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homage we pay for not being beasts. Without | God; for there is in us not three, but a trinity of this, the world is still as though it had not been, souls ; because there is in us, if not three distinct or as it was before the sixth day, when as yet souls, yet differing faculties, that can and do subthere was not a creature that could conceive or sist apart in different subjects, and yet in us are say there was a world. The wisdom of God re- thus united as to make but one soul and substance. ceives small honor from those vulgar heads that If one soul were so perfecl as to inform three disrudely stare about, and with a gross rusticity ad- tinct bodies, that were pelly trinity. Conceive mire his works. Those only magnify him, whose the distinct number of three, not divided nor judicious inquiry into his acts and deliberate re- separated by the intellect, but actually compresearch into his creatures, return the duty of a devout hended in its unity, and that is a perfect trinity. and learned admiration. Every essence, created I have often admired the mystical way of Pythagor uncreated, hath its final cause, and some posi- oras, and the secret magic of numbers. Betive end both of essence and operation. This is ware of philosophy, is a precept not to be received the cause I grope afler in the works of nature; in too large a sense : for, in this mass of nature, on this hangs the providence of God. To raise so there is a set of things that carry in their front, beauteous a structure as the world and the crea- though not in capital letters, yet in stenography tures thereof was but his art; but their sundry and and short characters, something of divinity; which, divided operations, with their predestinated ends, to wiser reasons, serve as luminaries in the abyss are from the treasury of his wisdom.”-ii. 18-20. of knowledge, and, to judicious beliefs, as scales
and rundles to mount the pinnacles and highest The reader will perceive that this is the pieces of divinity. The severe schools shall theme and the principle, the working out of never laugh me out of the philosophy of Hermes, which has produced some of the noblest that this visible world is but a picture of the inworks that adorn our literature. The sub- but in equivocal shapes, and as they counterfeit
visible, wherein as a portrait, things are not truly, ject, too, is inexhaustible; as we increase in
some real substance in that invisible fabric."-knowledge, so will it in richness and power. ii. 15-17. But what are we—what are we like to bethe wiser and the better for such speculations as are about to be quoted ?
The ear is tickled by well-contrasted
words, and the mind is amused by a phan“Who can speak of eternity without a solecism, tasmagoria of sublime visions ; but, is not or think thereof without an ecstasy? Time we
the time approaching when efforts to explain may comprehend; 'tis but five days older than the inexplicable will cease to be dignified by ourselves, and hath the same horoscope with the the title of wisdom, or even by the more world; but, to retire so far back as to apprehend modest appellation of philosophy ? a beginning—to give such an infinite start fur. wards as to conceive an end-in an essence that and an understood, if not a formally pro
It is, we believe, a feeling of this kind, we affirm hath neither the one nor the other, it puts my reason to St. Paul's sanctuary; my philos-nounced verdict of public opinion, which has ophy dares not say the angels can do it. . . . In given to the Pseudodoria Epidemica, or eternity there is no distinction of tenses ; and Enquiries into Vulgar and Common Errors, therefore that terrible term predestination, which the palm of popularity and the praise of bath troubled so many weak heads to conceive usefulness beyond all the other works of Sir and the wisest to explain, is in respect to God no Thomas Browne. Nor do we see it necesprescious determination of our estates to come, but a definitive blast of his will already fulfilled,
and Basil Montagu, that the work is not to be
sary to suppose, with Messrs. Wilkin and at the instant that he first decreed it; for to eter: nity, which is indivisible, and altogether, the last ascribed to the mental activity of its author trump is already sounded, the reprobates in the alone,”—and that “we are not to regard flame, and the blessed in Abraham's bosom. St. it solely as the result of his own native and Peter speaks modestly, when he saith, a thousand irrepressible thirst for knowledge, and of years to God are but as one day; for, to speak that unrelenting spirit of investigation which like a philosopher, those continued instances of led him to scrutinize every position before he time, which flow into a thousand years, make not admitted it.” (ii. 161.) to him one moment. What to us is to come, to
On the contrary, his eternity is present; his whole duration being he felt with Sir Hamon L'Estrange that but one permanent point, without succession, paris, “naturalists readily follow one another, as flux, or division.
wild geese fly;" other “learned discourses” “ There is no attribute that adds more difficulty professing a similar object, were yet unsatisto the mystery of the Trinity, where, though in a factory to his mind ; and, therefore, he derelative way of Father and Son, we must deny a priority. I wonder how Aristotle could conceive
termined to investigate matters for himself, the world eternal
, or how he could make good two notwithstanding the consciousness that "a eternities. His similitude of a triangle compre-work of this nature is not to be performed hended in a square, doth somewhat illustrate the upon one legg; and should smell of oyle, if trinity of our souls, and that the triple unity of duly and deservedly handled.”-ii. 179.
