thoughts of a life to come. He wrote paired. He has become, in his old age, a letters to all his friends, bidding them zealous student of Sanskrit, and, to judge farewell for this life. I myself was one from what he has published, his knowlof those to whom he said good-by, declar- edge of the Vedânta philosophy is proing that he had left the world, that he had found. He is now simply waiting for changed his nanie, and that all correspond- death, and fitting himself to die, followence between him and the outer world ing the words of Manu (vi., 43) :must henceforth cease. These were the

" Let not the hermit long for death, last lines of a letter which he addressed to

Nor cling to this terrestrial state ; me in July, 1886 :

Their Lord's behests as servants wait,

So let him, called, resign his breath.” · My health is failing and I have made up my mind to enter into the fourth order or As


be said that the Minister of rama. Thereby I shall attain that stage in life Bhavnagar remained in office long beyond when I shall be free from all the cares and

the time when he had a perfect right to anxieties of this world and shall have nothing

retire. to do with my present circumstances.

He was seventy-four when he sur• After leading a public life for more than rendered the Ministry. Still, he is one of sixty years, I think there is nothing left for very few statesmen who, even at that time, me to desire, except this life, which will en- would have thought it necessary to make able my Alma (self] to be one with Paramâtma [Supreme Self], as shown by the enlightened life for themselves, as a preparation for a

room for others, and to reserve a span of sages of old. When this is accomplished a man is free from birth and re-births, and what better life. His intellect was unimpaired, can I wish more than what will free me from

his body vigorous, and his friends were them, and give me means to attain Moksha clamorous for him to remain in power. [spiritual freedom]?

My learned Friend, I shall be a Samnyási But he did not allow himself to be per. in a few days, and thus there will be a total suaded. He was influenced, no doubt, in change of life. I shall no more be able to ad- his cboice, by the teaching of the old sages dress you, and I send you this letter to convey of India, but his own judgment also must my last best wishes for your success in life, have belped him to obey the voice of naand my regards which you so well deserve."

ture. To all who have ears to hear, that Every effort was made by his native voice declares in unmistakable tones that friends and by the highest officials of the there is a time for everything. There is English Government to dissuade him from a time to be young and there is a time to his purpose. Every argument that could be old. Our modern society is out of gear appeal to his common sense, his sense of because that lesson of nature is not obeyed. duty, aye, even his vanity, was used, but To die in harness has become the ideal of used in vain. He was not so silly as to almost every old man. But what might attempt to copy slavishly the example of be the right ideal for a cab-horse is not the ancient Samnyåsis, and to court death necessarily the right ideal for a human bein the wilderness. He remained in his ing. In several branches of the public retirement, only he adopted a much stricter service a remedy has been applied—not discipline, and a more rigorous seclusion the drastic remedy of the Bactrians and from the outer world. He was not so Caspians, but the more gentle pressure of childish, or rather so senile, as to imagine the Indian law-givers. Men are made to that any one in this life was really indis- withdraw into the forest on a retiring penpensable. He knew that younger men sion, and it has not been found that the would do his work as well, if not better army and navy have suffered under young than himself. And he felt that, having generals and vigorous admirals. The same done his duty to the world, he might be system ought to be applied to all other free during the few remaining years to do professions, more particularly to our schools his duty to himself. I believe the old and universities. After twenty-five years man is still alive, now in his eighty-fourth of hard work a man ought to be enabled year. When I last heard of him, through to rest from his labors, if he likes, and his son, he was in full possession of his the young should be allowed to have their intellectual powers, with a memory unim- day.— New Review.

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How am I to fulfil the promise I have volumes, besides writing a large amount of made of writing “ A Page of my Life" ? miscellaneous matter, and three volumes My life is so monotonous among these which still remain inedited. The condimountains of Graubünden—the snow-land- tions under which these tasks have been scape around me spreads so uniform be- performed were not altogether favorable. neath the burning sun or roof of frozen Every book I needed for study and refercloud, that a month, a week, a day, de- ence had to be dragged to the height of tached from this calm background, can 5,200 feet above the sea. A renowned have but little interest for actors on the Oxford scholar was paying me a visit once, wide stage of the world.

