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OF PERSONS, PLACES, AND THINGS.
skirting the valley of Jehoshaphat east of Jerusalem, and hurrying its angry waters into the neighbouring Dead Sea. But for nine months in the year it is almost, or altogether, dry.
CENTURION, a Roman captain of a hundred soldiers. CHORAZIN, a town on the sea of Galilee, supposed at the north-eastern extremity. All the maritime towns of Galilee were destroyed by the Romans, and so effectually, that sometimes not even their sites could afterwards be identified. DALMANUTHA, another town on the sea of Galilee, supposed in the district of Magdala.
DECAPOLIS, a district of Syria, east of Jordan, containing, as its name imports, ten cities. These were, according to Pliny, 1. Scythopolis, 2. Philadelphia, 3. Raphanæ, 4. Gadara, 5. Hippos, 6. Dion, 7. Pella, 8. Gerasa, 9. Canatha, and, 10. Damascus.
DISCIPLES, learners, or followers of a teacher.
DOCTORS, teachers or instructors.
ELDERS, members of the Sanhedrim, or Jewish Council of Seventy.
EMMAUS, a village sixty furlongs, or seven miles and a half, south of Jerusalem, at the end of a valley of terebinthine or turpentine trees.
ENDOR, a city four miles south of Mount Tabor, towards Scythopolis.
ENON, (Hebrew, his fountain,) where John baptized, because there was abundance of water there. It was eight miles from Scythopolis, between Shalim, or Salim, and Jordan.
EPHRAIM, or EPHRATAH, a city lying north-east from Jerusalem, in a wild district between Bethel and Jericho.
GADARA, or GERGASA, the chief town of Peræa, or the country beyond, that is, on the east side of, Jordan.
GALILEE, a rich and populous province of Palestine, containing upwards of two hundred cities and towns. It was divided into Upper and Lower Galilee, the former being a mountainous district, and the latter a plain. Upper, or Northern, Galilee, was also called Galilee of the Gentiles, from the number of its gentile inhabitants. GALILEE, SEA OF. See TIBERIAS.
GENNESARET, a fertile district, stretching along the western shore of the sea of Galilee.
GERIZIM, a mountain north of Ephraim, where the Samaritans had a temple, and worshipped. Manasseh, son-in-law of Sanballat, governor of Samaria, first officiated in the priests' office there, and it subsequently became an asylum for recreant and refractory Jews. GETHSEMANE, a village on the Mount of Olives, with a garden whither Christ was wont to resort. In this garden he endured his agony, and here he was betrayed by Judas.
GOLGOTHA, a place of execution, on Mount Calvary. GOMORRAH, and SODOM, cities in the plain of the
Dead Sea, destroyed by fire from heaven, on account of the abominable wickedness of their inhabitants.
HEBRON, a city in the hill country of Judea, about twenty-five miles south of Jerusalem, and nearly a hundred miles from Nazareth; yet hither, notwithstanding the length and difficulty of the way, Mary repaired to visit and confer with her kinswoman, Elizabeth. 'ISRAELITES, descendants of Jacob, who was named Israel, when he wrestled with God at Peniel. JERICHO, a city about five-and-twenty miles north-east of Jerusalem; the whole way to it is wild and gloomy, full of rocks and dens, the ancient haunts of murderers and robbers; so that it denoted resolution as well as real compassion on the part of the Samaritan to stop to
OF PERSONS, PLACES, AND THINGS. succour one of their victims in a place so lonely and so frightful. JERUSALEM, the ancient capital of Judea, was about eight-and-thirty miles east-south-east of Joppa, or Jaffa, or Yaffa, on the Mediterranean; about five-and-twenty north of Hebron, and as many west of Jericho. It was built on hills, and surrounded with mountains; in a barren and stony soil. It was on, or near, the site of the ancient city of Jebus, which David took from the Jebusites.
JORDAN, or River of Dan, rises in the eastern ridge of the mountains called Lebanon, which form the northern boundary of the Holy Land. At Cæsarea Philippi, about twelve miles southward in its course, it receives a considerable tributary stream; and twelve miles further south again, it swells out into the lake of Merom. Thirty miles further on it passes, with a strong current, through the Sea of Galilee, and continuing its direction southward, ultimately loses itself in the Dead Sea, after a course of about 160 miles. Palestine, or the land of Canaan, called also the Promised Land, and the Holy Land, is properly the narrow strip of once rich and fertile country intercepted between the river Jordan and the east coast of the Mediterranean; having the mountains of Lebanon for its boundary on the north, and that tract of Arabia Petræa lying between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea, on the south.
LAWYERS, an order of the Scribes who professed to be skilful in the law of Moses, and to resolve any doubts or difficulties that might at any time arise concerning it.
LEVITES, descendants of Levi, and ministers or assistants of the priests.
MAGDALA, a territory east of Jordan. In many maps it is placed on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, between Tiberias and Gennesar; but this seems a mistake, as the rabbins sometimes call it Magdala of Gadara from its vicinity to the latter city. It was probably about the south-eastern extremity of the lake. MAMMON, a Syriac word signifying gain, or any object of selfish desire, whether the gratification of passion, appetite, indolence, pride, or vanity.
NAIN, or NAIM, a town about two leagues south of Nazareth, near Endor.
NAZARETH, a small town of Zebulun, in Lower Galilee, where our Lord resided up to the time of his showing-forth to Israel.
NINEVE, the capital of Assyria. See the story of its repentance, in the 3d chapter of Jonah.
OLIVET, or Mount of Olives, a mountain not quite
a mile north-east of Jerusalem, from which it is separated by the valley of Jehoshaphat and the brook Cedron.
PENNY, the eighth part of an ounce of silver. PHARISEES, a sect of the Jews, who, as the name, which nearly answers to our Puritans, imports, were separatists; men who trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others.
PRIESTS, the ministers of God in the sanctuary, who alone officiated in the more solemn acts of worship, in offering sacrifices, burning incense, and blessing the people according to the form prescribed by God. They were exclusively of the race of Aaron. The High Priest
was the chief ruler of the church of Israel, who alone was permitted and required to enter the holy of holies in the temple. The chief priests were the heads, or
OF PERSONS, PLACES, AND THINGS.
principal persons, of the twenty-four orders into which the sons of Aaron were divided by David.
PROPHETS, men inspired by God with supernatural power to reveal his will to mankind by predicting future events, and commissioned to instruct and reform Israel by their teaching.
PUBLICANS, tax-gatherers or toll-collectors.
RABBI, a master or teacher of the highest order.
RAMAH, where Rachel wept the taking of her children, was a city of Benjamin, six miles north of Jerusalem, and about midway between Gibeah and Bethel.
SADDUCEES, materialists, who denied the resurrection, and all spiritual existences.
SAMARIA, the tract of country lying between Judea and Galilee, and formerly occupied by the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh; but after the captivity of the ten tribes it was peopled by the posterity of colonies which the king of Assyria planted there.
SCRIBES, an order of learned men of the tribe of Levi, whose profession was to expound and enforce the law of Moses.
SIDON, the mother city of Tyre, both being sea-ports of Phenicia, on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. SYCHAR, the same as Sychem or Shechem, a town of Samaria, where Jacob was buried.
TABOR, MOUNT, a conical hill in the plain of Esdrælon, between Nazareth and Endor.
TALENT, 114 pounds weight of silver.
TETRARCH, a governor of four provinces, appointed by the Romans.
TIBERIAS, anciently called Chinneroth, a city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, which is thence also called the Sea, and the Lake, of Tiberias and of Chin