Such a work was manifestly one of the cessively bewitching and bewitched. They desiderala of literature
are both in life, though happily parted from
our residence, and from each other, by a “ And, therefore, we are often constrained to running stream. stand alone against the strength of opinion, and In the Pseudodoxia Browne revels with to meet the Goliah and giant of authority with delight, abandoning himself sometimes to : contemptible pebbles and feeble arguments drawn reckless orgie of quips and cranks and from the scrip and slender stock of ourselves."
learned whimsies, to be patterned only in
Shakspeare, and yet maintaining throughout Lord Bacon's opinions as to the use of doubts a method in his madness. 'It strikes the could be of little service to him. He waged reader as being the most sincere of his proa bolder warfare : “For," he says,
ductions. In the others, he is constantly
thinking what may be said upon a subject " knowledge is made by oblivion ; and, to pur- (of which the hints for his son Edward's chase a clear and warrantable body of truth, we lectures and his common-place book are sig. must forget and part with much we know. We nal proof): here, he is only anxious to have open track, or constant manuduction in this laby said his say, and eased his mind. rinth, but are oftentimes fain to wander in the
With what gallantry does he vindicate the America and untravelled parts of truth.”
Hebrew race from the calumny of emitting
“a kind of fulsome scent,—as Mr. Fulham It is no just reproach against Browne, and with the hazard of life, till he removed into
experimented in Italye at a Jewish meeting, no disqualification for his task of sweeping the fresh air !" away vulgar errors, that he was not himself wholly free from those of his own age, or the “ That Jews stink naturally, that is, that in ages immediately preceding it ;—that he their race and nation there is an evil savor, is a was, as Mr. Wilkin states, “a stout ad- received opinion we know not how to admit, herent to the falling fortunes of the tole- although we concede many points which are of maic astronomy ;'--that he believed eels affinity hereto. We will acknowledge that certain might be bred “on or in the back of a cod-odors attend on animals, no less than certain
colors; fish;"—that he did not refuse to " send cer; vegetables, but found in divers animals
, and some
that pleasant smells are not confined unto tificates for the evill for divers to be touched
more richly than in plants; and, though the by His Majestie” (i. 259); that he was problem of Aristotle inquires why no animal persuaded of the reality of apparitions, and of smells sweet beside the pard, yet later discoverdiabolical illusions ;” and affirms, “ from his ies add divers sorts of monkeys, the civet cat and own knowledge, the certainty of witchcraft." gazela, from which our musk proceedeth. We (i. lxxxii.) As to the king's evil, it must be confess that beside the smell of the species there remembered that people would be touched ;
may be individual odors, and every man may have --also that the king was accompanied by
a proper and peculiar savor, which, although not
so perceptible unto man who hath this sense but sundry "chirurgeons and physitians ;" and weak, is yet sensible unto dogs, who hereby can finally, that the church bad provided a regu- single out their masters in the dark. We will lar and very solemın ritual for the occasion, not deny that particular men have sent forth a which was used, no doubt, when Queen pleasant savor, as Theophrastus and Plutarch Anne touched Samuel Johnson, and was
report of Alexander the Great, and Tzetzes and only dropt from our Prayer Book when the also emit an unsavory odor we have no reason to
Cardan do testify of themselves. That some may first Hanoverian king dropt the practice-deny; for this may happen from the quality of resigning it to the purer blood of the exiled what they have taken, the fætor whereof máy Stuarts. But more—it is true, though discover itself by sweat, &c., as being unmasterscarcely credible, that there exist (in 1851) able by the natural heat of man, not to be rustics who believe in the physical benefit dulcified by concoction beyond an unsavory con, derived from the rite of Confirmation.* dition; the like may come to pass from putrid And as to the witchcraft--the Appendix to fevers—and sometimes also in gross and humid
humors, as is often discoverable in malignant Forby shows the recent existence of the be- bodies, even in the latitude of sanity—the natural lief. Nay, more than that; we ourselves beat of the parts being insufficient for a perfect have had two washerwomen who were suc- and thorough digestion, and the errors of one
concoction not rectifiable by another. But * We have conversed with an old woman in Nor- that an unsavory odor is gentilitious or national folk who gets confirmed over and over again-as unto Jews, if rightly understood, we cannot well often as she can contrive it-it does her so much concede, nor will the information of reason or good!
sense induce it."-iii. 36.