when, looking round my modest shelves, Twelve years ago I came to Davos, he exclaimed, with the sardonic grin pebroken down in health, and with a poor culiar to him : Nobody can write a book prospect of being able to prolong my days here !" I knew that it was very difficult upon this earth. I did not mean to abide to write a good book in Davos ; that I here ; but having regained a little strength could not hope to attain perfection or fulI hoped to pass the winter in a Nile-boat. ness of erudition in the absence from great The cure of lung disease by Alpine air and libraries, in the deprivation of that intelsun and cold was hardly known in England lectual stimulus which comes from the at that time. When I found my health clash of mind with mind. But


desire improve beyond all expectation, the desire has always been to make the best of a bad to remain where I was, to let well alone, business, and to turn drawbacks, so far as and to avoid that fatiguing journey to in me lay, into advantages. Therefore I Cairo, came over me. Slung in my ham- would not allow myself to be discouraged mock among the fir trees of the forest, at the outset. I reflected that the long watching the August sunlight slant athwart leisure afforded by Davos, my seclusion their branches, the squirrels leap from from the petty affairs of society and busibough to bough above my head, it seemed ness, and the marvellous brain tonic of the to me that life itself would not be worth mountain air would be in themselves some living at the price of perpetual travelling compensation for the privileges enjoyed by in search of health. I was thirty-six years more fortunately situated students. Moreof age ; and, reviewing the twenty-three over, I have never been able to take literyears which had elapsed since I went to ature very seriously. Life seems so much Hanover as a boy of thirteen, I found that graver, more important, more permanently I bad never spent more than three months interesting than books. Literature is what in one place. At all hazards I resolved to Aristotle called diaywyn-an honest, put an end to these peregrinations, looked healthful, harmless pastime. Then, too, the future calmly in the face, and wrote as Sir Thomas Browne remarked, “it is twenty-two sonnets on The Thought of too late to be ambitious.” Occupation, Death.” Then I informned my good and that indispensable condition of mental and famons physician in London that I meant physical health, was ready to my hand in to disobey his orders and to shut myself literary works ; and I determined to write up for the next seven months in this snow- for my own satisfaction without scrupulous bound valley. He replied that“ if I liked anxiety regarding the result. to leave my vile body to the Davos doctors The inhabitants of the valley soon atthat was my affair ; he had warned me. tracted my attention. I resolved to throw In the following spring I wrote an article myself as far as possible into their friendon my experience, which was printed in a ship and their life. These people of Graunumber of the Fortnightly Review, and bünden are in many ways remarkable and which contributed something perhaps to different from the other Swiss. It is not the foundation of the English Colony at generally known that they first joined the Davos Platz.

Confederation in the year 1803, having Since then, Davos has been my principal previously, for nearly four centuries, conplace of residence. I have worked inces- stituted a separate and independent state saptly at literature-publishing twenty —highly democratic in the forms of gov.

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ernment, but aristocratic in feeling and friends living at Ilanz in the Vorder Rheinsocial customs, proud of their ancient no- thal, or, as it is also called, Bündner Oberbility, accustomed to rule subject Italian land. territories and to deal with sovereigns as Behold us starting then for our thirteen ambassadors or generals. These peculiar. hours' sleighing journey, wrapped from ities in the past bistory of the Canton have head to foot in furs ! It is about half. left their traces on the present generation. past six on a cold gray morning, the therGood breeding, a high average of intelli- mometer standing at 3° F., a sombre gence, active political instincts, manliness canopy of mist threatening snow, and the and sense of personal freedom are conspic- blue-nosed servants of the watering-place uous even among the poorest peasants. torpidly shivering back to their daily laNowhere, I take it, upon the face of the bors like congealed snakes. Davos Platz earth, have republican institutions and re- does not look attractive at this hour of a publican virtues developed more favorably. winter morning, when the chimneys of the Nowhere is the social atmosphere of a big hotels and bake-houses are pouring democracy more agreeable at the present forth spirals of tawny smoke, which the moment. What I have learned from any frozen air repels and forces back to blend Graubünden comrades, and what I owe to with vapors lying low along the stream. them, cannot be here described in full. Tearing through the main street on such But their companionship has become an occasions, I always wonder how long what essential ingredient in my life—a healthy boasts to be a “Luft-kur-ort,” or healthand refreshing relief from solitary studies resort, depending on the purity of air for and incessant quill-driving.

its existence, will bear the strain of popuSo much about my existence as a man larity and rapid increase. of letters at Davos had to be premised in As we break away into the open country order that the “ Page of My Life” which these gloomy thonghts are dispelled. For I have promised, should be made intelli- now the sun, rising behind the mountains gible. And now I really do not know what of Sestig in gold and crimson, scatters the page to tear out and present here. Chance mist and gives the promise of a glorious must decide. My desk-diary for this year day. Spires and pinnacles of burnished (1889) happens to lie open at the date, silver smite the flawless blue of heaven. February 28. That page will do as well The vapor round their flanks and forests as any other.

