long known as existing among Africans found to contain the bacilli of tubercle. The and Creoles in South America, first writing disease, tuberculosis, it is believed, can be about it in the Gazeta Medica de Bahia in 1867. present in an apimal or a human subject with. Ainhum consists in hypertrophy and degen. out being definitely localized as an anatomical erative changes in the little toe, a constriction entity in any particular organ. It may there. forming and slowly becoming deeper until the fore easily happen that a cow shall continue digit is amputated spontaneously or otherwise. to be milked for months, and her milk sold as The disease is often symmetrical, and may food for infants and others, before it is discov. last for years. It is now known that the fourth, ered that she is the subject of fatal and infec- or even the great toe, may be affected, and tious disease. Certain breeds of cows are sup. Egles describes a case where a finger was atposed to be especially liable to tubercle of the tacked. It is frequent near Bahia, and also udders, and those breeds are noted for their occurs in the Southern States of America, the large udders, and for the abundance of the West Indies, the West Coast of Africa, India milk which they yield. Such breeds and ani. (where Hindoos are also liable to the disease), mals are, not unnaturally, much sought after Réunion, and Nossi-bé. M. Cogues has doby dairymen, and the extent of the danger is scribed a case of ainhum, which occurred in thus increased. All this sounds sufficiently Madagascar, in the March number of the alarıning, but whatever conclusions may be Archives de Médecine Navale. The pathology drawn from it, one point of practical impor- of ainhum is obscure, and although spontatance should certainly not be overlooked. That neous amputation of digits is a feature in some point has often been urged by medical men, forms of leprosy, it is by no means certain that and it must continue to be urged again and the two diseases are closely allied.—British again. It is that milk should not be taken Medical Journal.

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