Then follow store of good reasons, which of families. Not persons merely, but their are shrewdly clenched by this conclusion :- very names, appear and are gone, like the
summer wavelets on the sandy beach. Those “And, lastly, were this true, yet our opinion is which do remain, retaining anything of their not impartial; for unto converied Jews, who are of the same seed, no man imputeth this unsavory The same result is derived from the inspec
ancient position, are rarest among the rare. odor; as though, aromatized by their conversion, they lost their
scent with their religion, and smelt tion of other local lists :no longer than they savored of the Jew.”—jii. 41.
“ Even this fragment (of the Index of Harl. In another place the editor is scarcely less MS. Cod. 1109) is not without its value. It shows
how many Norfolk families, once entitled to bear courageous than his author. Browne gives a chapter" Of the Pictures of Mermaids," arms, are now tolally extinct ; for where are we
to look for the Bolks, Burgullions, Batwellins, without informing us of his own private Bashpooles, Buttrys, Catts, &c. ? That man shall belief respecting them. But Mr. Wilkin, in not abide in honor is further manifest from the a note, says:
fact, that many of these names are now only to be
met with in the cottage or the union-house."“ Unconvinced even by Sir Humphry Davy's Hart, iii. 41. grave arguments to prove that such things cannot be, and undismayed by his special detection of the
The correspondence shows that, with all apes and salmon in poor Dr. Philip's undoubted bis learned whims, Sir Thomas was not fororiginal,' I persist in expecting one day to have getful of the main chance. Good patients the pleasure of beholding—A MERMAID !”-iii. 143. are carefully recommended ; and a shrewd
hint at the same time conveyed to his son, So far we have seen Sir Thomas before Dr. Edward, the practitioner “ in Salisburie the public, on the stage. The correspond. Court, next the Golden Balls," and also a ence and journals which Mr. Wilkin's dili- lecturer on his art in London :gence has produced give us a glimpse behind the scenes; and an interesting peep it is into “DEAR Sonne,-My worthy friend Mr. Deane private life and country manners of old. The Astley going to London, hee civilly asking mee establishment of the “ London season” by whether I would send vnto you, I would not oinitt to the facilities of travelling, has spoiled the send this letter: Hee hath had a lingering anguish
distemper, which hath made him weake. There “ seasons ” of our large provincial towns, or
was some ecceptions last time by his lady, that when rather has prevented their having any true shee had visited your wife the risit was not reseason at all. In Browne's days, many of turned.” the leading county families had their town “One Mrs. Towe, Madame Repps' daughter, houses in Norwich, where they wintered and of Maltshall, who liveth in London, will come kept Christmas in aristocratic style. Several unto you. Shee is a very good woeman, and comof these yet remain under humbler occupancy. | face. Lett her knowe that I writ unto you when
plains of her eyes, and some breaking out of her In Edward Browne's Journal, we find :
shee commeth. I think shee liveth in Guildhall
Street. If one Mr. Jones, of the Middle Temple, “ January 1 (1663–4].--I was at Mr. Howard's, a young man splenicall and hypochondr. cometh who kept his Christmas at the Duke's Palace, so unto you, lett him knowe that I mentioned him magnificently as the like hath scarce been seen. unto you." They had dancing every night, and gave enter- “Mr. Payne, lately an alderman of Norwich, tainments to all that would come ; hee built up a who lives in St. Gyles, his daughter, Mrs. Doughroome with the bravest hangings I ever saw; his tie, will go to London the next weeke and consult candlesticks, snuffers, tongues, fire-shovels, and you about the waters and some other infirmities. irons were silver ; a banquet was given every Shee is a good woeman, and hath a sober, honest night after dancing; and three coaches were em- gentleman of this countrie to her husband, of ployed to fetch ladies every afternoon, the greatest of whom I will write further in my next, God which would holde fourteen persons, and cost five willing.” hundred pound, without the harnasse, which cost six score more.