melts imperceptibly into amber haze ; and Friends are kind enough to come and here and there broad stripes of dazzling stay with us sometimes, even in the win. sunlight turn the undulating snow-fields ter. We had been enjoying visits from round our path to sheets of argent mail one of the British Museum librarians, thickly studded with diamonds-crystals from an eminent English man of letters of the night. Every leafless larch or alder and his more than beautiful wife, and also by the stream-bed is encrusted with sparkfrom a Secretary of Legation to one of the ling frost-jewels, and the torrents, hurryGerman Courts. During the first two ing to the Rhine, chafe and foam against months of the year sleighing-parties, to- gigantic masses of gray-green ice, lipped boggan-races, and the other amusements with fantastically curving snow-wreaths. of the season had been going forward. I We are launched on the intoxication of a was further occupied with founding a day-long sleigh-drive. Hour after hour gymnasium for the young men of Davos, passes with no change but the change of which occasioned endless colloquies at postilions and horses, occasional halts at night in the dusky rooms of the old Rath- wayside inns, and the ever-varying pageant aus, followed by homeward walks across of the frozen landscape unrolled around us. the noiseless snow, beneath the sharp and Ravines and gorges, to which the sunlight scintillating stars. All this while I had never pierces, but walks with feet of fire been correcting the proofs of my book on along the cliffs above, turning those brisCarlo Gozzi, and composing four laborious tling pines against the sky-line into burning essays on that puzzling phenomenon which bushes, and sleeping for miles upon white we call “ Style.” I was fairly tired and ridges whence the avalanche descends. wanted a change of scene, So I proposed Slow climbings up warm slopes between to one of my daughters that we should pay the red trunks of larches, where squirrels a Jong-contemplated visit to some Swiss flirt upon the russet needles shed through

unstirred air. Break-neck gallopings down the village of Rusis, in which he held steep snow-covered hills, through sleepy his Reign of Terror, torturing and beheadvillages, past wagons laden with enormousing the partisans of the Spanish Crown.* tree-stems, under the awful icicles sus- It would be tedious to relate all the de. pended like shining swords of Damocles tails of this journey. Following the from cliffs a hundred feet above our heads. Landwasser and the Albula, we reached How so many tons of ice, apparently defy- the Rhine at Thusis, and drove along its ing the law of gravitation, keep their place banks to the point where the solitary Casupon those precipices through a winter, tle of Rhäznus frowns above melancholy increasing imperceptibly in volume, yet precipices, crested with enormous Scotch never altering their shape, nor showing the firs, surveying the gloomy eddies of the least sign of moisture at their extremities, river. Then we turned suddenly aside, has always been a mystery to me. The and began to ascend the valley of the Vorphenomenon of the growth of ice cataracts der-Rhein, among the weird earth.chasms from little springs bidden in the crannies of Versàmen. That is a really hideous of black drizzling rocks ought to be inves- place, unlike anything but the sinister tigated by a competent scientific authority. Balze, which break away below Voltessa. It is a standing wonder to the layman. But here, six hundred feet beneath the

I have said that there is a kind of in- road, the inaccessible Rhine chafes, throttoxication in such a journey. But a bet- tled in its stony gorge, and the earth-slopes ter word for the effect would perhaps be above, forever crumbling away and shoothypnotism. You resent any disturbance ing stones down on the traveller, rise to an or alteration of the main conditions, ex. equal beight, dismal, forlorn, abandoned cept to eat or drink at intervals, you do by the beautifying veil of snow, which not want to stop. You are annoyed to slides away from them in avalanches, rent think that it will ever end. And all the and ploughed into ravines as by the malice while you go on dreaming, meditating in. of some evil spirit. Day was well-nigh consecutively, sinoking, exchanging som- spent when we emerged from these dannolent remarks with your companion or gerous chasms into the woods which close your driver, turning over in your mind the the entrance to the Safien-thal. work wbich you have quitted or the work earthly ethereal lucidity which winter skies you have begun. This day my thoughts assume at sunset in our mountains sheds were occupied with the national hero of soft lights of amber and of rose upon the Graubünden, Georg Jenatsch-a person- distant range of Tödi, and bathed the age like some one in the Book of Judges- ridges of Calanda and the Alps of Steins in the Samson who delivered his oppressed violet glory. Our horses toiled slowly uptribesmen from the hands of their Amale- ward through the forest, whose sombre kites, Moabites, and Philistines (French trunks and sable plumage made the distant and Spanish and Austrian armies), during glow more luminous-crunching with their tbe Thirty Years' War. Georg Jenatsch hoofs a snow-path hard as Carrara marble, accompanied me through the hypnotism of and grinding the runners of the sleigh into that drive. We passed some of the scenes

the track, which shrieked at every turning. of his great exploits-the frightful cliffs That is the only noise--this short, sharp of the Schyn.pass, over which he brought shriek of the frozen snow, that, and the his Engadine troops one winter night by driver's whip, and the jingling bells upon a forced march, losing several heavy-armed the harness-you hear upon a sleigh-drive. men among their murderous ravines—the And these noises have inuch to do with its meadows of Valendàs, where he defeated hypnotism. the population of the Oberland in a pitched It was nearly dark when we left the battle at night, fighting up to the waist in wood, and broke away again at a full galsnow and staining it with blood--the cas- lop for Ilanz. In a broad, golden space tle of Ortenstein, where he murdered of sky lung the young moon and the Pompey Planta with his own hands among planet Venus, lustrous as pearl illuminated the tyrant's armed allies one Sunday moru: by some inner fire, and the whole open ing-the church of Scharàus, where, to use his own words, he “lied so much,' before he exchanged the pastor's gown and his part in the Thirty Years' War this

