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The red and white clover, one or two species of Herd-graxx, or Sextait, are the principal.

The two species of trefoil undoubtedly are native, for they ahound in new settlements in the eastern, northern, and western parts of N. England; they are the first grasses that appear in the uplands after they are cleared; pastures and fields are covered with them the second and third years after the growth of the wood is removed, where the seed has not been introducer, and are found many hundred miles in the wilderness to the westward. The herd's grass is said to have been found growing native far back in the wilderness, but I am not certain of its being a fact; perhaps these may be different species from the European. Fowl meadow-grass is cultivated in wet meadows, produces great crops, and makes good cuthay for cows. It was certainly in the country when discovered by Europeans, for the first emigrants from Europe, who landed at Plymouth (where the first settlement was made in this state), found it, the second summer, in a very large meadow, in Dedham. The meadow was full of this grass, and the growth most luxuriant. It is said not to have been found growing native in any other meadow in this part of the country, but has since been cultivated through the N. England States.

This meadow afforded the first settlers in that vicinity a great plenty of good hay, and still exceeds any other in the quantity it produces without the least cultivation. In the spring and autun, when the river which runs through it overflowed its banks, it was observed by the first settlers to abound with water-fowl, hence it was called fowl-meadow, and the grass foul meadow-grass. The seeds of this grass have been sent to Europe-have been cultivated in France. We have several species of grass, generally known by the name of English grass, which have been cultivated, but are now much neglected. They are, however, very much spread over the old settlements, but are not to be found in the new plantations, only where seed has been introduced. These naturalized plants may, with little difficulty, be distinguished from naum eu run runyuny MVULVVu uv murv Laumvu vuv jawwwww and plants of the crypt. class, and to have preserved specimens, but some unexpected domestic affairs crowded upon me early in the spring, and unavoidably employed so much of my time as to oblige me totally to give up botanical pursuits for the season.

I have therefore done so little in the investigation of grasses, that I shall not attempt to give you any particular account of them, nor can I send you specimens, but expect to be able to convince you that the number of native grasses can not be much inferior to that of other countries. . . .

It has not been in my power to pay that attention to the vegetables of this country, which is absolutely necessary to (listinguish with accuracy the naturalized from the natives. No botanist can do this without frequent excursions into remote plantations and various parts of the wilderness.

For want of time and opportunity to explore parts more remote, I doubt not a nnmber may be inserted in my paper as natives which it will be found are not; but still I have no idea of any insuperable difficulties in making the distinctions.

It has been no small mortification to me not to have examined plants of the crypt. class the last summer, especially as you wish for specimens. In the spring I collected a small number of Ferns, but not having it in my power to take proper care of them they were spoiled.

On receiving your letter, I immediately maile a collection of such as I could find. Unfortunately we had just before two or three pretty severe frosts, which wholly destroyed many Ferns. When collecting the Ferns it did not occur to me that the flowers of some of them were found at the roots, and that in some instances specific characters are taken from the roots. How far either is the case in these I send you, I am unable to say, for I have not been able to examine them with any attention, nor have I attempted to arrange them. You will find among the Ferns, I presume, and perhaps among the others, that each member is not a different species, but as they were found in different places, and suspected, different species, or, at least, varieties, I have packed them separately.

of our crypt. plants; besides, many in the same limits, were not in a state for collecting specimens. I have reserved similar specimens, numbered with the same numbers, and beg you to be so kind as to inform me what you find them to be.

“In my specimens I always notice on the label the place where it was gathered." I always do the same. In my botanical paper it is mentioned in the introductory part that the most of the plants were found growing within the compass of a few miles; to all those that were found at a greater distance, the name of the place of growth is added. This I supposed to be sufficiently particular in a publication of this kind.

“ The English names should be distinguished as European or American.” There has been so much confusion in the application of English names to American plants, that the British Am. names can be distinguished only by British catalogues. Some note of distinction might be made in publications, but perhaps would not be in every instance strictly just.