The son was equally anxious to secure the “ January 4.—I went to Mr. Howard's dancing fees thus in prospect. “I have not yet heard at night; our greatest beautys were Mdm. Eliza- of the gentleman or gentlewoman you wrote beth Cradock, Eliz. Houghton, Ms. Philpot, Ms. Yallop; afterwards to the banquet, and so home.
me word of.” (i. 227.) He appears, long Sic transit gloria mundi !"
after his establishment in London, to have
received pecuniary aid from his father, as Transit, indeed! A glance through Kirk well as good patients and hints for their patrick's pages brings strongly to mind the management. The senior says :transitory nature not only of individuals, but “ I beleeve my lady O. Bryan is by this time in better health and safetie; though hypochond and are to be treated of, in another lecture, care splenetick persons are not long from complayning, is taken to have it stated that Hippocrates yet they may bee good patients, and may bee
was so curious as to prescribe “ the rule in borne withal, especially if they bee good natured. cutting the nayle, that it be not longer or A bill is inclosed ; espargnez nous autant que shorter than tắe topp of the finger. That vous pourres, car je suis agé, et aye beaucoup d'anxieté et peine de sustenir ma familie.”—i. 269. barbers of old used to cutt men's nayles is to
be gathered from Marshal : lib. iii. ep. 74." The italics, are his own. Later still he The savans of the College of Surgeons writes :
will appreciate the ambition of Browne and
his son to be the first to describe the zoolog“God send you wisedome and providence, to ical arrivals of the day : make a prudent use of the moneys you have from me, beside what you gett otherwise. Least re
“A greater part of our newes is of the King of pentence come to late upon you, consider that Fez and Morocco's ambassadour, with his presents accidental charges may bee alwayes coming upon of lyons and oestridges. [This diplomatic Afriyou, and the folly of depending or hoping to much
can, as we learn from Evelyn, was the fashionable upon time-turnes yet to come.”-i. 297.
dark-skinned lion of the day.). There being so
many oestridges brought over, 'tis likely some of Still he was no niggard, either practically them will be brought about to showe, hither, as or theoretically. The liberal style in which soone as to other parts out of London. If any of he brought up his family speaks for the one; them dye, I beleeve it will bee dissected; they his opinion may be gathered from the follow- have odde feet and strong thighes and legges. ing confidence to his son :
Perhaps the king will put 3 or 4 into St. James'
One of these unhappy bipeds passes into pecially hee having a farre greater revenue than the possession of Dr. Edward, and then any of his predecessors. God keepe all honest father and son go to work with their expermen from penury and want; men can bee honestiments, about as considerately as old Hopno longer than they can give every one his due : / kins the witch-finder would treat the first aged in fundo parsimonia seldome recovers or restores dame that he happened to accost :
This rule is to bee earned by all, utere divitiis tanquam morilurus, et idem tanquam victu
Feb. 3 (1681-2]. rus parcilo diriliis. So maye bee avoyded sordid avarice and improvident prodigality; so shall not
“Dear SONNE,-I beleeve you must bee carea man deprive himself of God's blessings, nor
full of your ostridge, this returne of cold wether, throwe away God's mercies ; so may hee be able least it perish by it being bredd in so hot a counto do good, and not suffer the worst of evils."--i. trey, and perhaps not seene snowe before, or very 307.
seldome, so that I beleeve it must be kept under
covert, and have strawe to sitt upon, and water One more proof of his sagacity in public have it observed how it sleepeth, and whether not
sett by it to take of, both day and night. Must matters must be given. He was not unlikely with the head under the wing, especially in cold to foresee what attempts would be made in weather ; whether it bee a watchfull and quickthe reign of James II., nor willing that his hearing bird, like a goose in many circumstances. grandchild should be entrapped by the insid- It seems to eat any thing that a goose will feed ious aggressors of those days, so he puts on, and to love the same green hearbs, lettuce, enthese two sentences together in a letter to dive, sorrell, &c. You will bee much at a losse Edward : " The players are at the Red Ly- and easie supply by cabbadges, which I forgott to
for hearbes this winter, but you may have cheape on, hard by; and Tom goes sometimes to mention in my last, and graines, all kinds of see a playe. Di filia lua educetur in reli- graines and brinne, or furfure, alone or mixed gione Inglicana etiam atq. etiam cura. -i. with water or other liquor. To geese they give 293.
oates, &c., moistened with beere, butt sometimes Browne is continually sending to his son
they are inebriated with it. If you give any iron, odd curiosities and choice scraps, to stick it may be wrapped up in doue or past; perhaps il into his lectures in London. Thus, in “ the it will eat a worme, or a very small eel; whether discourse de aure,” may be mentioned how a
it will drinck milk; and observe in what manner horse-leech got into the ear of a person of it drincks water. Aldrov, and Johnstonus write, Naples, and how “Severinus found out a that a goose will not eat bay leaves, and that they good remedie for it."* When the
house at Wymondham in Norfolk is carved the * Leeches are not desirable inmates either motto, one's person, or one's parlor. On the front of an old “Nec mibi glis adsit servus, nec hospes hirudo."
