Black Athena: The linguistic evidence

Voorkant
Rutgers University Press, 1987 - 807 pagina's
6 Recensies
Could Greek philosophy be rooted in Egyptian thought? Is it possible that the Pythagorean theory was conceived on the shores of the Nile and the Euphrates rather than in ancient Greece? Could it be that much of Western civilization was formed on the "Dark Continent"? For almost two centuries, Western scholars have given little credence to the possibility of such scenarios. In Black Athena, an audacious three-volume series that strikes at the heart of today's most heated culture wars, Martin Bernal challenges Eurocentric attitudes by calling into question two of the longest-established explanations for the origins of classical civilization. To use his terms, the Aryan Model, which is current today, claims that Greek culture arose as the result of the conquest from the north by Indo-European speakers, or "Aryans," of the native "pre-Hellenes." The Ancient Model, which was maintained in Classical Greece, held that the native population of Greece had initially been civilized by Egyptian and Phoenician colonists and that additional Near Eastern culture had been introduced to Greece by Greeks studying in Egypt and Southwest Asia. Moving beyond these prevailing models, Bernal proposes a Revised Ancient Model, which suggests that classical civilization in fact had deep roots in Afroasiatic cultures. This long-awaited third and final volume of the series is concerned with the linguistic evidence that contradicts the Aryan Model of ancient Greece. Bernal shows how nearly 40 percent of the Greek vocabulary has been plausibly derived from two Afroasiatic languages-Ancient Egyptian and West Semitic. He also reveals how these derivations are not limited to matters of trade, but extended to the sophisticated language of politics, religion, and philosophy. This evidence, according to Bernal, greatly strengthens the hypothesis that in Greece an Indo-European-speaking population was culturally dominated by Ancient Egyptian and West Semitic speakers. Provocative, passionate, and colossal in scope, this volume caps a thoughtful rewriting of history that has been stirring academic and political controversy since the publication of the first volume. Martin Bernal, formerly a fellow of King's College, Cambridge, and professor of Government and Near Eastern Studies at Cornell University, is now retired.
 

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Inhoudsopgave

INTRODUCTION
1
HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS AND THE IMAGE
28
THE NOSTRATIC AND EUROASIATIC HYPER
39
Archaeological evidence for the origin
48
Language and genetics
56
Conclusion
88
Loans from other languages into PIH
98
Development of an IndoEuropean gender system based
108
Lateral fricatives
319
MORE SEMITIC LOANS INTO GREEK
325
Conclusion
339
Cooking
365
Medicine
371
Conclusion
378
Shipping
399
SOCIETY POLITICS
405

Conclusion
115
The elements of the Greek linguistic amalgam
121
The phonologies of IndoHittite and IndoEuropean
122
Conclusion
154
Summary on syntactical changes
163
Ancient Greeks sense of lexical borrowing
175
Conclusion
185
Egyptian
192
Conclusion
207
GREEK BORROWINGS FROM EGYPTIAN PREFIXES
209
The Egyptian word pr house temple palace
231
R entry or local prefix
240
Œn
258
Dr Rdr drw
267
Conclusion
275
Conclusion
298
SIXTEEN MINOR ROOTS
300
CONCLUSION
311
Politics
413
Abstraction
420
Personnel
430
Sacrifices
437
Conclusion
451
Twins Apollo and Artemis
464
Other Olympians
477
City names
503
Anubis Hermes and Sparta
516
Late borrowings and Lykurgos
529
ATHENA AND ATHENS
540
Athens as a colony from Sais?
564
Ht ntr nt Nt Athenaia
579
Glossary
695
Greek Words and Names with Proposed Afroasiatic Etymologies
713
Letter Correspondences
731
Index
797
Copyright

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Over de auteur (1987)

Martin Bernal is Professor of Government and Near Eastern Studies at Cornell University. The first two volumes of Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization ("I: The Fabrication of Ancient Greece, 1785-1985"; and "II: The Archaeological and Documentary Evidence") have been translated into German, Italian, Spanish, French, and Swedish and will soon be available in Greek and Japanese.

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