“The titles of order, class, and genera should form a part of the running title.” Such a running title as this was intended, and prepareil, but my distance from the press rendered it impracticable for me to correct the sheets, and from the difficulties that had attended the preceding papers, I had reason to expect gross mistakes, which induced me to omit it.

“In your account of the virtues, it would be agreeable to us on this site the Atlantic to know precisely what is from American and what from European information.” It is not possible to know with precision from whence such information is obtained, except in a few instances. It may be well known that certain plants are employed for certain purposes, and if such virtues are to be found in European authors, it may be presumed that the information was derived from them, but it will be by no means certain. In some instances, we are well assured, the information is from the aborigines; in a few others, that it is from the American inhabitants; but, in general, we are unable to determine. In my account I have

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as I was assured of it.

The Indian physicians, who have the best knowledge of the virtues of plants, by being conversant with Americans, have obtained a smattering of the uses to which Europeans and Americans have applied them, and have so blended this knowledge with their own, that I frequently find it very difficult to discriminate, in my attempts to ascertain the properties and uses of vegetable productions which the natives themselves had discovered. . . .

Give me leave now to reply to some of the remarks you have made on the Memoirs of the Academy. You object to the title as savoring too much of the air of France, and as improper when applied to a Society. You will recollect that the American Academy was instituted at a time (1780) when Britain was viewed in this country as an inveterate enemy, and France as a generous patron. Although philosophers ought to divest themselves of all those prejudices which national contentions and combinations naturally excite, yet I doubt not it was the intention of those concerned in establishing the institution to give it the air of France, rather than that of England, and wished to be considered as following the Royal Academy, rather than the Royal Society. But, however this might be, it was of importance that the title should clearly and concisely distinguish this from a similar institution at Philadelphia, whose title was professedly copied from the Royal Society.

For the sake of such distinction between the Vols. of these societies, the title of Memoirs was given to our Vol., in preference to that of Transactions.

As I had no concern in the institution of the Society, I can only give you my conjectures; but I am inclined to be of the opinion that those who gave it the title had no idea of the distinction you make between an Academy and Society; at least, it is new to me. The Akademia at Athens, surely, was no more than a public school, bearing the name of a certain person, and does not necessarily include the idea of the members being paid by the State. And Academies of Arts and Sciences, in a modern sense, I conceive, intend no more whether the Society is supported by its own members, by private donations, or public funds; that Society is the usual term for establishments of the kind in G. Britain, and Academy in the other parts of Europe, and that the members of those Societies in Europe frequently are paid by the Statein G. Britain are not-but that pay is not essential to their receiving the title of Academy.

With regard to the defects you notice in the Vol., I can give you a more particular account, having been concerned in the publication myself. We have been sensible of all those you mention, and many others, but have been so circumstanced as to render it impossible seasonably to correct or avoid them. It is not easy for you, sir, who live in a country where literature has so much encouragement, and has arrived at so great perfection, to conceive the difficulties we have had to encounter in this publication. No book of equal magnitude in size or numbers, or in any respect similar, had ever been published in this part of America—the Academy had no fund, few of its members conversant with the publications of such Societies, printers men of small capital, no aid to be obtained from men of fortune, those concerned in directing and those in executing the work much unacquainted with such an undertaking; in short, the publication has been a mere experiment.

But I can not give you any just idea of the matter without entering into a detail of the particulars, which, I fear, will be tedious, though it may be necessary, in order to do justice to the society.

Some time before the Academy had the printing a volume in contemplation, three Committees were appointed for certain purposes: the first, called Astronomical and Mathematical; the second, Physical; third, Medical. When it was determined to print a Volume, these three Committees were directed to select papers from the files for publication. Each of the Committees naturally took the papers for inspection which belonged to their respective departments. Of course, the papers were thrown into three divisions. When the pa

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