are bad for it. You may laye a bay leafe by the ful from the higli glee with which it is writoestridge, and observe whether it will take it
up. ten. No adventure comes much amiss. The If it delighus not in sall things, you may try it great affair of that day, however, was the with an olive.”-i. 326.
of the Wash:That is, what it hates, give it. After a
* Taking a guide, it being somewhat late, wee short course of allopathic treatment by the desired to bee conducted in the nighest way to two physicians, one is not surprised to read — Boston. Hee told us there were two waies to
passe, either over two short cuts, or else quite "Most HONORED FATHER,I received a letter
over the long Wash, which latter wee chose, from you this day, wherein were two heads of partiy because it was the nighest, but chiefly for oestridges. The bill of ours seems to be more
the novelty to us of this manner of travailing at flat than of either of those sent in the letter, and
the bottome of the sea ; for this passage is not the round eare is not exprest in the figures. Ours lesse convenient at a flood for navigation than at died of a soden, and so hindred the drawing or
an ebbe, for riding on horseback out of Norfolk
into Lincolnshire. delineating of the head and other parts, or mak
Our convoy made ing further experiments. We gave it a peece of
such haste with his fliing horse, that hee landed
us on the banks in Lincolnshire in less than two iron which weighed two ounces and a half, which we found in the first stomack again not at all hours, quite crosse this equitable sea, or narigable altered."
land-[true chip of the old block!]-fourteen
miles in length.”—i. 23. Mr. Wilkin seems to think that Dr. Edward Edward, too, notes the dialect of “Nothad encroached too much on his father's tinghamshiere.” Very few let us passe permission to travel. The correspondence without a good e'en, and were very ready to does not impress us with that view. The instruct us on our way. One told us our knight was desirous that his children should uy lig'd by youn nooke of oakes, and another derive every advantage from a foreign tour. that wee mun goe slrit forth, which maner He advises economy, but is far from stingy, of speeches not only directed us, but much and insists only on industrious observation. pleas'd us with the novelty of its dialect.” To Thomas he writes," God bless thee! On they go, undismayed, "up mountaine, You may learn handsom
songs and aires not downe dale,” shaken on the backs of their by book but by the ear, as you shall hear poore jades," not quite so luxurious as I see you are mindful of Darwin's “rapid car.
One of their comus, and not idle.”-i. 16. He only grudges panions was a sort of ancient Mr. Briggs, what he deems to be a useless expenditure: for "a friendly bough, that had sprouted "Beleeve it,” he writes to Edward, “no out beyond his fellows over the rode, gave excursion into Pol., Hung., or Turkey, our file leader such a brush of the jacket as addes advantage or reputation unto a schol- it swept him off his horse.” Another Briggs, lar” (i. 166), and directs him accordingly, No. 2, was a “most excellent conductour ; Thomas he orders to be “as good a husband y who yet, for all his hast, fell over his horse's as possible, and enter not upon any cours of head as he was plunging into some dirty superfluous expense. Remember the hole, but by good luck smit lits face into a camell's back, and be not troubled for any- soft place of mud, where I suppose he had thing that other ways would trouble your a mouth full both of dirt and rotten stick, patience here; be courteous and civil to all; for he seemed to us to spit crow's nest a put on a decent boldness, and avoid pudor good while after. If his jaws had met with rusticus, not much known in France.”-i. 3. a piece of the rock, I doubt hee would have
A curious contrast of locomotion in 1662 spit his teeth as fast.” Briggs the first, with that of 1851 is afforded by Edward trusting to fine September weather, Browne's travels into the “strange, moun
no better armd against it than with an open'd tainous, misty, moorish, rocky, wild country sleev'd doublet, whose misfortune, though of Darbishier.” What we now quietly and wee could doe no otherwise then much pity, comfortably do in an easy day by ordinary as being the greatest of us all, yet it made trains, took his “triumvirat” a hard-working | us some sport to see what pretty waterweek to traverse. The first day they accom
workes the rain had made about him; the plished much, for they “ baited at Licham spouting of his doublet sleeves did so resemand layed at the King's Head in Linne. The ble him to a whale that wee—that could next day morning, after the towne musick think ourself no other than fishes at that had saluted" them, they saw, ate, and drank time, swimming through the ocean of water all sorts of things. The journal is delight-I that fell—dare never come nigh him.” We