* I hope to write a book on Georg Jenatsch and ruff for casque of steel and harquebuss winter.

The un

valley lay still and white beneath the League is Ligia Grischa. Hence the desheavens.

ignation of the singing-club. Ilanz is a little walled town-proud of It was a splendid opportunity for seeing its right to be called Stadt and not Dorf, the natives of the Bündner Oberland. Not in spite of the paucity of its inhabitants. only were the rank and fashion of Ilanz It is almost wholly composed of large present in full force, but men and women houses, built in the seventeenth century by from remote valleys hidden in the folds of noble families with wealth acquired in for- the surrounding hills—the hills whose eign service. Their steep gabled roofs, glories roll down the fountains of the Rhine towers, and portals, charged with heraldic -bad trooped into the town. The conemblazonry, cluster together in a labyrinth cert-room was crammed to overflowing. of alleys. Orchards stretch on every side Its low roof did but little justice to those around the town-walls, which are pierced masculine and ringing voices, which throb. with old gateways, where the arms of bed and vibrated and beat against the walls Schmid von Grüneck, Salis, Planta, and above the densely packed heads of the auCapoul shine out in ancient carvings, rich- dience. What a striking sea of faces and ly-gilt and highly-colored. The sleepy of forins ! _I wished that my good friend, little town is picturesque in every detail, and Dr. John Beddoe, the illustrious ethnolrapidly falling into decay. From being a ogist, had been there to note them ; for nest of swashbucklers and captains of ad- the people reckon, I believe, among the venture, it has become the centre of an purest aboriginals of Central Europe. They agricultural district, where Swiss provincial are for the most part dark-complexioned, history is languidly carried on by the de. with very black hair and eyebrows; a scendants of the aristocratic folk who built low, narrow, rounded forehead, curving the brave old mansions. One narrow and upward to a small oval skull ; deep-set tortuous street ruus through the town brilliant eyes, placed close together, blazfrom main gate to gate. On the further ing sometimes like coals. The face is narside, among

the orchards, stands the house row, like the forehead, with a great length of our Swiss friends, under whose hospi- of nose and firmly-formed prominent jaws. table roof I left my daughter. At the Set upon shoulders of athletic breadth and other side is the principal inn, close to the a sinewy throat, this small head, with its covered wooden bridge across the Rhine ; packed and prominent features, gives the and here I took up my own quarters. The impression of colossal and plastic strength. street between offered a variety of dangers In old men and women the type is wonduring the night-hours. It was innocent derfully picturesque, when the wrinkles of lamps, and traffic had turned it into a and experience of a lifetime have ploughed glassy sheet of treacherous, discolored their record deep. But, as is usual with

Swiss mountaineers, the young women are There was a concert and a ball in the deficient in comeliness, not to say in grace hotel that evening. A singing-club for and beauty : and the young men, though male voices, renowned throughout the more attractive, from their limber muscuCanton under its name of “ Ligia Grischa, "larity and free, disdainful carriage, do assembles once a year at Ilanz, gives a inu- themselves no credit by their dress. They sical entertainment, sups in state, dances wear the coarsest, ill-made home-spun. It till dawn, and disperses in the morning to is only when their superb forms are stripped

the hills. I always wished for athletic exercise that you discern in to be present at one of this club's meet them models fit for Donatello and Michel ings, and had timed my visit to Ilanz ac- Angelo—those lovers of long-limbed, poncordingly. I ought to say that the old derous - shouldered, firmly - articulated, State of Graubünden was composed of three large-handed specimens of humanity, with Leagues, the eldest of which was called, powerful necks and small heads. par excellence, the Grey League ; and the The faces of these young men make me folk who formed it for their freedom in pause and wonder. They are less like huthe first years of the fifteenth century had man faces than masks. Sometimes boldly their hold in Ilanz and the neighborhood. carved, with ardent eyes, lips red as blood, They spoke then, and the people still and a transparent olive skin, these faces speak, a dialect of rustic Latin, which we yield no index to the character within by call Romansch. In this dialect the Grey any changes of expression. The specch


homes among

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